CHAPTER 11
THE 1990s AND BEYOND
The end of the Cold War in 1991 brought
a dramatic lessening of the threat of
nuclear warfare between superpowers.
He found himself faced with several very
serious problems:




   President
    Yeltsin

1. Foremost was revitalizing the
...
2. Disposition of
   the armed forces
3. Control of the
   formidable Soviet
   nuclear arsenal
President Yeltsin

He immediately established friendly
working relations with Western heads
of state to pursue economic su...
President Yeltsin received aid in
various forms when he made
assurances that he now controlled
the nuclear weapons.
January 1993




    President              President
     Yeltsin                 Bush

They signed the second Strategic
...
START II called for
both sides to reduce
long-range nuclear
arsenals to between
3,000 and 3,500
warheads within
a decade.
START II also called
for the complete
elimination of land-
based multiple-
warhead missiles.
Late 1996

                    He announced that
                    there would be no
                    Russian-control...
Early 1997

                    He announced
                    several of the former
President Clinton
                 ...
Following the end of
                 the Iran-Iraq War in
                 1988, Iraq’s leader,
                 Saddam H...
In August 1990,
Iraqi forces
invaded Kuwait.
King Fahd Bin Abdul Aziz Al-Saud
              King of Saudi Arabia

Saudi Arabia appealed to the United
Nations (UN) and ...
The UN passed a trade embargo
against Iraq restricting movement
and sale of all goods.
In response to the Iraqi invasion of Kuwait,
the U.S. embarked on Operation Desert
Shield, the largest military operation ...
By the end of 1990, some 450,000 U.S.
military personnel and some 100 U.S.
Navy ships were engaged in operations
in suppor...
U.S. and Allied ships patrolled in the
Persian Gulf, Arabian Sea, and Red Sea,
enforcing the UN trade embargo against
Iraq.
The U.S. military
supported
Operation Desert
Shield in many
ways.
The UN Security Council imposed a
deadline of 15 January 1991 for Hussein
to move his forces out of Kuwait or face
militar...
On 16 January, a
passive air assault
turned Operation
Desert Shield into
Desert Storm.
On 23 February, the Allied ground offensive
into Kuwait and southern Iraq began.
General Schwarzkopf commanded
the U.S. and coalition forces.
The demoralized
Iraqi troops, cut off
from food and
ammunition
supplies by the air
campaign, quickly
surrendered.
By 26 February, Kuwait City was
secured, and on 27 February, a
cease-fire was announced.
Iraqi Losses         U.S. Losses

• Thousands          • 89 combat deaths
  of troops
                     • 38 missing
• ...
February 1991

Hussein
reestablished
control over Iraq
following
discontinuance of
hostilities.
Extreme measures were taken to
suppress ethnic Shiite Muslims in
southern Iraq.
In August 1992, UN forces from the U.S., England,
    and France began enforcing no-fly zones.
No-Fly Zone



An area over which no aircraft may
fly; Iraqi No-Fly Zone was imposed
after Operation Desert Storm was
comp...
The no-fly zone over
southern Iraq was
designed to protect
the Shiites, and the
northern Iraq no-fly
zone to protect the
K...
Along with the no-fly zones, economic
sanctions (frozen bank assets for
example) and trade embargoes (naval
blockade for e...
Economic Sanctions



Economic actions by one or more
states toward another state
calculated to force it to comply
In August 1996, Hussein moved 45,000 troops
and 300 tanks toward the Kurdish-held territory
in northern Iraq.




        ...
F-14                 B-52

                August 1996

President Clinton ordered a joint Navy-
Air Force strike against I...
September 1996
The U.S launched
44 Tomahawk
Land-Attack
Missiles (TLAMs).
He seemed to have
                 “gotten the message”
                 because the troops
                 and tanks wer...
1991

A civil war broke out
in the Balkan country
of Yugoslavia.
1991
    Slovenia
               Croatia



                     Bosnia-
                   Herzegovina
                  ...
Cessation of Soviet aid
caused economic
difficulties.
Long-standing
friction between
ethnic groups
contributed to the
break-up.
Hungary
Slovenia
           Croatia
                             June 1991

               Bosnia -
             Herzegovi...
Hungary
Slovenia
           Croatia   Serbia

                          The conflict then
               Bosnia -   broade...
Months of bloody
fighting continued
with atrocities on all
sides.
Atrocities



Cruel or brutal acts
Late 1991




UN imposes oil, trade, and weapons
embargo against Yugoslavia and Serbia
in an attempt to end fighting.
The embargo had little effect, and
the fighting and atrocities continued.
Hungary

             Romania
                           May 1992

                       Economic sanctions
      Serbia ...
Year-End 1992

The situation had
deteriorated to the
point that the former
nation of
Yugoslavia ceased
to exist.
Hungary

               Serbia
Croatia
                         October 1992
   Bosnia-
 Herzegovina            NATO estab...
United Nations proclaimed so-called
“safe areas” around several cities.
Air Force planes,
Navy ships, and
aircraft helped
NATO enforce:

• Embargoes

• No-fly zones

• Safe areas
He was reluctant to
                    introduce ground
                    troops into the
                    conflict,...
Early 1992




Increased naval presence in the
Adriatic Sea
Late 1995

The U.S. joined other NATO forces to
bring a halt to the conflict by using
force.
Aug and Sep 1995 -
    Operation Deliberate Force
Navy and Marine Corps aircraft from the
USS Theodore Roosevelt joined NA...
These strikes were
in retaliation for the
Serbs overrunning
UN protected cities.
These strikes were also in response to
the Serb’s mortar attacks and the
wounding of more than 80 civilians in
Sarajevo.
NATO Strikes Back
Altogether some 3,500 sorties were
flown against some 350 separate
targets.
Presidents of Bosnia-Herzegovina,
Serbia, and Croatia signed a treaty to
end the war.
Treaty divides Bosnia
into two largely
autonomous parts.
Early 1996




NATO deployed 60,000
troops, including 20,000
American Army troops.
By the end of 2004, this force had been
reduced to about 7,000 troops.




It was then formally replaced by an equal
numbe...
Gulf of
        Djibouti Aden




 Ethiopia
                                   January 1991
                   SOMALIA

  ...
Rebel troops
                     forced the
                     president to flee
                     the country.
Pres...
Rebel troops began battling among
themselves for territory, soon resulting
in widespread anarchy and famine.
Anarchy



A state of society without
government or law
Due to the large
number of weapons
left behind by the
Soviets, nearly
every male member
of Somalia had a
firearm.
Operation Restore Hope
     December 1992




• 28,000 U.S. troops took part
Operation Restore Hope




Intent was to bring in food supplies and
restore some order to the country.
French Foreign Legion units assisted
U.S. Marines in patrolling the streets of
Mogadishu.
Persian Gulf Carrier Battle Group
March 1993




Clan warlords signed a peace accord
but occasional violence continued.
October 1993




A gun battle between U.S. soldiers and
clan members left 18 dead and 75 wounded.
March 1994




The date set for all remaining
forces to leave Somalia
Several Months Afterward




Some 2,000 Marines were kept
offshore as potential cover for
the remaining UN troops.
Mid-1996
Navy-Marine Corps amphibious groups
were called upon to assist in the
evacuation of personnel from Liberia
and th...
LIBERIA
          REPUBLIC OF
            BANGUI
Ethnic Violence          Famine
  Disease

                  Both of these
                  countries were
              ...
Fleet Marines
reinforced U.S.
embassy Marines
in Liberia during the
crisis.
Afghanistan             China


                       Nepal     Spring of 1998

                                Apprehens...
Proliferation



A rapid and often excessive
spread or increase
The Clinton administration and the
United Nations were able to deter
both nations from committing
nuclear destruction.
The issue of nuclear nonproliferation
continues to be a major international
concern in the twenty-first century.
In April 2001, a Chinese fighter collided
with a Navy reconnaissance aircraft.
The Chinese fighter crashed into the
sea killing the pilot.




The Navy aircraft made an emergency
landing at China’s Hai...
CHINA




                    South China
                        Sea



Gulf of
Tonkin    HAINAN
The Navy crew of 24 men and women were
detained for 11 days and received a hero’s
welcome when they returned home.
The plane was dismantled and
returned to the U.S. in July 2001.
Late December 2004




A huge tsunami in the Indian Ocean devastated
much of the seacoast of Indonesia, Sri Lanka,
Thailan...
Tsunami

An unusually large sea wave
produced by a seaquake or
undersea volcanic eruption

A Japanese word that means
“sur...
Before




After
By some estimates as many as 370,000
people were killed by the tsunami
itself or its effects shortly thereafter.
In response, the U.S. initiated Operation
Unified Assistance, deploying U.S. Navy
ships, P-3 aircraft, and Air Force heavy...
By the end of the operation, helicopters
had flown over 2,000 missions and Navy
and Air Force planes delivered some
12 mil...
Several thousand casualties were
treated by U.S. medical personnel,
mainly aboard the hospital ship Mercy.
Throughout the 1990s and beyond, the
U.S. Department of Defense and Coast
Guard have been called upon to
suppress the ille...
Central America became a major conduit
of drugs from South American producers.
Conduit



A channel or path for conveying drugs
Traffickers increasingly relied upon
these methods for hauling legitimate
cargo to transport drugs.
All services and
various intelligence
agencies conduct
joint drug interdiction
training with host
countries.
Surveillance assets
of the U.S. are used
to track & intercept
boats and aircraft
suspected of
transporting drugs.
On the domestic scene, all services
conduct extensive drug awareness
and testing programs designed to
discourage the use o...
August 1998




U.S. embassies in Kenya and Tanzania
were destroyed by car bombs.
Libya      Egypt
                              Saudi Arabia        Oman

                              Red
               ...
The mastermind of
the terrorist attacks
was a wealthy exiled
Saudi Arabian named
Osama bin Laden.

He had proclaimed a
hol...
Mastermind



A person who originates or is
primarily responsible for the
execution of a particular idea
Holy War



A war waged for what is supposed
or proclaimed to be a holy
purpose, as the defense of faith
President Clinton

              20 August 1998
Over 70 Tomahawk cruise missiles were fired
against a factory in Sudan man...
He escaped injury
                  and continues to be
                  a major terrorist
                  threat again...
In August 2000, the guided missile
destroyer, USS Cole, had a large
hole blown in her port side.
Saudi Arabia

                           Oman




         YEMEN           Arabian
                           Sea

Gulf of...
The suicide bombers killed 17
sailors, and 39 others were injured.
April 19, 2002




After a successful 14-month effort to
repair the damage suffered in a
terrorist attack, USS Cole return...
Turbulent 1990s




Cold War ended, resulting in drawdown
and consolidation of U.S. armed forces.
Allegations of sexual harassment to:
• female junior officers
• civilians
by over a hundred naval aviators
Late 1996

Incidents of fraternization and
harassment of female trainees by
Army drill instructors occurred.
The tension caused by scandals
involving sexual harassment was
felt throughout the military services.
Much progress has been made in recent
years integrating women into the U.S.
armed services.
Oklahoma City, April 1995




An explosion in the Murrah Federal
Building killed 168 and injured over
800 innocent people.
27 July 1996

A bomb detonated at the Olympic
games in Atlanta killed one person and
injured others.
Reconstruction




Reconstruction       July 1996
                 An unexplained
                 explosion killed 230
  ...
Navy divers assisted in
the salvage operations.
Most of the aircraft wreckage was
recovered, assembled, and analyzed to
determine the location and cause of the
explosion.
The unthinkable happened on 11 September
2001, when two airliners were crashed into
the twin towers of the World Trade Cen...
A few minutes later a third aircraft
was flown into the Pentagon.
A fourth plane, presumed
to be targeted for
Washington, DC, crashed
into the Pennsylvania
countryside.
Nearly 2,900 people lost their lives when
both towers of the World Trade Center
collapsed.
Nearly 200 were killed at the Pentagon.
President Bush           Osama bin Laden

President Bush called the terrorist attacks
an act of war and vowed to retaliate...
When the Taliban
government in
Afghanistan would
not give up bin
Laden, the United
States deployed
assets to the
region.
These deployments
included:

• aircraft carriers and
  support ships in the
  Arabian Sea

• over 100 Air Force
  fighter-...
8 October 2001

Operation Enduring
Freedom began with air
strikes by Navy and Air
Force accompanied by
Humanitarian airdro...
Much of the ground fighting was left to
the Northern Alliance, a loose coalition
of rebel Afghans in northeastern
province...
By late November, the Northern Alliance,
supported by U.S. air attacks and
special forces, gained control of most of
the c...
Several key al-Qaida officials had been
killed, but bin Laden himself eluded
capture and is still being sought.
In late 2001 and early 2002, international
peacekeeping forces arrived, and
continue to provide training for Afghan
milita...
Occasional forays continue to be conducted
in the more remote mountainous regions,
looking for al-Qaida and bin Laden.
In October 2004, Hamid Karzai became the
first democratically elected president of
Afghanistan.
Shortly after the start of Operation Enduring
Freedom, there were several instances of
deadly anthrax disease spores found...
Saddam Hussein




By 2002, the continued defiance of the
terms of the 1991 cease-fire by Iraq’s
Saddam Hussein became a m...
Hussein had prevented UN weapon’s
inspections of key sites and intelligence
estimated that he was stockpiling
weapons of m...
President Bush                 Saddam Hussein




  In late 2002, President Bush said that
  if the UN failed to take more...
Saddam Hussein
President Bush                     and sons




  When the UN Security Council and several
  other countrie...
17 March 2003
President Bush gave Saddam Hussein 48 hours
to leave the country.
When Hussein did not leave, the U.S.,
Britain, and several other nations
began Operation Iraqi Freedom.
Extensive air and missile attacks began
against Baghdad and other key targets,
and were dubbed “Shock and Awe” by
Secretar...
American-led coalition troops invaded
Iraq from the south, while airborne
troops parachuted into northern Iraq
to team up ...
By 9 April, these forces captured
Baghdad, and on 1 May, President
Bush declared major combat ended.
All in all, some 75
percent of the Navy’s
total force was
deployed in support of
Operation Iraqi
Freedom, including:

• 22...
Not all hostilities ended with
the capture of Baghdad.
Saddam Hussein

 Qusay                              Uday
Hussein                            Hussein




 Hussein and his s...
Reconstruction efforts
began, including:

• water and electrical
  supplies

• retraining of Iraqi
  military and civilian...
The Coalition Provisional Authority transferred
sovereignty in June of 2004 and Ghazi al-Ujayl
al-Yawr was elected as Iraq...
Attacks by insurgent forces and terrorists
have continued to the present.
It remains to be seen what the long-term
outcome of these events will be.
1960s - 1970s

In the early 60s and 70s, the Navy
had nearly 1,000 ships and 600,000
people in uniform.
By the year 2005, the number of ships
and people dwindled to less than 300
ships and 370,000 people.
Joint Operations




Now the rule rather than the exception
Technology




The drive toward new concepts in weapons
and equipment continues at an increasing
rate.
China


             Gulf of
Laos         Tonkin
                           The Vietnam
                           experie...
Events remind us even the
best-intentioned people make
mistakes.

• Iran-Contra affair
• Tailhook scandal
Budgetary Constraints



                   YF-23




We have been forced to accept the fact that
we cannot always acquire...
Pablo Escobar   Osama bin Laden



Today’s modern enemies include:

• Terrorists
• Drug trafficking
Today, modern enemies:

• Not always easily identifiable
• Cannot be directly attacked
Today, our Navy continues to perform
its mission worldwide with distinction,
meeting every challenge given it.
There is no doubt that each generation
of Navy men and women will do their
best to continue to protect America and
our way...
The 1990s and Beyond

Aug 1990 ~ Iraq invaded Kuwait
Jan 1991 ~ Operation Desert Storm
Jun 1991 ~ War in Bosnia began
Aug ...
The 1990s and Beyond

Aug 1998 ~ Bin Laden terrorist base
           attacked
Aug 2000 ~ USS Cole attacked
Sep 2001 ~ Worl...
What treaty was signed between the
U.S. and Russia in early 1993?
What treaty was signed between the
U.S. and Russia in early 1993?




START II
What Middle Eastern country was
invaded by Iraq in 1990?
What Middle Eastern country was
invaded by Iraq in 1990?




Kuwait
What was the deployment of military
forces to the Middle East in response
to the Invasion of Kuwait called?
What was the deployment of military
  forces to the Middle East in response
  to the Invasion of Kuwait called?



Desert ...
By what method was the majority of
equipment and material for Desert
Shield forces delivered?
By what method was the majority of
equipment and material for Desert
Shield forces delivered?



Maritime sealift
What was the name of the military
operation conducted against the Iraqi
invaders of Kuwait?
What was the name of the military
operation conducted against the Iraqi
invaders of Kuwait?



Desert Storm
Who was the military commander of
all forces in Desert Storm?
Who was the military commander of
all forces in Desert Storm?




General Norman Schwarzkopf
How long did the land campaign of
Operation Desert Storm last?
How long did the land campaign of
Operation Desert Storm last?




100 hours
What was the term Defense Secretary
Donald Rumsfeld used for the initial
attacks of Operation Iraqi Freedom?
What was the term Defense Secretary
Donald Rumsfeld used for the initial
attacks of Operation Iraqi Freedom?



“Shock and...
Why did the United Nations establish
no fly zones in northern and southern
Iraq?
Why did the United Nations establish
no fly zones in northern and southern
Iraq?



To protect the Kurdish and Shiite
 Mus...
What began the civil war in
 Yugoslavia in 1991?
What began the civil war in
 Yugoslavia in 1991?




Economic difficulties caused by the
 cessation of Soviet aid and
 lon...
What actions did the U.S. take to end
 the civil war in Bosnia and
 Yugoslavia?
What actions did the U.S. take to end
 the civil war in Bosnia and
 Yugoslavia?



Economic sanctions, established
 no-fly...
What were the major concerns that
 led the United States to undertake
 Operation Iraqi Freedom in 2003?
What were the major concerns that
 led the United States to undertake
 Operation Iraqi Freedom in 2003?



Weapons of mass...
Who was Iraq’s first president after
 the fall of Saddam Hussein?
Who was Iraq’s first president after
 the fall of Saddam Hussein?




Ghazi al-Ujayl al-Yawr
What two U.S. embassies were
 bombed in August 1998?
What two U.S. embassies were
 bombed in August 1998?




The embassies in Kenya and
 Tanzania
What ship was bombed by terrorists
 in August 2000?
What ship was bombed by terrorists
 in August 2000?




USS Cole
What events were the result of
 domestic terrorism that occurred in
 the mid-1990s?
What events were the result of
 domestic terrorism that occurred in
 the mid-1990s?



The bombing of the Oklahoma City
 f...
What acts of terrorism occurred on
 September 11, 2001, that have been
 the most destructive acts on
 American soil?
What acts of terrorism occurred on
 September 11, 2001, that have been
 the most destructive acts on
 American soil?

The ...
Who was believed to be behind the
 terrorist acts of the USS Cole and
 the World Trade Center?
Who was believed to be behind the
 terrorist acts of the USS Cole and
 the World Trade Center?



Osama bin Laden
What was the primary function of the
 “Shock and Awe” attacks?
What was the primary function of the
   “Shock and Awe” attacks?




To take out most of Iraq’s command
     and control o...
1.11 The 1990s And Beyond
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1.11 The 1990s And Beyond

  1. 1. CHAPTER 11 THE 1990s AND BEYOND
  2. 2. The end of the Cold War in 1991 brought a dramatic lessening of the threat of nuclear warfare between superpowers.
  3. 3. He found himself faced with several very serious problems: President Yeltsin 1. Foremost was revitalizing the economies of Russia and ex-Soviet states
  4. 4. 2. Disposition of the armed forces
  5. 5. 3. Control of the formidable Soviet nuclear arsenal
  6. 6. President Yeltsin He immediately established friendly working relations with Western heads of state to pursue economic support.
  7. 7. President Yeltsin received aid in various forms when he made assurances that he now controlled the nuclear weapons.
  8. 8. January 1993 President President Yeltsin Bush They signed the second Strategic Arms Reduction Treaty (START II).
  9. 9. START II called for both sides to reduce long-range nuclear arsenals to between 3,000 and 3,500 warheads within a decade.
  10. 10. START II also called for the complete elimination of land- based multiple- warhead missiles.
  11. 11. Late 1996 He announced that there would be no Russian-controlled nuclear missiles aimed at any of the western states. President Yeltsin
  12. 12. Early 1997 He announced several of the former President Clinton Soviet satellite states would be allowed to join the North Atlantic Treaty Organization (NATO).
  13. 13. Following the end of the Iran-Iraq War in 1988, Iraq’s leader, Saddam Hussein, was free to attempt other more aggressive military adventures to the south. Saddam Hussein
  14. 14. In August 1990, Iraqi forces invaded Kuwait.
  15. 15. King Fahd Bin Abdul Aziz Al-Saud King of Saudi Arabia Saudi Arabia appealed to the United Nations (UN) and the United States for help.
  16. 16. The UN passed a trade embargo against Iraq restricting movement and sale of all goods.
  17. 17. In response to the Iraqi invasion of Kuwait, the U.S. embarked on Operation Desert Shield, the largest military operation since the Vietnam War.
  18. 18. By the end of 1990, some 450,000 U.S. military personnel and some 100 U.S. Navy ships were engaged in operations in support of Desert Shield.
  19. 19. U.S. and Allied ships patrolled in the Persian Gulf, Arabian Sea, and Red Sea, enforcing the UN trade embargo against Iraq.
  20. 20. The U.S. military supported Operation Desert Shield in many ways.
  21. 21. The UN Security Council imposed a deadline of 15 January 1991 for Hussein to move his forces out of Kuwait or face military action. He did not leave.
  22. 22. On 16 January, a passive air assault turned Operation Desert Shield into Desert Storm.
  23. 23. On 23 February, the Allied ground offensive into Kuwait and southern Iraq began.
  24. 24. General Schwarzkopf commanded the U.S. and coalition forces.
  25. 25. The demoralized Iraqi troops, cut off from food and ammunition supplies by the air campaign, quickly surrendered.
  26. 26. By 26 February, Kuwait City was secured, and on 27 February, a cease-fire was announced.
  27. 27. Iraqi Losses U.S. Losses • Thousands • 89 combat deaths of troops • 38 missing • Thousands more in action became prisoners of war • 212 wounded
  28. 28. February 1991 Hussein reestablished control over Iraq following discontinuance of hostilities.
  29. 29. Extreme measures were taken to suppress ethnic Shiite Muslims in southern Iraq.
  30. 30. In August 1992, UN forces from the U.S., England, and France began enforcing no-fly zones.
  31. 31. No-Fly Zone An area over which no aircraft may fly; Iraqi No-Fly Zone was imposed after Operation Desert Storm was completed.
  32. 32. The no-fly zone over southern Iraq was designed to protect the Shiites, and the northern Iraq no-fly zone to protect the Kurds from Hussein.
  33. 33. Along with the no-fly zones, economic sanctions (frozen bank assets for example) and trade embargoes (naval blockade for example) had been enacted by the UN to force Hussein to liberalize the treatment of the Iraqi people and to comply with the 1991 cease-fire agreement regarding the inspection of potential munitions-producing plants and Chemical, Biological, and Radiological (CBR) weapons facilities.
  34. 34. Economic Sanctions Economic actions by one or more states toward another state calculated to force it to comply
  35. 35. In August 1996, Hussein moved 45,000 troops and 300 tanks toward the Kurdish-held territory in northern Iraq. Kurdish - Held Territory IRAQ
  36. 36. F-14 B-52 August 1996 President Clinton ordered a joint Navy- Air Force strike against Iraq air defense systems and bases in southern Iraq.
  37. 37. September 1996 The U.S launched 44 Tomahawk Land-Attack Missiles (TLAMs).
  38. 38. He seemed to have “gotten the message” because the troops and tanks were withdrawn. Saddam Hussein
  39. 39. 1991 A civil war broke out in the Balkan country of Yugoslavia.
  40. 40. 1991 Slovenia Croatia Bosnia- Herzegovina Serbia Montenegro These republics broke Macedonia apart from the former Soviet client state of Yugoslavia.
  41. 41. Cessation of Soviet aid caused economic difficulties.
  42. 42. Long-standing friction between ethnic groups contributed to the break-up.
  43. 43. Hungary Slovenia Croatia June 1991 Bosnia - Herzegovina Fighting broke out between the ethnic Serbs in Croatia and the Croat militia.
  44. 44. Hungary Slovenia Croatia Serbia The conflict then Bosnia - broadened into Herzegovina Bosnia- Herzegovina between the Serbs, Muslims, and Montenegro Croats.
  45. 45. Months of bloody fighting continued with atrocities on all sides.
  46. 46. Atrocities Cruel or brutal acts
  47. 47. Late 1991 UN imposes oil, trade, and weapons embargo against Yugoslavia and Serbia in an attempt to end fighting.
  48. 48. The embargo had little effect, and the fighting and atrocities continued.
  49. 49. Hungary Romania May 1992 Economic sanctions Serbia by the UN against Serbia and Montenegro were imposed with little effect. Montenegro
  50. 50. Year-End 1992 The situation had deteriorated to the point that the former nation of Yugoslavia ceased to exist.
  51. 51. Hungary Serbia Croatia October 1992 Bosnia- Herzegovina NATO established a no-fly zone over Bosnia. Montenegro
  52. 52. United Nations proclaimed so-called “safe areas” around several cities.
  53. 53. Air Force planes, Navy ships, and aircraft helped NATO enforce: • Embargoes • No-fly zones • Safe areas
  54. 54. He was reluctant to introduce ground troops into the conflict, preferring diplomatic pressure instead. President Clinton
  55. 55. Early 1992 Increased naval presence in the Adriatic Sea
  56. 56. Late 1995 The U.S. joined other NATO forces to bring a halt to the conflict by using force.
  57. 57. Aug and Sep 1995 - Operation Deliberate Force Navy and Marine Corps aircraft from the USS Theodore Roosevelt joined NATO aircraft to conduct air strikes against the Serbs.
  58. 58. These strikes were in retaliation for the Serbs overrunning UN protected cities.
  59. 59. These strikes were also in response to the Serb’s mortar attacks and the wounding of more than 80 civilians in Sarajevo.
  60. 60. NATO Strikes Back Altogether some 3,500 sorties were flown against some 350 separate targets.
  61. 61. Presidents of Bosnia-Herzegovina, Serbia, and Croatia signed a treaty to end the war.
  62. 62. Treaty divides Bosnia into two largely autonomous parts.
  63. 63. Early 1996 NATO deployed 60,000 troops, including 20,000 American Army troops.
  64. 64. By the end of 2004, this force had been reduced to about 7,000 troops. It was then formally replaced by an equal number of troops from the European Union.
  65. 65. Gulf of Djibouti Aden Ethiopia January 1991 SOMALIA Civil war erupted after Soviet aid Kenya discontinued. MOGADISHU Indian Ocean
  66. 66. Rebel troops forced the president to flee the country. President Mohammed Siad Barre
  67. 67. Rebel troops began battling among themselves for territory, soon resulting in widespread anarchy and famine.
  68. 68. Anarchy A state of society without government or law
  69. 69. Due to the large number of weapons left behind by the Soviets, nearly every male member of Somalia had a firearm.
  70. 70. Operation Restore Hope December 1992 • 28,000 U.S. troops took part
  71. 71. Operation Restore Hope Intent was to bring in food supplies and restore some order to the country.
  72. 72. French Foreign Legion units assisted U.S. Marines in patrolling the streets of Mogadishu.
  73. 73. Persian Gulf Carrier Battle Group
  74. 74. March 1993 Clan warlords signed a peace accord but occasional violence continued.
  75. 75. October 1993 A gun battle between U.S. soldiers and clan members left 18 dead and 75 wounded.
  76. 76. March 1994 The date set for all remaining forces to leave Somalia
  77. 77. Several Months Afterward Some 2,000 Marines were kept offshore as potential cover for the remaining UN troops.
  78. 78. Mid-1996 Navy-Marine Corps amphibious groups were called upon to assist in the evacuation of personnel from Liberia and the Central African Republic of Bangui.
  79. 79. LIBERIA REPUBLIC OF BANGUI
  80. 80. Ethnic Violence Famine Disease Both of these countries were experiencing these outbreaks.
  81. 81. Fleet Marines reinforced U.S. embassy Marines in Liberia during the crisis.
  82. 82. Afghanistan China Nepal Spring of 1998 Apprehension arose Arabian over the issue of Sea nuclear weapons Bay of Bengal proliferation when both countries Sri Lanka exploded nuclear devices. Indian Ocean
  83. 83. Proliferation A rapid and often excessive spread or increase
  84. 84. The Clinton administration and the United Nations were able to deter both nations from committing nuclear destruction.
  85. 85. The issue of nuclear nonproliferation continues to be a major international concern in the twenty-first century.
  86. 86. In April 2001, a Chinese fighter collided with a Navy reconnaissance aircraft.
  87. 87. The Chinese fighter crashed into the sea killing the pilot. The Navy aircraft made an emergency landing at China’s Hainan Island.
  88. 88. CHINA South China Sea Gulf of Tonkin HAINAN
  89. 89. The Navy crew of 24 men and women were detained for 11 days and received a hero’s welcome when they returned home.
  90. 90. The plane was dismantled and returned to the U.S. in July 2001.
  91. 91. Late December 2004 A huge tsunami in the Indian Ocean devastated much of the seacoast of Indonesia, Sri Lanka, Thailand, southern India and several other countries in the region.
  92. 92. Tsunami An unusually large sea wave produced by a seaquake or undersea volcanic eruption A Japanese word that means “surging walls of water”
  93. 93. Before After
  94. 94. By some estimates as many as 370,000 people were killed by the tsunami itself or its effects shortly thereafter.
  95. 95. In response, the U.S. initiated Operation Unified Assistance, deploying U.S. Navy ships, P-3 aircraft, and Air Force heavy lift cargo aircraft.
  96. 96. By the end of the operation, helicopters had flown over 2,000 missions and Navy and Air Force planes delivered some 12 million tons of supplies to the region.
  97. 97. Several thousand casualties were treated by U.S. medical personnel, mainly aboard the hospital ship Mercy.
  98. 98. Throughout the 1990s and beyond, the U.S. Department of Defense and Coast Guard have been called upon to suppress the illegal drug trade.
  99. 99. Central America became a major conduit of drugs from South American producers.
  100. 100. Conduit A channel or path for conveying drugs
  101. 101. Traffickers increasingly relied upon these methods for hauling legitimate cargo to transport drugs.
  102. 102. All services and various intelligence agencies conduct joint drug interdiction training with host countries.
  103. 103. Surveillance assets of the U.S. are used to track & intercept boats and aircraft suspected of transporting drugs.
  104. 104. On the domestic scene, all services conduct extensive drug awareness and testing programs designed to discourage the use of illegal drugs.
  105. 105. August 1998 U.S. embassies in Kenya and Tanzania were destroyed by car bombs.
  106. 106. Libya Egypt Saudi Arabia Oman Red Sea Chad Yemen Arabian Sudan Sea Ethiopia Somalia Central African Rep. Dem. Rep KENYA Of The Congo Indian Ocean TANZANIA
  107. 107. The mastermind of the terrorist attacks was a wealthy exiled Saudi Arabian named Osama bin Laden. He had proclaimed a holy war against the United States.
  108. 108. Mastermind A person who originates or is primarily responsible for the execution of a particular idea
  109. 109. Holy War A war waged for what is supposed or proclaimed to be a holy purpose, as the defense of faith
  110. 110. President Clinton 20 August 1998 Over 70 Tomahawk cruise missiles were fired against a factory in Sudan manufacturing chemical weapons and terrorist training camps run by Osama bin Laden in Afghanistan.
  111. 111. He escaped injury and continues to be a major terrorist threat against the United States. Osama bin Laden
  112. 112. In August 2000, the guided missile destroyer, USS Cole, had a large hole blown in her port side.
  113. 113. Saudi Arabia Oman YEMEN Arabian Sea Gulf of Aden Socotra Indian Somalia Ocean
  114. 114. The suicide bombers killed 17 sailors, and 39 others were injured.
  115. 115. April 19, 2002 After a successful 14-month effort to repair the damage suffered in a terrorist attack, USS Cole returns to its homeport of Norfolk.
  116. 116. Turbulent 1990s Cold War ended, resulting in drawdown and consolidation of U.S. armed forces.
  117. 117. Allegations of sexual harassment to: • female junior officers • civilians by over a hundred naval aviators
  118. 118. Late 1996 Incidents of fraternization and harassment of female trainees by Army drill instructors occurred.
  119. 119. The tension caused by scandals involving sexual harassment was felt throughout the military services.
  120. 120. Much progress has been made in recent years integrating women into the U.S. armed services.
  121. 121. Oklahoma City, April 1995 An explosion in the Murrah Federal Building killed 168 and injured over 800 innocent people.
  122. 122. 27 July 1996 A bomb detonated at the Olympic games in Atlanta killed one person and injured others.
  123. 123. Reconstruction Reconstruction July 1996 An unexplained explosion killed 230 passengers and crew of TWA Flight 800 off Long Island, NY.
  124. 124. Navy divers assisted in the salvage operations.
  125. 125. Most of the aircraft wreckage was recovered, assembled, and analyzed to determine the location and cause of the explosion.
  126. 126. The unthinkable happened on 11 September 2001, when two airliners were crashed into the twin towers of the World Trade Center in New York City.
  127. 127. A few minutes later a third aircraft was flown into the Pentagon.
  128. 128. A fourth plane, presumed to be targeted for Washington, DC, crashed into the Pennsylvania countryside.
  129. 129. Nearly 2,900 people lost their lives when both towers of the World Trade Center collapsed.
  130. 130. Nearly 200 were killed at the Pentagon.
  131. 131. President Bush Osama bin Laden President Bush called the terrorist attacks an act of war and vowed to retaliate against the terrorist organizations.
  132. 132. When the Taliban government in Afghanistan would not give up bin Laden, the United States deployed assets to the region.
  133. 133. These deployments included: • aircraft carriers and support ships in the Arabian Sea • over 100 Air Force fighter-bombers • a large contingent of U.S. Special operations forces
  134. 134. 8 October 2001 Operation Enduring Freedom began with air strikes by Navy and Air Force accompanied by Humanitarian airdrops of food for the Afghan people.
  135. 135. Much of the ground fighting was left to the Northern Alliance, a loose coalition of rebel Afghans in northeastern provinces who had long been fighting the Taliban control of the country.
  136. 136. By late November, the Northern Alliance, supported by U.S. air attacks and special forces, gained control of most of the country.
  137. 137. Several key al-Qaida officials had been killed, but bin Laden himself eluded capture and is still being sought.
  138. 138. In late 2001 and early 2002, international peacekeeping forces arrived, and continue to provide training for Afghan military forces and civilian police.
  139. 139. Occasional forays continue to be conducted in the more remote mountainous regions, looking for al-Qaida and bin Laden.
  140. 140. In October 2004, Hamid Karzai became the first democratically elected president of Afghanistan.
  141. 141. Shortly after the start of Operation Enduring Freedom, there were several instances of deadly anthrax disease spores found in news offices, postal facilities, and State Department and Senate offices.
  142. 142. Saddam Hussein By 2002, the continued defiance of the terms of the 1991 cease-fire by Iraq’s Saddam Hussein became a major issue with the United States.
  143. 143. Hussein had prevented UN weapon’s inspections of key sites and intelligence estimated that he was stockpiling weapons of mass destruction.
  144. 144. President Bush Saddam Hussein In late 2002, President Bush said that if the UN failed to take more effective action, the U.S. might have to take unilateral military action.
  145. 145. Saddam Hussein President Bush and sons When the UN Security Council and several other countries pressed for more time, the U.S. decided to move towards war if Hussein and his sons did not leave Iraq.
  146. 146. 17 March 2003 President Bush gave Saddam Hussein 48 hours to leave the country.
  147. 147. When Hussein did not leave, the U.S., Britain, and several other nations began Operation Iraqi Freedom.
  148. 148. Extensive air and missile attacks began against Baghdad and other key targets, and were dubbed “Shock and Awe” by Secretary of Defense Rumsfeld.
  149. 149. American-led coalition troops invaded Iraq from the south, while airborne troops parachuted into northern Iraq to team up with Iraqi Kurds.
  150. 150. By 9 April, these forces captured Baghdad, and on 1 May, President Bush declared major combat ended.
  151. 151. All in all, some 75 percent of the Navy’s total force was deployed in support of Operation Iraqi Freedom, including: • 221 of 306 ships • 33 of 54 attack subs • 600 Navy and Marine Corps tactical aircraft
  152. 152. Not all hostilities ended with the capture of Baghdad.
  153. 153. Saddam Hussein Qusay Uday Hussein Hussein Hussein and his sons eluded capture for a time, but eventually both sons were killed and Hussein himself was captured in December.
  154. 154. Reconstruction efforts began, including: • water and electrical supplies • retraining of Iraqi military and civilian police forces
  155. 155. The Coalition Provisional Authority transferred sovereignty in June of 2004 and Ghazi al-Ujayl al-Yawr was elected as Iraq’s first president in January 2005.
  156. 156. Attacks by insurgent forces and terrorists have continued to the present.
  157. 157. It remains to be seen what the long-term outcome of these events will be.
  158. 158. 1960s - 1970s In the early 60s and 70s, the Navy had nearly 1,000 ships and 600,000 people in uniform.
  159. 159. By the year 2005, the number of ships and people dwindled to less than 300 ships and 370,000 people.
  160. 160. Joint Operations Now the rule rather than the exception
  161. 161. Technology The drive toward new concepts in weapons and equipment continues at an increasing rate.
  162. 162. China Gulf of Laos Tonkin The Vietnam experience forced us to accept the fact Thailand VIETNAM that even the most powerful Navy on Earth has its Cambodia limitations. South China Sea
  163. 163. Events remind us even the best-intentioned people make mistakes. • Iran-Contra affair • Tailhook scandal
  164. 164. Budgetary Constraints YF-23 We have been forced to accept the fact that we cannot always acquire new weapons, programs, or the ships we desire.
  165. 165. Pablo Escobar Osama bin Laden Today’s modern enemies include: • Terrorists • Drug trafficking
  166. 166. Today, modern enemies: • Not always easily identifiable • Cannot be directly attacked
  167. 167. Today, our Navy continues to perform its mission worldwide with distinction, meeting every challenge given it.
  168. 168. There is no doubt that each generation of Navy men and women will do their best to continue to protect America and our way of life from all enemies, both foreign and domestic.
  169. 169. The 1990s and Beyond Aug 1990 ~ Iraq invaded Kuwait Jan 1991 ~ Operation Desert Storm Jun 1991 ~ War in Bosnia began Aug 1992 ~ Iraqi no-fly zone imposed Dec 1992 ~ Operation Restore Hope Apr 1995 ~ Oklahoma federal building bombed Jul 1996 ~ TWA Flight 800 salvaged Sep 1996 ~ Iraq missile attack
  170. 170. The 1990s and Beyond Aug 1998 ~ Bin Laden terrorist base attacked Aug 2000 ~ USS Cole attacked Sep 2001 ~ World Trade Center twin towers destroyed and Pentagon damaged
  171. 171. What treaty was signed between the U.S. and Russia in early 1993?
  172. 172. What treaty was signed between the U.S. and Russia in early 1993? START II
  173. 173. What Middle Eastern country was invaded by Iraq in 1990?
  174. 174. What Middle Eastern country was invaded by Iraq in 1990? Kuwait
  175. 175. What was the deployment of military forces to the Middle East in response to the Invasion of Kuwait called?
  176. 176. What was the deployment of military forces to the Middle East in response to the Invasion of Kuwait called? Desert Shield
  177. 177. By what method was the majority of equipment and material for Desert Shield forces delivered?
  178. 178. By what method was the majority of equipment and material for Desert Shield forces delivered? Maritime sealift
  179. 179. What was the name of the military operation conducted against the Iraqi invaders of Kuwait?
  180. 180. What was the name of the military operation conducted against the Iraqi invaders of Kuwait? Desert Storm
  181. 181. Who was the military commander of all forces in Desert Storm?
  182. 182. Who was the military commander of all forces in Desert Storm? General Norman Schwarzkopf
  183. 183. How long did the land campaign of Operation Desert Storm last?
  184. 184. How long did the land campaign of Operation Desert Storm last? 100 hours
  185. 185. What was the term Defense Secretary Donald Rumsfeld used for the initial attacks of Operation Iraqi Freedom?
  186. 186. What was the term Defense Secretary Donald Rumsfeld used for the initial attacks of Operation Iraqi Freedom? “Shock and Awe”
  187. 187. Why did the United Nations establish no fly zones in northern and southern Iraq?
  188. 188. Why did the United Nations establish no fly zones in northern and southern Iraq? To protect the Kurdish and Shiite Muslims from Saddam Hussein
  189. 189. What began the civil war in Yugoslavia in 1991?
  190. 190. What began the civil war in Yugoslavia in 1991? Economic difficulties caused by the cessation of Soviet aid and long-standing friction between ethnic groups in the population
  191. 191. What actions did the U.S. take to end the civil war in Bosnia and Yugoslavia?
  192. 192. What actions did the U.S. take to end the civil war in Bosnia and Yugoslavia? Economic sanctions, established no-fly zones and safe zones, and application of force
  193. 193. What were the major concerns that led the United States to undertake Operation Iraqi Freedom in 2003?
  194. 194. What were the major concerns that led the United States to undertake Operation Iraqi Freedom in 2003? Weapons of mass destruction and nuclear weapons
  195. 195. Who was Iraq’s first president after the fall of Saddam Hussein?
  196. 196. Who was Iraq’s first president after the fall of Saddam Hussein? Ghazi al-Ujayl al-Yawr
  197. 197. What two U.S. embassies were bombed in August 1998?
  198. 198. What two U.S. embassies were bombed in August 1998? The embassies in Kenya and Tanzania
  199. 199. What ship was bombed by terrorists in August 2000?
  200. 200. What ship was bombed by terrorists in August 2000? USS Cole
  201. 201. What events were the result of domestic terrorism that occurred in the mid-1990s?
  202. 202. What events were the result of domestic terrorism that occurred in the mid-1990s? The bombing of the Oklahoma City federal building and the bombing at the 1996 Olympic games
  203. 203. What acts of terrorism occurred on September 11, 2001, that have been the most destructive acts on American soil?
  204. 204. What acts of terrorism occurred on September 11, 2001, that have been the most destructive acts on American soil? The collapse of the World Trade Center and partial destruction of the Pentagon by hijacked commercial airliners
  205. 205. Who was believed to be behind the terrorist acts of the USS Cole and the World Trade Center?
  206. 206. Who was believed to be behind the terrorist acts of the USS Cole and the World Trade Center? Osama bin Laden
  207. 207. What was the primary function of the “Shock and Awe” attacks?
  208. 208. What was the primary function of the “Shock and Awe” attacks? To take out most of Iraq’s command and control organization

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