1.1 Sea Power And Early Western Civilization
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  • 1. CHAPTER 1 SEA POWER AND EARLY WESTERN CIVILIZATION
  • 2. Early Western Civilization
  • 3. Sea Power The ability to use the sea to meet a nation’s needs
  • 4. Sea Power • Being able to defend a nation’s own sea-lanes • The ability to deny an enemy the use of the sea in time of war
  • 5. Early Fear of the Sea
  • 6. Early people learned to use the sea for: • Fishing • Traveling • Trading
  • 7. Travel by sea was: • Fast • Cheap • Safe
  • 8. Countries bordering the Mediterranean Sea became the richest and most powerful.
  • 9. CRETE (2500-1200 B.C.) • First to use sea power • Dominated its neighbors • Controlled major sea routes
  • 10. Phoenicians (2000-300 B.C.)
  • 11. • Tin from Britain
  • 12. • Amber from the Baltic Sea
  • 13. Italy Atlantic Ocean Spain West Africa • Slaves and ivory from western Africa
  • 14. Mediterranean Sea • Established ports in Tyre and Sidon (modern Lebanon) Sidon Tyre
  • 15. Phoenician ships carried the wealth of the Orient to coastal trading cities around the Mediterranean and to northern Europe.
  • 16. Phoenician’s Alphabet • Written language of traders • Basis for our alphabet
  • 17. Carthage • Greatest Phoenician colony • Main opponent of Rome Rome Carthage
  • 18. Q. Which of the following countries was the first to use sea power to dominate its neighbors and control major sea routes? a. Greece b. Italy c. Crete d. Phoenicia
  • 19. Q. Which of the following countries was the first to use sea power to dominate its neighbors and control major sea routes? a. Greece b. Italy c. Crete d. Phoenicia
  • 20. Greeks Wrote semi-fictional accounts of early sea power
  • 21. Greece
  • 22. Greeks • Trojan War • TROY
  • 23. Hellespont (1200-1190 B.C.)
  • 24. Prosperous Greek colonies in Asia Minor, Sicily, Italy, France, and Spain
  • 25. Early Trading Vessels Clumsy and easy prey for swifter craft
  • 26. Merchants began crewing their galleys with trained fighting men.
  • 27. Galley A seagoing vessel propelled mainly by oars, used in ancient and medieval times, sometimes with the aid of sails
  • 28. Greeks vs. Persians (492 B.C.)
  • 29. The Greeks were able to hold off two Persian invasions in the next 12 years.
  • 30. Invasion Entering another country by force
  • 31. The Greeks withdrew from Thrace and Macedonia. Macedonia Thrace
  • 32. King Xerxes Invades Greece (480 B.C.) • 1,300 galley navy • 180,000 man army • Fleet guards army's flank
  • 33. Flank Extreme right or left side of the fleet or army
  • 34. Greek Commander Themistocles: • Breaks Persian sea line of communications • Builds naval force of 380 triremes
  • 35. Trireme A galley, used chiefly as a warship, with three rows or tiers of oars on each side, one above another
  • 36. Sea Line of Communications Control of the highways of the sea
  • 37. Greek strategy was to hold the Persian army at the pass of Thermopylae.
  • 38. Persians destroyed Greek defenders at Thermopylae.
  • 39. Xerxes’ army moved south to plunder Athens.
  • 40. Plunder To rob goods or valuables by open force
  • 41. Gulf of Attica Corinth Megaris Athens Corinth Isthmus of Corinth Argolis Aegina Mycenae Argos Saronic Gulf The Greeks took up a new position at the Isthmus of Corinth.
  • 42. The Greek fleet sailed to waters around the island of Salamis.
  • 43. The Greek fleet used hit-and-run attacks.
  • 44. • In the narrow straits, the Persians lost the advantage of numbers. • The Greeks prevailed with half the Persian fleet sunk.
  • 45. Battle of Salamis • Persian fleet reduced to 800 vessels • Only 300 Greek triremes left
  • 46. With his fleet destroyed, Xerxes ordered his army to retreat.
  • 47. Golden Age of Athens
  • 48. Sculpture Theater Philosophy (Aristotle) Writing (Sophocles)
  • 49. Democracy was born, and the foundations of Western civilization were laid in Athens.
  • 50. The Battle of Salamis was the turning point.
  • 51. Greek Conquests Macedonia Thrace Greece Asia Minor Armenia Babylon Egypt India
  • 52. • Greek civilization moved eastward • Conquered most of Persian Empire
  • 53. Greek culture spread throughout the entire eastern Mediterranean by Alexander the Great of Macedonia.
  • 54. He established the great port of Alexandria. MACEDONIA Alexandria
  • 55. Persia was driven from the seas, and the Phoenician reign ended. MACEDONIA Alexandria
  • 56. Q. In which of the following battles did the Greeks destroy the Persian fleet? a. Corinth b. Salamis c. Thermopylae d. Actium
  • 57. Q. In which of the following battles did the Greeks destroy the Persian fleet? a. Corinth b. Salamis c. Thermopylae d. Actium
  • 58. Macedonia • Became the world’s greatest sea power • Conquered most of the Western and Middle Eastern world
  • 59. The Greeks controlled the eastern Mediterranean for the next two centuries.
  • 60. Carthage • Rising sea power in Western Mediterranean • Kept the Greeks in check CARTHAGE
  • 61. Carthage (265 B.C.) CORSICA • ROME MACEDONIA SARDINIA NEW CARTHAGE CARTHAGE SICILY CRETE NUMIDIA LIBYA
  • 62. Rome (275 B.C.) • ROME • Conquered Italy and southern Greek colonies • Absorbed Greek culture • Advanced Western civilization
  • 63. First Punic War (265 B.C.) Carthage vs. Rome • ROME CARTHAGE
  • 64. Carthaginian Navy • Protected Carthage from attack • Harassed Roman sea lines of communications • Plundered Roman coast
  • 65. First Punic War (265 - 241 B.C.) • Rome acquired Sicily. SICILY
  • 66. Second Punic War (218 - 201 B.C.) • Rome acquired Spain. SPAIN
  • 67. Third Punic War (149 - 146 B.C.) • Rome invaded North Africa. • Carthage was burned and destroyed.
  • 68. Q. In which Punic War was Carthage finally burned and destroyed? a. First b. Second c. Third d. Fourth
  • 69. Q. In which Punic War was Carthage finally burned and destroyed? a. First b. Second c. Third d. Fourth
  • 70. The Roman Empire spread throughout the Mediterranean. Spain • Rome Italy Greece Africa Libya
  • 71. Roman Navy • Cleared Mediterranean of pirates Spain • Rome Italy Greece Africa Libya
  • 72. Roman Navy • Supported Roman armies Spain • Rome Greece Libya
  • 73. Roman Navy • Defeated hostile fleets Spain • Rome Italy Africa Libya
  • 74. Rebellion of Romans and Egyptian Allies Mark Antony Cleopatra
  • 75. Rebellion Open, organized, and armed resistance to one’s government or ruler
  • 76. Death of Julius Caesar (44 B.C.)
  • 77. Tried to Overthrow the Roman Empire Mark Antony Cleopatra
  • 78. Battle of Actium (31 B.C.) • Roman Admiral Agrippa destroyed the Egyptian fleet.
  • 79. Agrippa defeated Pompey earlier at the Battle of Naulochus. Agrippa Pompey
  • 80. Actium
  • 81. The Battle of Actium put the whole eastern Mediterranean in the Roman empire.
  • 82. Roman Empire (117 A.D.) • Rome
  • 83. Mare Nostrum Latin for “Our Sea” - all Mediterranean coasts, ports, and naval bases controlled by Rome
  • 84. On land and sea the PAX ROMANA (Roman Peace) prevailed for over five centuries, the longest period of peace in world history. • Rome
  • 85. Roman Legacy • Law • Government • Art • Language • Religion
  • 86. Roman Empire • Rome • Constantinople Eventually, Rome’s greatness began to decline due to social, political, and economic breakdowns.
  • 87. Roman Empire (about 395 A.D.) • Rome • Constantinople Western Empire Eastern Empire (Byzantine)
  • 88. Barbarians from northern and central Europe conquered Rome and deposed the last emperor in 476 A.D. Romulus Augustulus (last Emperor)
  • 89. Dark Ages (476 - 1050 A.D.) The period of Western European history from the fall of Rome until about the eleventh century. Reasons for the Dark Ages include: • Numerous invasions by barbaric tribes • Incursions by North African Moors • Religious bigotry • General lack of education among the masses of people
  • 90. Only the region around Constantinople preserved much of the Roman tradition. There was a general advance of culture. The Crusades began to hasten a reawakening of culture and education. This movement flourished in the 13th through the 16th centuries.
  • 91. The Renaissance (the rebirth) movement flourished in the thirteenth through sixteenth centuries.
  • 92. Byzantine Empire Constantinople
  • 93. The Byzantine Empire, centered in Turkey, defeated the Muslims at Constantinople in 717 A.D.
  • 94. The Muslims became largely content with: • Piracy on the Mediterranean • Controlling and strengthening their huge North African and Middle Eastern territories
  • 95. Piracy Robbery or illegal violence at sea
  • 96. By the eleventh century, Christendom was ready to contest Muslim control.
  • 97. Crusades King Richard I (The Lion Heart)
  • 98. Crusades - Religious-military expeditions undertaken by the Christians of Europe in the 11th, 12th, and 13th centuries for the recovery of the Holy Land from the Muslims
  • 99. First Crusades • Initiated by Pope Urban II in 1095 A.D. • Recaptured Jerusalem • Nearly swept the Arabs from the Mediterranean
  • 100. The Italian states turned to commercial expansion.
  • 101. • Venice Biggest center of commerce between the Orient and Europe
  • 102. Venice Venice • Profited from the Crusades Rome • Acquired Crete and Cyprus during the Crusades • Reached the height of its power by 1400 A.D. Crete Cyprus
  • 103. The Hanseatic League • Formed by north German port cities on the far end of the Venitian trade route Riga Bruges Lubeck Rostock Danzig Hamburg
  • 104. The Hanseatic League • Dominated the north and west European economy Riga Bruges Lubeck Rostock Danzig Hamburg
  • 105. The Hanseatic League • Turned the Baltic and North seas into the Mediterranean of the north Riga Bruges Lubeck Rostock Danzig Hamburg
  • 106. Mediterranean Sea Ottoman Turks
  • 107. Ottoman Turks • Captured Constantinople in 1453 A.D. • Swept to the gates of Vienna, Austria • Sought domination of the Mediterranean and east-west trade
  • 108. Lepanto Battle of Lepanto (1571 A.D.)
  • 109. GREECE Lepanto Turkish Christian Fleet Fleet Battle of Lepanto (1571 A.D.) Ionian Sea
  • 110. Spain and the Italian states agreed to combine their fleets for a conclusive battle with the Turks.
  • 111. The winner of this battle would determine the course of Western civilization.
  • 112. Don John of Ali Austria Pasha Christian Fleet Ottoman Fleet Commander Commander
  • 113. Comparison of Forces CHRISTIANS TURKS Navy Navy 200 galleys 250 galleys Army Army Armed with Armed with bows arquebus and arrows
  • 114. Christian soldier armed with early musket called the arquebus
  • 115. Outcome of Battle of Lepanto The Christians defeated the Turks. • 30,000 Turks killed • 192 of the Turkish ships destroyed or captured • 15,000 Christians used as slaves freed
  • 116. The Turks never again seriously challenged control of the Mediterranean, but Muslim pirates continued to harass merchant shipping for the next 250 years.
  • 117. The Battle of Lepanto ended: • Muslim attempts to move further into Europe • Muslim control of the Mediterranean • The age of the galley
  • 118. Age of Discovery The age of discovery was an age of sea power.
  • 119. Early Explorers • Portuguese • Spanish • English • French • Dutch
  • 120. Brave men in wooden ships explored the world and founded colonies while seeking fortunes for king and country. Jacques Cartier (French explorer)
  • 121. Prince Henry the Navigator hired explorers to try and find a new sea route to the Indies and Orient. PORTUGAL Prince Henry
  • 122. Bartholomeu Dias travels to Cape of Good Hope in 1487.
  • 123. Europe Asia Africa Vasco da Gama travels to India in 1498.
  • 124. Portugal’s leadership was short-lived because neighboring Spain soon overwhelmed it.
  • 125. Q. Which country led the way to the Age of Discovery with early explorations around Africa? a. England b. Spain c. Italy d. Portugal
  • 126. Q. Which country led the way to the Age of Discovery with early explorations around Africa? a. England b. Spain c. Italy d. Portugal
  • 127. Queen Isabella of Spain contributes $5,000 in royal jewels and finances Columbus’ first voyage of discovery.
  • 128. Discovery of America Santa Nina Maria Pinta Christopher Columbus
  • 129. First Voyage of Columbus (1492)
  • 130. Second Voyage of Columbus (1493)
  • 131. Third Voyage of Columbus (1498)
  • 132. Fourth Voyage of Columbus (1502)
  • 133. Through sea power, Spain established a huge empire.
  • 134. Convoy Warships protecting merchant shipping from hostile action
  • 135. Convoy Examples • Spain used warships to protect treasure-laden ships from the new world. • During World War II, Allied warships protected Allied merchant shipping from submarines.
  • 136. Mercantilism A system of economic organization based on the theory that total wealth is a fixed quantity. To become richer and more powerful, a nation had to make some other nation poorer through capture of its trade and colonies.
  • 137. Mercantile Theory Kept the world in almost continuous conflict well into the 1800s
  • 138. Pope Pius V In 1570, Pope Pius V called upon King Philip II of Spain to drive the Muslims from Europe and the Mediterranean. King Philip II
  • 139. Pope Pius V also wanted King Philip II to crusade against the “heretic and usurper,” Queen Elizabeth I in Protestant England.
  • 140. Queen Elizabeth I wanted to protect her throne against the Catholic Mary Queen of Scots. Queen Elizabeth I Catholic Mary Queen of Scots
  • 141. Elizabeth knew that an attack would soon come from Spain, so she: • secured England’s flank with an alliance with France. • secretly released her fortune-seeking seamen to raid the treasure ships of Spain. • began rebuilding her navy with the money Queen from the treasure ships. Elizabeth I
  • 142. Privateering English ships raiding Spanish treasure ships
  • 143. Privateers Privately owned ships commissioned by a government to fight or harass enemy ships
  • 144. English Privateering Seadogs Sir Martin Frobisher Sir Francis Sir John Drake Hawkins
  • 145. Sir Francis Drake was the most famous of the English raiders.
  • 146. Uruguay Argentina Drake sailed his ship, the Golden Strait of Hind, into the Magellan Pacific through the Strait of Cape Horn Magellan.
  • 147. Drake raided Spanish cities and shipping along the west coast of South America.
  • 148. Drake returned to England with gold, silver, and jewels worth half a million pounds sterling (many millions in today’s dollars).
  • 149. Drake was knighted by Queen Elizabeth I on the quarterdeck of the Golden Hind. Queen Elizabeth I Sir Francis Drake
  • 150. England had a big advantage over Spain in her superb seamen.
  • 151. With the seadogs in command of the world’s best sailors, England prepared to meet Spain in a great contest for supremacy on the seas.
  • 152. In 1588, King Philip II of Spain believed he had an unbeatable naval armada. King Philip II Spanish Armada
  • 153. Armada A large fleet of warships
  • 154. The Men in Command Charles Howard, Duke of Lord Admiral of England Medina Sidonia
  • 155. The Forces Spain 124 galleons 1,100 guns 8,000 sailors 19,000 soldiers England 34 men-of-war 163 armed merchantmen 2,000 guns 16,000 men
  • 156. The Spanish Armada had fewer guns but superior total firepower. The English had maneuverable smaller ships and long-range culverins.
  • 157. The Culverin A light cannon that could fire a 17-pound cannonball 1¼ miles - more than a ¼-mile farther than heavier cannons
  • 158. Maneuver Planned and regulated movement of troops or warships
  • 159. The Strategies • King Philip's orders were to “grapple and board and engage hand-to-hand.” • The English intended to fight with guns alone because they had fewer soldiers.
  • 160. Grapple A hook by which one ship fastens onto another for boarding and combat
  • 161. First Encounters • Each side used 100,000 rounds of shot. • Spanish fire had little effect on English ships. • English ships pounded Spanish ships.
  • 162. English Fireships • Medina Sidonia enters French port of Calais to rest and resupply. • Howard forces Spanish out of port with eight fireships. • English and Dutch allies attack Spanish without fear.
  • 163. English Supply System • It proved to be inadequate like the Spanish system. • Howard ran out of ammunition. • The defeated Spanish sailed to the North Sea.
  • 164. Route of Spanish Scotland Armada • 35-40 ships Ireland (Fleet Rest and Resupply) sank at sea England Calais • 20 ships were wrecked off France Scotland and Ireland • Only half the Armada returned Spain to Spain • Cadiz
  • 165. Results of Spanish Armada Defeat • The decline of Spain as a world power began. • Other seafaring nations (England, France, Holland) began expanding their overseas colonies and trade routes (sea lines of communications). • Pirates and privateers plundered the Spanish Main.
  • 166. Q. What city was used by the Spanish Armada to rest and resupply during the battle? a. Lisbon b. Cadiz c. Dublin d. Calais
  • 167. Q. What city was used by the Spanish Armada to rest and resupply during the battle? a. Lisbon b. Cadiz c. Dublin d. Calais
  • 168. Colonization Funding Queen Elizabeth I John Smith Private groups and individuals who received charters (licenses) paid for England’s efforts at colonization.
  • 169. Jamestown, Virginia The first successful British colony in North America, 1607 John Smith
  • 170. Jamestown nearly failed because most of the settlers were “gentlemen” who thought they were too good to work.
  • 171. Later American Colonies These colonies included Massachusetts, Pennsylvania, and Maryland started by groups seeking freedom to practice their own religion. The last colony on the East Coast was Georgia started by volunteers in 1732, trying to stay out of debtors’ prison.
  • 172. Massachusetts, Maryland, John Winthrop George Calvert (1630) (1632)
  • 173. Pennsylvania, Georgia, William Penn James Oglethorpe (1682) (1733)
  • 174. English and Dutch Wars (1652-1674) First Dutch and English Naval War Battle of Livorno (1653)
  • 175. English and Dutch Wars (1652-1674) Second Dutch and English Naval War Battle of Lowestoft (1665)
  • 176. English and Dutch Wars (1652-1674) Third Dutch and English Naval War Battle of Kijkdium (1673)
  • 177. English and Dutch Wars (1652-1674) England was the winner and gained the Dutch colony of New Amsterdam which the English renamed New York. Dutch English
  • 178. Q. The ______ were the first to challenge England after the defeat of the Spanish Armada. a. French b. Dutch c. Italians d. Germans
  • 179. Q. The ______ were the first to challenge England after the defeat of the Spanish Armada. a. French b. Dutch c. Italians d. Germans
  • 180. French and English Wars The English fought a series of wars with France between 1689 and 1763. French English
  • 181. The French were England’s only serious rival at sea.
  • 182. Seven Years’ War (1756-1763) Known in America as the French and Indian War. • England fought land and sea battles all over the world. • England gained many new possessions including Canada.
  • 183. The colonies existed on the East Coast of North America because of the sea.
  • 184. Sea’s Influence The sea provided New England with some of the world's richest fishing.
  • 185. Sea’s Influence Virginians used the sea to send large quantities of tobacco to the Old World.
  • 186. The inland rivers and coastal waters became highways for products to be moved to larger coastal communities and then overseas to England.
  • 187. England’s American colonies were: • Born of the sea • Maintained by the sea • Enriched by the sea
  • 188. Colony Enrichment American seamen and American-built ships made up about one-third of the English merchant marine.
  • 189. With the signing of the Treaty of Paris in 1763, England was supreme. Its navy and merchant fleets controlled the world’s seas.
  • 190. Q. What was the result of the French and Indian War in America?
  • 191. Q. What was the result of the French and Indian War in America? A. England acquired many new possessions, mainly Canada, and its navy and merchant fleets now controlled the world's seas.
  • 192. Sea Power and Early Western Civilization 2500 - 1200 B.C. ~ Crete dominated Mediterranean 1200 B.C. ~ Trojan War 480 B.C. ~ Battle of Salamis 275 B.C. ~ Rome conquered Italy 31 B.C. ~ Battle of Actium 476 ~ Last Roman emperor deposed 1095 ~ First Crusade
  • 193. Sea Power and Early Western Civilization 1492 ~ Columbus discovered America 1571 ~ Battle of Lepanto 1588 ~ Spanish Armada defeated 1607 ~ Jamestown colony established 1756-63 ~ French and Indian War
  • 194. What is sea power?
  • 195. What is sea power? A nation's ability to use the sea to meet a nation’s needs
  • 196. Sea control means two things. What are they?
  • 197. Sea control means two things. What are they? a. The ability to defend one's own sea lanes b. The ability to deny an enemy the use of the sea in time of war
  • 198. Who were the first people known to use sea power?
  • 199. Who were the first people known to use sea power? The Cretans
  • 200. Who defeated the Phoenicians to take control of the sea trade?
  • 201. Who defeated the Phoenicians to take control of the sea trade? The Greeks
  • 202. What are galleys?
  • 203. What are galleys? Small fast fighting ships
  • 204. What war began at Thermoplye Pass and ended with the defeat of the Persians at Salamis?
  • 205. What war began at Thermoplye Pass and ended with the defeat of the Persians at Salamis? Greek-Persian conflict
  • 206. What city is considered the birthplace of democracy?
  • 207. What city is considered the birthplace of democracy? Athens
  • 208. Whom did Rome fight in the Punic Wars?
  • 209. Whom did Rome fight in the Punic Wars? Carthage
  • 210. What was the longest period of peace in world history called?
  • 211. What was the longest period of peace in world history called? Pax Romana
  • 212. What was the name of the Eastern Roman Empire, and where was its capital?
  • 213. What was the name of the Eastern Roman Empire, and where was its capital? a. Byzantine Empire b. Constantinople
  • 214. What effect did Turkish control of the Middle East have on trade?
  • 215. What effect did Turkish control of the Middle East have on trade? It caused seafaring nations to look for sea routes to the Orient.
  • 216. Whom did the Christian forces defeat at the Battle of Lepanto?
  • 217. Whom did the Christian forces defeat at the Battle of Lepanto? The Ottoman Turks
  • 218. Who were the first to discover new trade routes to the Indies and the Orient?
  • 219. Who were the first to discover new trade routes to the Indies and the Orient? The Portuguese
  • 220. How did trade influence the spread of civilization?
  • 221. How did trade influence the spread of civilization? Port cities, colonies, and trading stations were established which grew into new centers of civilization.
  • 222. Before the Age of Discovery, the wealth of the world was considered to be limited. Competition for control of this wealth was known as what?
  • 223. Before the Age of Discovery, the wealth of the world was considered to be limited. Competition for control of this wealth was known as what? The Mercantile Theory
  • 224. The shift of wealth and power in Europe caused the development of what class of people?
  • 225. The shift of wealth and power in Europe caused the development of what class of people? The middle class
  • 226. With what country did England align itself when preparing to battle Spain?
  • 227. With what country did England align itself when preparing to battle Spain? France
  • 228. What is a privateer?
  • 229. What is a privateer? Privately owned ships commissioned by a government to fight or harass enemy ships
  • 230. What were seadogs?
  • 231. What were seadogs? English privateers
  • 232. King Philip II of Spain fought the English for two reasons. What were they?
  • 233. King Philip II of Spain fought the English for two reasons. What were they? a. To stop raids on his ships and ports by the English seadogs b. To bring England back into the Catholic church
  • 234. In the battle between Spain and England, what advantage did the English fleet have?
  • 235. In the battle between Spain and England, what advantage did the English fleet have? The English had an advantage in maneuverability, clear decks, and range.
  • 236. Where did England defeat Spain?
  • 237. Where did England defeat Spain? In the English Channel
  • 238. How were England’s colonies financed?
  • 239. How were England’s colonies financed? By private groups who received charters (licenses) for that purpose from the crown
  • 240. Why did the settlement at Jamestown almost fail?
  • 241. Why did the settlement at Jamestown almost fail? Because most of the settlers were "gentlemen" who thought they were too good to work
  • 242. What is another name for the French and Indian War?
  • 243. What is another name for the French and Indian War? The Seven Years’ War