0
CHAPTER 1
SEA POWER AND EARLY
WESTERN CIVILIZATION
Early Western Civilization
Sea Power

The ability to use the sea
to meet a nation’s needs
Sea Power

• Being able to defend a nation’s
  own sea-lanes

• The ability to deny an enemy the
  use of the sea in time ...
Early Fear of the Sea
Early people learned to use the sea
for:

• Fishing   • Traveling    • Trading
Travel by sea was:

• Fast
• Cheap
• Safe
Countries bordering the Mediterranean
Sea became the richest and most
powerful.
CRETE (2500-1200 B.C.)

• First to use sea power
• Dominated its neighbors
• Controlled major sea routes
Phoenicians (2000-300 B.C.)
• Tin from Britain
• Amber from the
  Baltic Sea
Italy
Atlantic
Ocean
              Spain




           West
           Africa
                      • Slaves and ivory
  ...
Mediterranean
       Sea
                  • Established ports in
                    Tyre and Sidon
                    (...
Phoenician ships carried the wealth
of the Orient to coastal trading cities
around the Mediterranean and to
northern Europ...
Phoenician’s Alphabet



           • Written language
             of traders

           • Basis for our
             al...
Carthage
• Greatest Phoenician colony

• Main opponent of Rome

                         Rome




                    Cart...
Q. Which of the following countries was
   the first to use sea power to
   dominate its neighbors and control
   major se...
Q. Which of the following countries was
   the first to use sea power to
   dominate its neighbors and control
   major se...
Greeks

Wrote semi-fictional accounts
     of early sea power
Greece
Greeks


         • Trojan War

• TROY
Hellespont (1200-1190 B.C.)
Prosperous Greek colonies
in Asia Minor, Sicily, Italy,
France, and Spain
Early Trading Vessels




Clumsy and easy prey for
     swifter craft
Merchants began crewing their
galleys with trained fighting men.
Galley

A seagoing vessel propelled
mainly by oars, used in ancient
and medieval times, sometimes
with the aid of sails
Greeks vs. Persians (492 B.C.)
The Greeks were able to hold off two
Persian invasions in the next 12 years.
Invasion

Entering another country by force
The Greeks withdrew from Thrace
and Macedonia.



     Macedonia   Thrace
King Xerxes Invades Greece
         (480 B.C.)




            • 1,300 galley navy

            • 180,000 man army

      ...
Flank

Extreme right or left side of the
fleet or army
Greek Commander
Themistocles:

• Breaks Persian sea line
  of communications

• Builds naval force of
  380 triremes
Trireme




A galley, used chiefly as a warship,
with three rows or tiers of oars on
each side, one above another
Sea Line of Communications

 Control of the highways of the sea
Greek strategy was to hold the Persian
army at the pass of Thermopylae.
Persians destroyed Greek defenders
at Thermopylae.
Xerxes’ army moved
south to plunder Athens.
Plunder

To rob goods or valuables by open
force
Gulf of
                                             Attica
               Corinth
                                  Megar...
The Greek fleet sailed to waters
around the island of Salamis.
The Greek fleet used
hit-and-run attacks.
• In the narrow straits, the
  Persians lost the advantage
  of numbers.




• The Greeks prevailed with half
  the Persia...
Battle of Salamis

• Persian fleet reduced to 800 vessels

• Only 300 Greek triremes left
With his fleet
destroyed, Xerxes
ordered his army
to retreat.
Golden Age of Athens
Sculpture

                 Theater




Philosophy
(Aristotle)                  Writing
                           (Sophoc...
Democracy was born, and the
foundations of Western civilization
were laid in Athens.
The Battle of Salamis was the
turning point.
Greek Conquests




 Macedonia
       Thrace
Greece        Asia
              Minor
                            Armenia


...
• Greek civilization
  moved eastward




                       • Conquered most
                         of Persian Empi...
Greek culture spread throughout
the entire eastern Mediterranean by
Alexander the Great of Macedonia.
He established the great port of
Alexandria.
         MACEDONIA




                           Alexandria
Persia was driven from the seas,
and the Phoenician reign ended.

         MACEDONIA




                           Alexan...
Q. In which of the following
   battles did the Greeks destroy
   the Persian fleet?

  a.   Corinth
  b.   Salamis
  c.  ...
Q. In which of the following
   battles did the Greeks destroy
   the Persian fleet?

  a.   Corinth
  b.   Salamis
  c.  ...
Macedonia
• Became the world’s greatest
  sea power

• Conquered most of the Western
  and Middle Eastern world
The Greeks controlled the eastern
Mediterranean for the next two
centuries.
Carthage

• Rising sea power in Western
  Mediterranean

• Kept the Greeks in check

   CARTHAGE
Carthage
                     (265 B.C.)


                CORSICA     • ROME
                                     MACEDON...
Rome (275 B.C.)




                 • ROME

• Conquered Italy and southern
  Greek colonies

• Absorbed Greek culture

• ...
First Punic War (265 B.C.)
    Carthage vs. Rome



              • ROME




         CARTHAGE
Carthaginian Navy
• Protected Carthage from attack
• Harassed Roman sea lines of
  communications
• Plundered Roman coast
First Punic War
   (265 - 241 B.C.)
• Rome acquired Sicily.




               SICILY
Second Punic War
   (218 - 201 B.C.)
• Rome acquired Spain.



        SPAIN
Third Punic War
          (149 - 146 B.C.)
• Rome invaded North Africa.

• Carthage was burned and destroyed.
Q. In which Punic War was
   Carthage finally burned
   and destroyed?

  a.   First
  b.   Second
  c.   Third
  d.   Fou...
Q. In which Punic War was
   Carthage finally burned
   and destroyed?

  a.   First
  b.   Second
  c.   Third
  d.   Fou...
The Roman Empire spread
           throughout the Mediterranean.

Spain
                    • Rome

                      ...
Roman Navy
        • Cleared Mediterranean of pirates
Spain
                   • Rome

                            Italy
 ...
Roman Navy
        • Supported Roman armies
Spain
               • Rome




                          Greece




         ...
Roman Navy
           • Defeated hostile fleets
Spain
                  • Rome

                           Italy




  Afr...
Rebellion of Romans and
         Egyptian Allies




Mark Antony            Cleopatra
Rebellion

Open, organized, and armed
resistance to one’s government
or ruler
Death of Julius Caesar
       (44 B.C.)
Tried to Overthrow the
            Roman Empire




Mark Antony


                                 Cleopatra
Battle of Actium
         (31 B.C.)

• Roman Admiral Agrippa
  destroyed the Egyptian
  fleet.
Agrippa defeated Pompey earlier
 at the Battle of Naulochus.




Agrippa                  Pompey
Actium
The Battle of
Actium put the
whole eastern
Mediterranean
in the Roman
empire.
Roman Empire
       (117 A.D.)



• Rome
Mare Nostrum

Latin for “Our Sea” - all
Mediterranean coasts, ports, and
naval bases controlled by Rome
On land and sea the PAX ROMANA
(Roman Peace) prevailed for over five
centuries, the longest period of peace
in world histo...
Roman
Legacy




         •   Law
         •   Government
         •   Art
         •   Language
         •   Religion
Roman Empire




            • Rome
                         • Constantinople




Eventually, Rome’s greatness began
to de...
Roman Empire
                          (about 395 A.D.)



                 • Rome
                             • Constant...
Barbarians from northern and central
Europe conquered Rome and deposed
the last emperor in 476 A.D.



                   ...
Dark Ages
           (476 - 1050 A.D.)
The period of Western European history
from the fall of Rome until about the
eleven...
Only the region around
Constantinople
preserved much of the
Roman tradition.

There was a general
advance of culture.

The...
The Renaissance (the rebirth) movement
flourished in the thirteenth through
sixteenth centuries.
Byzantine Empire



         Constantinople
The Byzantine Empire, centered
in Turkey, defeated the Muslims
at Constantinople in 717 A.D.
The Muslims became largely
content with:


              • Piracy on the
                Mediterranean

              • Co...
Piracy

Robbery or illegal violence at sea
By the eleventh century, Christendom
was ready to contest Muslim control.
Crusades




 King Richard I
(The Lion Heart)
Crusades - Religious-military expeditions
undertaken by the Christians of Europe
in the 11th, 12th, and 13th centuries for...
First Crusades

      • Initiated by Pope
        Urban II in 1095 A.D.

      • Recaptured
        Jerusalem

      • Nea...
The Italian states turned to
 commercial expansion.
• Venice




Biggest center of commerce
between the Orient and
Europe
Venice
                 Venice

         • Profited from the
           Crusades
 Rome
         • Acquired Crete and
     ...
The Hanseatic League

   • Formed by north German port cities on
     the far end of the Venitian trade route




        ...
The Hanseatic League

            • Dominated the north and west
              European economy




                      ...
The Hanseatic League

    • Turned the Baltic and North seas into
      the Mediterranean of the north




               ...
Mediterranean Sea




                    Ottoman Turks
Ottoman Turks

• Captured Constantinople in 1453 A.D.

• Swept to the gates
  of Vienna, Austria

• Sought domination
  of...
Lepanto




Battle of Lepanto
   (1571 A.D.)
GREECE
                Lepanto
                       Turkish
         Christian
                        Fleet
          F...
Spain and the Italian states agreed to
combine their fleets for a conclusive
battle with the Turks.
The winner of this battle would
determine the course of Western
civilization.
Don John of          Ali
   Austria           Pasha




Christian Fleet   Ottoman Fleet
 Commander         Commander
Comparison of Forces

CHRISTIANS         TURKS
Navy               Navy

200 galleys        250 galleys

Army              ...
Christian soldier
armed with early
musket called the
arquebus
Outcome of Battle
           of Lepanto

The Christians defeated the Turks.

• 30,000 Turks killed

• 192 of the Turkish s...
The Turks never again seriously challenged
control of the Mediterranean, but Muslim
pirates continued to harass merchant
s...
The Battle of Lepanto ended:

• Muslim attempts to move further into
  Europe

• Muslim control of the Mediterranean

• Th...
Age of Discovery




The age of discovery was an age of
sea power.
Early Explorers

•   Portuguese
•   Spanish
•   English
•   French
•   Dutch
Brave men in wooden ships explored
the world and founded colonies while
seeking fortunes for king and country.




       ...
Prince Henry the
           Navigator hired
           explorers to try
           and find a new
           sea route to ...
Bartholomeu
Dias travels to
Cape of Good
Hope in 1487.
Europe


         Asia

Africa


                Vasco
                da Gama
                travels to
                ...
Portugal’s leadership was short-lived
because neighboring Spain soon
overwhelmed it.
Q. Which country led the way to
   the Age of Discovery with early
   explorations around Africa?

  a.   England
  b.   S...
Q. Which country led the way to
   the Age of Discovery with early
   explorations around Africa?

  a.   England
  b.   S...
Queen Isabella of
Spain contributes
$5,000 in royal
jewels and finances
Columbus’ first
voyage of discovery.
Discovery of America

Santa             Nina
Maria




        Pinta




                               Christopher
      ...
First Voyage of Columbus
          (1492)
Second Voyage of Columbus
          (1493)
Third Voyage of Columbus
          (1498)
Fourth Voyage of Columbus
          (1502)
Through sea power, Spain
established a huge empire.
Convoy

Warships protecting merchant
shipping from hostile action
Convoy Examples

• Spain used warships to protect
  treasure-laden ships from the new
  world.

• During World War II, All...
Mercantilism

A system of economic organization
based on the theory that total wealth
is a fixed quantity. To become riche...
Mercantile Theory




Kept the world in almost continuous
conflict well into the 1800s
Pope Pius V   In 1570, Pope Pius V
              called upon King
              Philip II of Spain to
              drive ...
Pope Pius V also wanted
King Philip II to crusade
against the “heretic and
usurper,” Queen Elizabeth
I in Protestant Engla...
Queen Elizabeth I
              wanted to protect
              her throne against
              the Catholic Mary
       ...
Elizabeth knew that an attack would soon come
from Spain, so she:

• secured England’s flank with an
  alliance with Franc...
Privateering




English ships raiding Spanish treasure
ships
Privateers

Privately owned ships commissioned
by a government to fight or harass
enemy ships
English Privateering Seadogs




                Sir Martin
                Frobisher



Sir Francis                    Si...
Sir Francis Drake
was the most
famous of the
English raiders.
Uruguay


Argentina




                           Drake sailed his
                           ship, the Golden
     Strai...
Drake raided Spanish cities and shipping
along the west coast of South America.
Drake returned to England with gold,
silver, and jewels worth half a million
pounds sterling (many millions in
today’s dol...
Drake was knighted by Queen Elizabeth I
 on the quarterdeck of the Golden Hind.




Queen Elizabeth I        Sir Francis D...
England had a big
advantage over Spain
in her superb seamen.
With the seadogs in command of the
world’s best sailors, England prepared
to meet Spain in a great contest for
supremacy o...
In 1588, King Philip II
  of Spain believed he
  had an unbeatable
  naval armada.


                            King Phil...
Armada

A large fleet of warships
The Men in Command




   Charles Howard,           Duke of
Lord Admiral of England   Medina Sidonia
The Forces
Spain

124 galleons
1,100 guns
8,000 sailors
19,000 soldiers            England

                           34 ...
The Spanish Armada had fewer guns
but superior total firepower. The
English had maneuverable smaller
ships and long-range ...
The Culverin
A light cannon that could fire a
17-pound cannonball 1¼ miles -
more than a ¼-mile farther than
heavier
canno...
Maneuver

Planned and regulated movement
of troops or warships
The Strategies

• King Philip's orders were to “grapple
  and board and engage hand-to-hand.”

• The English intended to f...
Grapple

A hook by which one ship fastens
onto another for boarding and
combat
First Encounters

• Each side used 100,000 rounds of
  shot.

• Spanish fire had little effect on
  English ships.

• Engl...
English Fireships

• Medina Sidonia enters French port
  of Calais to rest and resupply.

• Howard forces Spanish out of p...
English
  Supply System
• It proved to be
  inadequate like
  the Spanish system.

• Howard ran out of
  ammunition.

• Th...
Route of Spanish
                         Scotland
    Armada

• 35-40 ships       Ireland           (Fleet Rest and
     ...
Results of Spanish Armada Defeat

• The decline of Spain as a world
  power began.

• Other seafaring nations (England,
  ...
Q. What city was used by the Spanish
   Armada to rest and resupply during
   the battle?

  a.   Lisbon
  b.   Cadiz
  c....
Q. What city was used by the Spanish
   Armada to rest and resupply during
   the battle?

  a.   Lisbon
  b.   Cadiz
  c....
Colonization Funding




Queen Elizabeth I           John Smith



 Private groups and individuals who
 received charters ...
Jamestown, Virginia
The first successful British colony in
North America, 1607




    John
    Smith
Jamestown nearly failed because
most of the settlers were “gentlemen”
who thought they were too good to
work.
Later American Colonies

These colonies included Massachusetts,
Pennsylvania, and Maryland started by
groups seeking freed...
Massachusetts,     Maryland,
John Winthrop    George Calvert
    (1630)          (1632)
Pennsylvania,       Georgia,
William Penn    James Oglethorpe
    (1682)           (1733)
English and Dutch Wars
         (1652-1674)




First Dutch and English Naval War
      Battle of Livorno (1653)
English and Dutch Wars
          (1652-1674)




Second Dutch and English Naval War
     Battle of Lowestoft (1665)
English and Dutch Wars
         (1652-1674)




Third Dutch and English Naval War
     Battle of Kijkdium (1673)
English and Dutch Wars
           (1652-1674)
England was the winner and gained the
Dutch colony of New Amsterdam which
th...
Q. The ______ were the first to
   challenge England after the
   defeat of the Spanish Armada.

  a.   French
  b.   Dutc...
Q. The ______ were the first to
   challenge England after the
   defeat of the Spanish Armada.

  a.   French
  b.   Dutc...
French and English Wars

The English fought a series of wars with
France between 1689 and 1763.


                        ...
The French were England’s
only serious rival at sea.
Seven Years’ War (1756-1763)

Known in America as the French and
Indian War.

• England fought land and sea battles
  all ...
The colonies existed on the East
Coast of North America because
of the sea.
Sea’s Influence

The sea provided New England with
some of the world's richest fishing.
Sea’s Influence

Virginians used the sea to send large
quantities of tobacco to the Old World.
The inland rivers and coastal waters became
highways for products to be moved to larger
coastal communities and then overs...
England’s American colonies were:

• Born of the sea
• Maintained by the sea
• Enriched by the sea
Colony Enrichment




American seamen and American-built
ships made up about one-third of the
English merchant marine.
With the signing of the Treaty of Paris in
1763, England was supreme. Its navy and
merchant fleets controlled the world’s ...
Q. What was the result of the French
   and Indian War in America?
Q. What was the result of the French
   and Indian War in America?

A. England acquired many new
   possessions, mainly Ca...
Sea Power and
     Early Western Civilization
2500 - 1200 B.C. ~ Crete dominated
                   Mediterranean
       1...
Sea Power and
   Early Western Civilization
   1492 ~ Columbus discovered
          America
   1571 ~ Battle of Lepanto
  ...
What is sea power?
What is sea power?


A nation's ability to use the sea
 to meet a nation’s needs
Sea control means two things.
 What are they?
Sea control means two things.
 What are they?


a. The ability to defend one's
    own sea lanes
 b. The ability to deny a...
Who were the first people
 known to use sea power?
Who were the first people
 known to use sea power?


The Cretans
Who defeated the Phoenicians
 to take control of the sea trade?
Who defeated the Phoenicians
 to take control of the sea trade?


The Greeks
What are galleys?
What are galleys?


Small fast fighting ships
What war began at Thermoplye
 Pass and ended with the defeat
 of the Persians at Salamis?
What war began at Thermoplye
 Pass and ended with the defeat
 of the Persians at Salamis?


Greek-Persian conflict
What city is considered the
 birthplace of democracy?
What city is considered the
 birthplace of democracy?


Athens
Whom did Rome fight in the
 Punic Wars?
Whom did Rome fight in the
 Punic Wars?


Carthage
What was the longest period
 of peace in world history
 called?
What was the longest period
 of peace in world history
 called?


Pax Romana
What was the name of the
 Eastern Roman Empire, and
 where was its capital?
What was the name of the
 Eastern Roman Empire, and
 where was its capital?


a. Byzantine Empire
  b. Constantinople
What effect did Turkish
 control of the Middle East
 have on trade?
What effect did Turkish
 control of the Middle East
 have on trade?


It caused seafaring nations to
   look for sea route...
Whom did the Christian
 forces defeat at the Battle
 of Lepanto?
Whom did the Christian
 forces defeat at the Battle
 of Lepanto?


The Ottoman Turks
Who were the first to
 discover new trade routes to
 the Indies and the Orient?
Who were the first to
 discover new trade routes to
 the Indies and the Orient?


The Portuguese
How did trade influence the
  spread of civilization?
How did trade influence the
  spread of civilization?


Port cities, colonies, and
  trading stations were
  established w...
Before the Age of Discovery,
  the wealth of the world was
  considered to be limited.
  Competition for control of
  this...
Before the Age of Discovery,
  the wealth of the world was
  considered to be limited.
  Competition for control of
  this...
The shift of wealth and power
  in Europe caused the
  development of what class
  of people?
The shift of wealth and power
  in Europe caused the
  development of what class
  of people?


The middle class
With what country did
 England align itself when
 preparing to battle Spain?
With what country did
 England align itself when
 preparing to battle Spain?


France
What is a privateer?
What is a privateer?


Privately owned ships
  commissioned by a
  government to fight or harass
  enemy ships
What were seadogs?
What were seadogs?


English privateers
King Philip II of Spain fought
  the English for two reasons.
  What were they?
King Philip II of Spain fought
  the English for two reasons.
  What were they?


a. To stop raids on his ships
     and p...
In the battle between Spain
   and England, what advantage
   did the English fleet have?
In the battle between Spain
   and England, what advantage
   did the English fleet have?


The English had an advantage
 ...
Where did England defeat
 Spain?
Where did England defeat
 Spain?


In the English Channel
How were England’s colonies
  financed?
How were England’s colonies
  financed?


By private groups who
  received charters (licenses)
  for that purpose from the...
Why did the settlement at
 Jamestown almost fail?
Why did the settlement at
 Jamestown almost fail?


Because most of the settlers
  were "gentlemen" who
  thought they wer...
What is another name for the
      French and Indian War?
What is another name for the
    French and Indian War?


The Seven Years’ War
1.1 Sea Power And Early Western Civilization
Upcoming SlideShare
Loading in...5
×

1.1 Sea Power And Early Western Civilization

4,844

Published on

Bishop Kenny NJROTC Naval Science 2

Published in: Education
0 Comments
1 Like
Statistics
Notes
  • Be the first to comment

No Downloads
Views
Total Views
4,844
On Slideshare
0
From Embeds
0
Number of Embeds
0
Actions
Shares
0
Downloads
139
Comments
0
Likes
1
Embeds 0
No embeds

No notes for slide

Transcript of "1.1 Sea Power And Early Western Civilization"

  1. 1. CHAPTER 1 SEA POWER AND EARLY WESTERN CIVILIZATION
  2. 2. Early Western Civilization
  3. 3. Sea Power The ability to use the sea to meet a nation’s needs
  4. 4. Sea Power • Being able to defend a nation’s own sea-lanes • The ability to deny an enemy the use of the sea in time of war
  5. 5. Early Fear of the Sea
  6. 6. Early people learned to use the sea for: • Fishing • Traveling • Trading
  7. 7. Travel by sea was: • Fast • Cheap • Safe
  8. 8. Countries bordering the Mediterranean Sea became the richest and most powerful.
  9. 9. CRETE (2500-1200 B.C.) • First to use sea power • Dominated its neighbors • Controlled major sea routes
  10. 10. Phoenicians (2000-300 B.C.)
  11. 11. • Tin from Britain
  12. 12. • Amber from the Baltic Sea
  13. 13. Italy Atlantic Ocean Spain West Africa • Slaves and ivory from western Africa
  14. 14. Mediterranean Sea • Established ports in Tyre and Sidon (modern Lebanon) Sidon Tyre
  15. 15. Phoenician ships carried the wealth of the Orient to coastal trading cities around the Mediterranean and to northern Europe.
  16. 16. Phoenician’s Alphabet • Written language of traders • Basis for our alphabet
  17. 17. Carthage • Greatest Phoenician colony • Main opponent of Rome Rome Carthage
  18. 18. Q. Which of the following countries was the first to use sea power to dominate its neighbors and control major sea routes? a. Greece b. Italy c. Crete d. Phoenicia
  19. 19. Q. Which of the following countries was the first to use sea power to dominate its neighbors and control major sea routes? a. Greece b. Italy c. Crete d. Phoenicia
  20. 20. Greeks Wrote semi-fictional accounts of early sea power
  21. 21. Greece
  22. 22. Greeks • Trojan War • TROY
  23. 23. Hellespont (1200-1190 B.C.)
  24. 24. Prosperous Greek colonies in Asia Minor, Sicily, Italy, France, and Spain
  25. 25. Early Trading Vessels Clumsy and easy prey for swifter craft
  26. 26. Merchants began crewing their galleys with trained fighting men.
  27. 27. Galley A seagoing vessel propelled mainly by oars, used in ancient and medieval times, sometimes with the aid of sails
  28. 28. Greeks vs. Persians (492 B.C.)
  29. 29. The Greeks were able to hold off two Persian invasions in the next 12 years.
  30. 30. Invasion Entering another country by force
  31. 31. The Greeks withdrew from Thrace and Macedonia. Macedonia Thrace
  32. 32. King Xerxes Invades Greece (480 B.C.) • 1,300 galley navy • 180,000 man army • Fleet guards army's flank
  33. 33. Flank Extreme right or left side of the fleet or army
  34. 34. Greek Commander Themistocles: • Breaks Persian sea line of communications • Builds naval force of 380 triremes
  35. 35. Trireme A galley, used chiefly as a warship, with three rows or tiers of oars on each side, one above another
  36. 36. Sea Line of Communications Control of the highways of the sea
  37. 37. Greek strategy was to hold the Persian army at the pass of Thermopylae.
  38. 38. Persians destroyed Greek defenders at Thermopylae.
  39. 39. Xerxes’ army moved south to plunder Athens.
  40. 40. Plunder To rob goods or valuables by open force
  41. 41. Gulf of Attica Corinth Megaris Athens Corinth Isthmus of Corinth Argolis Aegina Mycenae Argos Saronic Gulf The Greeks took up a new position at the Isthmus of Corinth.
  42. 42. The Greek fleet sailed to waters around the island of Salamis.
  43. 43. The Greek fleet used hit-and-run attacks.
  44. 44. • In the narrow straits, the Persians lost the advantage of numbers. • The Greeks prevailed with half the Persian fleet sunk.
  45. 45. Battle of Salamis • Persian fleet reduced to 800 vessels • Only 300 Greek triremes left
  46. 46. With his fleet destroyed, Xerxes ordered his army to retreat.
  47. 47. Golden Age of Athens
  48. 48. Sculpture Theater Philosophy (Aristotle) Writing (Sophocles)
  49. 49. Democracy was born, and the foundations of Western civilization were laid in Athens.
  50. 50. The Battle of Salamis was the turning point.
  51. 51. Greek Conquests Macedonia Thrace Greece Asia Minor Armenia Babylon Egypt India
  52. 52. • Greek civilization moved eastward • Conquered most of Persian Empire
  53. 53. Greek culture spread throughout the entire eastern Mediterranean by Alexander the Great of Macedonia.
  54. 54. He established the great port of Alexandria. MACEDONIA Alexandria
  55. 55. Persia was driven from the seas, and the Phoenician reign ended. MACEDONIA Alexandria
  56. 56. Q. In which of the following battles did the Greeks destroy the Persian fleet? a. Corinth b. Salamis c. Thermopylae d. Actium
  57. 57. Q. In which of the following battles did the Greeks destroy the Persian fleet? a. Corinth b. Salamis c. Thermopylae d. Actium
  58. 58. Macedonia • Became the world’s greatest sea power • Conquered most of the Western and Middle Eastern world
  59. 59. The Greeks controlled the eastern Mediterranean for the next two centuries.
  60. 60. Carthage • Rising sea power in Western Mediterranean • Kept the Greeks in check CARTHAGE
  61. 61. Carthage (265 B.C.) CORSICA • ROME MACEDONIA SARDINIA NEW CARTHAGE CARTHAGE SICILY CRETE NUMIDIA LIBYA
  62. 62. Rome (275 B.C.) • ROME • Conquered Italy and southern Greek colonies • Absorbed Greek culture • Advanced Western civilization
  63. 63. First Punic War (265 B.C.) Carthage vs. Rome • ROME CARTHAGE
  64. 64. Carthaginian Navy • Protected Carthage from attack • Harassed Roman sea lines of communications • Plundered Roman coast
  65. 65. First Punic War (265 - 241 B.C.) • Rome acquired Sicily. SICILY
  66. 66. Second Punic War (218 - 201 B.C.) • Rome acquired Spain. SPAIN
  67. 67. Third Punic War (149 - 146 B.C.) • Rome invaded North Africa. • Carthage was burned and destroyed.
  68. 68. Q. In which Punic War was Carthage finally burned and destroyed? a. First b. Second c. Third d. Fourth
  69. 69. Q. In which Punic War was Carthage finally burned and destroyed? a. First b. Second c. Third d. Fourth
  70. 70. The Roman Empire spread throughout the Mediterranean. Spain • Rome Italy Greece Africa Libya
  71. 71. Roman Navy • Cleared Mediterranean of pirates Spain • Rome Italy Greece Africa Libya
  72. 72. Roman Navy • Supported Roman armies Spain • Rome Greece Libya
  73. 73. Roman Navy • Defeated hostile fleets Spain • Rome Italy Africa Libya
  74. 74. Rebellion of Romans and Egyptian Allies Mark Antony Cleopatra
  75. 75. Rebellion Open, organized, and armed resistance to one’s government or ruler
  76. 76. Death of Julius Caesar (44 B.C.)
  77. 77. Tried to Overthrow the Roman Empire Mark Antony Cleopatra
  78. 78. Battle of Actium (31 B.C.) • Roman Admiral Agrippa destroyed the Egyptian fleet.
  79. 79. Agrippa defeated Pompey earlier at the Battle of Naulochus. Agrippa Pompey
  80. 80. Actium
  81. 81. The Battle of Actium put the whole eastern Mediterranean in the Roman empire.
  82. 82. Roman Empire (117 A.D.) • Rome
  83. 83. Mare Nostrum Latin for “Our Sea” - all Mediterranean coasts, ports, and naval bases controlled by Rome
  84. 84. On land and sea the PAX ROMANA (Roman Peace) prevailed for over five centuries, the longest period of peace in world history. • Rome
  85. 85. Roman Legacy • Law • Government • Art • Language • Religion
  86. 86. Roman Empire • Rome • Constantinople Eventually, Rome’s greatness began to decline due to social, political, and economic breakdowns.
  87. 87. Roman Empire (about 395 A.D.) • Rome • Constantinople Western Empire Eastern Empire (Byzantine)
  88. 88. Barbarians from northern and central Europe conquered Rome and deposed the last emperor in 476 A.D. Romulus Augustulus (last Emperor)
  89. 89. Dark Ages (476 - 1050 A.D.) The period of Western European history from the fall of Rome until about the eleventh century. Reasons for the Dark Ages include: • Numerous invasions by barbaric tribes • Incursions by North African Moors • Religious bigotry • General lack of education among the masses of people
  90. 90. Only the region around Constantinople preserved much of the Roman tradition. There was a general advance of culture. The Crusades began to hasten a reawakening of culture and education. This movement flourished in the 13th through the 16th centuries.
  91. 91. The Renaissance (the rebirth) movement flourished in the thirteenth through sixteenth centuries.
  92. 92. Byzantine Empire Constantinople
  93. 93. The Byzantine Empire, centered in Turkey, defeated the Muslims at Constantinople in 717 A.D.
  94. 94. The Muslims became largely content with: • Piracy on the Mediterranean • Controlling and strengthening their huge North African and Middle Eastern territories
  95. 95. Piracy Robbery or illegal violence at sea
  96. 96. By the eleventh century, Christendom was ready to contest Muslim control.
  97. 97. Crusades King Richard I (The Lion Heart)
  98. 98. Crusades - Religious-military expeditions undertaken by the Christians of Europe in the 11th, 12th, and 13th centuries for the recovery of the Holy Land from the Muslims
  99. 99. First Crusades • Initiated by Pope Urban II in 1095 A.D. • Recaptured Jerusalem • Nearly swept the Arabs from the Mediterranean
  100. 100. The Italian states turned to commercial expansion.
  101. 101. • Venice Biggest center of commerce between the Orient and Europe
  102. 102. Venice Venice • Profited from the Crusades Rome • Acquired Crete and Cyprus during the Crusades • Reached the height of its power by 1400 A.D. Crete Cyprus
  103. 103. The Hanseatic League • Formed by north German port cities on the far end of the Venitian trade route Riga Bruges Lubeck Rostock Danzig Hamburg
  104. 104. The Hanseatic League • Dominated the north and west European economy Riga Bruges Lubeck Rostock Danzig Hamburg
  105. 105. The Hanseatic League • Turned the Baltic and North seas into the Mediterranean of the north Riga Bruges Lubeck Rostock Danzig Hamburg
  106. 106. Mediterranean Sea Ottoman Turks
  107. 107. Ottoman Turks • Captured Constantinople in 1453 A.D. • Swept to the gates of Vienna, Austria • Sought domination of the Mediterranean and east-west trade
  108. 108. Lepanto Battle of Lepanto (1571 A.D.)
  109. 109. GREECE Lepanto Turkish Christian Fleet Fleet Battle of Lepanto (1571 A.D.) Ionian Sea
  110. 110. Spain and the Italian states agreed to combine their fleets for a conclusive battle with the Turks.
  111. 111. The winner of this battle would determine the course of Western civilization.
  112. 112. Don John of Ali Austria Pasha Christian Fleet Ottoman Fleet Commander Commander
  113. 113. Comparison of Forces CHRISTIANS TURKS Navy Navy 200 galleys 250 galleys Army Army Armed with Armed with bows arquebus and arrows
  114. 114. Christian soldier armed with early musket called the arquebus
  115. 115. Outcome of Battle of Lepanto The Christians defeated the Turks. • 30,000 Turks killed • 192 of the Turkish ships destroyed or captured • 15,000 Christians used as slaves freed
  116. 116. The Turks never again seriously challenged control of the Mediterranean, but Muslim pirates continued to harass merchant shipping for the next 250 years.
  117. 117. The Battle of Lepanto ended: • Muslim attempts to move further into Europe • Muslim control of the Mediterranean • The age of the galley
  118. 118. Age of Discovery The age of discovery was an age of sea power.
  119. 119. Early Explorers • Portuguese • Spanish • English • French • Dutch
  120. 120. Brave men in wooden ships explored the world and founded colonies while seeking fortunes for king and country. Jacques Cartier (French explorer)
  121. 121. Prince Henry the Navigator hired explorers to try and find a new sea route to the Indies and Orient. PORTUGAL Prince Henry
  122. 122. Bartholomeu Dias travels to Cape of Good Hope in 1487.
  123. 123. Europe Asia Africa Vasco da Gama travels to India in 1498.
  124. 124. Portugal’s leadership was short-lived because neighboring Spain soon overwhelmed it.
  125. 125. Q. Which country led the way to the Age of Discovery with early explorations around Africa? a. England b. Spain c. Italy d. Portugal
  126. 126. Q. Which country led the way to the Age of Discovery with early explorations around Africa? a. England b. Spain c. Italy d. Portugal
  127. 127. Queen Isabella of Spain contributes $5,000 in royal jewels and finances Columbus’ first voyage of discovery.
  128. 128. Discovery of America Santa Nina Maria Pinta Christopher Columbus
  129. 129. First Voyage of Columbus (1492)
  130. 130. Second Voyage of Columbus (1493)
  131. 131. Third Voyage of Columbus (1498)
  132. 132. Fourth Voyage of Columbus (1502)
  133. 133. Through sea power, Spain established a huge empire.
  134. 134. Convoy Warships protecting merchant shipping from hostile action
  135. 135. Convoy Examples • Spain used warships to protect treasure-laden ships from the new world. • During World War II, Allied warships protected Allied merchant shipping from submarines.
  136. 136. Mercantilism A system of economic organization based on the theory that total wealth is a fixed quantity. To become richer and more powerful, a nation had to make some other nation poorer through capture of its trade and colonies.
  137. 137. Mercantile Theory Kept the world in almost continuous conflict well into the 1800s
  138. 138. Pope Pius V In 1570, Pope Pius V called upon King Philip II of Spain to drive the Muslims from Europe and the Mediterranean. King Philip II
  139. 139. Pope Pius V also wanted King Philip II to crusade against the “heretic and usurper,” Queen Elizabeth I in Protestant England.
  140. 140. Queen Elizabeth I wanted to protect her throne against the Catholic Mary Queen of Scots. Queen Elizabeth I Catholic Mary Queen of Scots
  141. 141. Elizabeth knew that an attack would soon come from Spain, so she: • secured England’s flank with an alliance with France. • secretly released her fortune-seeking seamen to raid the treasure ships of Spain. • began rebuilding her navy with the money Queen from the treasure ships. Elizabeth I
  142. 142. Privateering English ships raiding Spanish treasure ships
  143. 143. Privateers Privately owned ships commissioned by a government to fight or harass enemy ships
  144. 144. English Privateering Seadogs Sir Martin Frobisher Sir Francis Sir John Drake Hawkins
  145. 145. Sir Francis Drake was the most famous of the English raiders.
  146. 146. Uruguay Argentina Drake sailed his ship, the Golden Strait of Hind, into the Magellan Pacific through the Strait of Cape Horn Magellan.
  147. 147. Drake raided Spanish cities and shipping along the west coast of South America.
  148. 148. Drake returned to England with gold, silver, and jewels worth half a million pounds sterling (many millions in today’s dollars).
  149. 149. Drake was knighted by Queen Elizabeth I on the quarterdeck of the Golden Hind. Queen Elizabeth I Sir Francis Drake
  150. 150. England had a big advantage over Spain in her superb seamen.
  151. 151. With the seadogs in command of the world’s best sailors, England prepared to meet Spain in a great contest for supremacy on the seas.
  152. 152. In 1588, King Philip II of Spain believed he had an unbeatable naval armada. King Philip II Spanish Armada
  153. 153. Armada A large fleet of warships
  154. 154. The Men in Command Charles Howard, Duke of Lord Admiral of England Medina Sidonia
  155. 155. The Forces Spain 124 galleons 1,100 guns 8,000 sailors 19,000 soldiers England 34 men-of-war 163 armed merchantmen 2,000 guns 16,000 men
  156. 156. The Spanish Armada had fewer guns but superior total firepower. The English had maneuverable smaller ships and long-range culverins.
  157. 157. The Culverin A light cannon that could fire a 17-pound cannonball 1¼ miles - more than a ¼-mile farther than heavier cannons
  158. 158. Maneuver Planned and regulated movement of troops or warships
  159. 159. The Strategies • King Philip's orders were to “grapple and board and engage hand-to-hand.” • The English intended to fight with guns alone because they had fewer soldiers.
  160. 160. Grapple A hook by which one ship fastens onto another for boarding and combat
  161. 161. First Encounters • Each side used 100,000 rounds of shot. • Spanish fire had little effect on English ships. • English ships pounded Spanish ships.
  162. 162. English Fireships • Medina Sidonia enters French port of Calais to rest and resupply. • Howard forces Spanish out of port with eight fireships. • English and Dutch allies attack Spanish without fear.
  163. 163. English Supply System • It proved to be inadequate like the Spanish system. • Howard ran out of ammunition. • The defeated Spanish sailed to the North Sea.
  164. 164. Route of Spanish Scotland Armada • 35-40 ships Ireland (Fleet Rest and Resupply) sank at sea England Calais • 20 ships were wrecked off France Scotland and Ireland • Only half the Armada returned Spain to Spain • Cadiz
  165. 165. Results of Spanish Armada Defeat • The decline of Spain as a world power began. • Other seafaring nations (England, France, Holland) began expanding their overseas colonies and trade routes (sea lines of communications). • Pirates and privateers plundered the Spanish Main.
  166. 166. Q. What city was used by the Spanish Armada to rest and resupply during the battle? a. Lisbon b. Cadiz c. Dublin d. Calais
  167. 167. Q. What city was used by the Spanish Armada to rest and resupply during the battle? a. Lisbon b. Cadiz c. Dublin d. Calais
  168. 168. Colonization Funding Queen Elizabeth I John Smith Private groups and individuals who received charters (licenses) paid for England’s efforts at colonization.
  169. 169. Jamestown, Virginia The first successful British colony in North America, 1607 John Smith
  170. 170. Jamestown nearly failed because most of the settlers were “gentlemen” who thought they were too good to work.
  171. 171. Later American Colonies These colonies included Massachusetts, Pennsylvania, and Maryland started by groups seeking freedom to practice their own religion. The last colony on the East Coast was Georgia started by volunteers in 1732, trying to stay out of debtors’ prison.
  172. 172. Massachusetts, Maryland, John Winthrop George Calvert (1630) (1632)
  173. 173. Pennsylvania, Georgia, William Penn James Oglethorpe (1682) (1733)
  174. 174. English and Dutch Wars (1652-1674) First Dutch and English Naval War Battle of Livorno (1653)
  175. 175. English and Dutch Wars (1652-1674) Second Dutch and English Naval War Battle of Lowestoft (1665)
  176. 176. English and Dutch Wars (1652-1674) Third Dutch and English Naval War Battle of Kijkdium (1673)
  177. 177. English and Dutch Wars (1652-1674) England was the winner and gained the Dutch colony of New Amsterdam which the English renamed New York. Dutch English
  178. 178. Q. The ______ were the first to challenge England after the defeat of the Spanish Armada. a. French b. Dutch c. Italians d. Germans
  179. 179. Q. The ______ were the first to challenge England after the defeat of the Spanish Armada. a. French b. Dutch c. Italians d. Germans
  180. 180. French and English Wars The English fought a series of wars with France between 1689 and 1763. French English
  181. 181. The French were England’s only serious rival at sea.
  182. 182. Seven Years’ War (1756-1763) Known in America as the French and Indian War. • England fought land and sea battles all over the world. • England gained many new possessions including Canada.
  183. 183. The colonies existed on the East Coast of North America because of the sea.
  184. 184. Sea’s Influence The sea provided New England with some of the world's richest fishing.
  185. 185. Sea’s Influence Virginians used the sea to send large quantities of tobacco to the Old World.
  186. 186. The inland rivers and coastal waters became highways for products to be moved to larger coastal communities and then overseas to England.
  187. 187. England’s American colonies were: • Born of the sea • Maintained by the sea • Enriched by the sea
  188. 188. Colony Enrichment American seamen and American-built ships made up about one-third of the English merchant marine.
  189. 189. With the signing of the Treaty of Paris in 1763, England was supreme. Its navy and merchant fleets controlled the world’s seas.
  190. 190. Q. What was the result of the French and Indian War in America?
  191. 191. Q. What was the result of the French and Indian War in America? A. England acquired many new possessions, mainly Canada, and its navy and merchant fleets now controlled the world's seas.
  192. 192. Sea Power and Early Western Civilization 2500 - 1200 B.C. ~ Crete dominated Mediterranean 1200 B.C. ~ Trojan War 480 B.C. ~ Battle of Salamis 275 B.C. ~ Rome conquered Italy 31 B.C. ~ Battle of Actium 476 ~ Last Roman emperor deposed 1095 ~ First Crusade
  193. 193. Sea Power and Early Western Civilization 1492 ~ Columbus discovered America 1571 ~ Battle of Lepanto 1588 ~ Spanish Armada defeated 1607 ~ Jamestown colony established 1756-63 ~ French and Indian War
  194. 194. What is sea power?
  195. 195. What is sea power? A nation's ability to use the sea to meet a nation’s needs
  196. 196. Sea control means two things. What are they?
  197. 197. Sea control means two things. What are they? a. The ability to defend one's own sea lanes b. The ability to deny an enemy the use of the sea in time of war
  198. 198. Who were the first people known to use sea power?
  199. 199. Who were the first people known to use sea power? The Cretans
  200. 200. Who defeated the Phoenicians to take control of the sea trade?
  201. 201. Who defeated the Phoenicians to take control of the sea trade? The Greeks
  202. 202. What are galleys?
  203. 203. What are galleys? Small fast fighting ships
  204. 204. What war began at Thermoplye Pass and ended with the defeat of the Persians at Salamis?
  205. 205. What war began at Thermoplye Pass and ended with the defeat of the Persians at Salamis? Greek-Persian conflict
  206. 206. What city is considered the birthplace of democracy?
  207. 207. What city is considered the birthplace of democracy? Athens
  208. 208. Whom did Rome fight in the Punic Wars?
  209. 209. Whom did Rome fight in the Punic Wars? Carthage
  210. 210. What was the longest period of peace in world history called?
  211. 211. What was the longest period of peace in world history called? Pax Romana
  212. 212. What was the name of the Eastern Roman Empire, and where was its capital?
  213. 213. What was the name of the Eastern Roman Empire, and where was its capital? a. Byzantine Empire b. Constantinople
  214. 214. What effect did Turkish control of the Middle East have on trade?
  215. 215. What effect did Turkish control of the Middle East have on trade? It caused seafaring nations to look for sea routes to the Orient.
  216. 216. Whom did the Christian forces defeat at the Battle of Lepanto?
  217. 217. Whom did the Christian forces defeat at the Battle of Lepanto? The Ottoman Turks
  218. 218. Who were the first to discover new trade routes to the Indies and the Orient?
  219. 219. Who were the first to discover new trade routes to the Indies and the Orient? The Portuguese
  220. 220. How did trade influence the spread of civilization?
  221. 221. How did trade influence the spread of civilization? Port cities, colonies, and trading stations were established which grew into new centers of civilization.
  222. 222. Before the Age of Discovery, the wealth of the world was considered to be limited. Competition for control of this wealth was known as what?
  223. 223. Before the Age of Discovery, the wealth of the world was considered to be limited. Competition for control of this wealth was known as what? The Mercantile Theory
  224. 224. The shift of wealth and power in Europe caused the development of what class of people?
  225. 225. The shift of wealth and power in Europe caused the development of what class of people? The middle class
  226. 226. With what country did England align itself when preparing to battle Spain?
  227. 227. With what country did England align itself when preparing to battle Spain? France
  228. 228. What is a privateer?
  229. 229. What is a privateer? Privately owned ships commissioned by a government to fight or harass enemy ships
  230. 230. What were seadogs?
  231. 231. What were seadogs? English privateers
  232. 232. King Philip II of Spain fought the English for two reasons. What were they?
  233. 233. King Philip II of Spain fought the English for two reasons. What were they? a. To stop raids on his ships and ports by the English seadogs b. To bring England back into the Catholic church
  234. 234. In the battle between Spain and England, what advantage did the English fleet have?
  235. 235. In the battle between Spain and England, what advantage did the English fleet have? The English had an advantage in maneuverability, clear decks, and range.
  236. 236. Where did England defeat Spain?
  237. 237. Where did England defeat Spain? In the English Channel
  238. 238. How were England’s colonies financed?
  239. 239. How were England’s colonies financed? By private groups who received charters (licenses) for that purpose from the crown
  240. 240. Why did the settlement at Jamestown almost fail?
  241. 241. Why did the settlement at Jamestown almost fail? Because most of the settlers were "gentlemen" who thought they were too good to work
  242. 242. What is another name for the French and Indian War?
  243. 243. What is another name for the French and Indian War? The Seven Years’ War
  1. A particular slide catching your eye?

    Clipping is a handy way to collect important slides you want to go back to later.

×