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The supervisor as leader

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  • 1. The Supervisor as Leader
  • 2. Leading
    • The management function of influencing people to act or not act in a certain way.
    • Leadership traits that are often suggested as useful include:
      • a sense of responsibility,
      • self-confidence,
      • high energy level,
      • empathy,
      • internal locus of control, and
      • a sense of humor.
  • 3. Internal Locus of Control:
    • The belief that one is the primary cause of what happens to oneself.
  • 4. Leadership Styles:
    • Leadership styles are define by
      • The amount authority retained by the supervisor
      • A task-oriented or people-oriented approach, or both
      • Leader attitudes based on assumptions they have about employees.
  • 5.
    • Supervisors can be
      • authoritarian,
      • democratic, or
      • laissez-faire.
    • They often use more than one style of leading depending on employee and situational factors.
  • 6.
    • Situational factors include leader-member relations, task structure, and the position power of the leader.
  • 7.
    • An important part of the leadership role is giving orders or directions to employees.
    • A supervisor should make sure that employees understand directions and the reason for them.
  • 8.
    • Leadership behavior is affected by how the supervisor thinks of himself/herself.
      • People who believe they are capable tend to act capably.
  • 9.
    • Successful supervisors need to work effectively and maintain good relations with their employees, boss, and peers.
      • With employees, supervisors should set a good example, be ethical, and develop trust.
      • Supervisors should give their boss loyalty, cooperation, information, and results and be aware of and respond to the boss’s style.
      • With peers, supervisors should keep competition fair and as friendly as possible and offer support or criticism in a constructive way.
  • 10.
    • Paul B. Malone III,
      • “a manager focuses just on getting a task done, a leader focuses on getting it done in a way that gives employees a feeling of accomplishment and willingness to follow the leader again.”
  • 11.
    • Manage--
      • 1. To direct or control the use of.
      • 2. a. To exert control over. b. To make submissive to one’s authority, discipline, or persuasion.”)
  • 12.
    • In some cases a distinction is emphasized with leadership described as a more dynamic activity toward meeting the needs and goals of the organization..
  • 13.
    • Organizations seek to hire or promote employees who will be successful and an asset to the organization.
    • Is it possible to predict success or leadership ability from personality type, or are there traits that are associated with a supervisor’s success?
  • 14. Significant Traits Associated with Leadership
    • a. Sense of responsibility.
      • Supervisors must be willing to take seriously the responsibility that goes with the job.
    • b. Self confidence .
      • Supervisors who believe in their ability to get the job done will convey confidence to employees.
  • 15.
    • c. High energy level.
      • Many organizations expect supervisors to willingly put in long hours in order to handle the variety of duties that come with the job.
    • d. Empathy.
      • Supervisors need to be sensitive and higher management. Supervisors who have difficulty understanding what makes people tick are at a disadvantage.
  • 16.
    • e. Internal locus of control.
      • People with an internal locus of control are thought to be leaders because they try harder to take charge of events.
    • f. Sense of humor.
      • People with a good sense of humor are more fun to work with or for.
  • 17. Characteristics of a Successful Supervisor (Ch. 1)
    • The characteristics of a successful supervisor include:
      • positive attitude
      • loyal
      • fair
      • good communicator
      • able to delegate
      • wants the job
  • 18. Additional Characteristics of a Successful Supervisor
    • Additional criteria for a successful supervisor include:
      • technical skills
      • human relations skills
      • conceptual skills
      • decision making skills
  • 19. The 7 Habits of Highly Effective People by Stephen Covey
    • Habit 1
      • Be proactive. This refers to the taking of responsibility to make things happen.
    • Habit 2
      • Begin with the end in mind. Start with a clear picture of where you are going and what the destination will look like.
  • 20. The 7 Habits of Highly Effective People by Stephen Covey
    • Habit 3
      • Put first things first. The principle is based upon two factors--importance and urgency.
    • Habit 4
      • Think win/win. The principle means that agreements or solutions are mutually beneficial.
  • 21. The 7 Habits of Highly Effective People by Stephen Covey
    • Habit 5
      • Seek first to understand, then to be understood. One key to effective interpersonal communications is to listen with the intent to understand.
    • Habit 6
      • Synergize. The whole is greater than the sum of the parts.
  • 22. The 7 Habits of Highly Effective People by Stephen Covey
    • Habit 7
      • Sharpen the saw. Enhance personal abilities.
  • 23. Leadership Styles
    • Authoritarian
    • Democratic
    • Laissez-faire
    • Theory X
    • Theory Y
  • 24. Authoritarian Leadership:
    • A leadership style in which the leader retains a great deal of authority.
      • This style of leadership is characterized by the supervisor giving orders and employees following the orders.
        • An example would be a military commander who expects unquestioned obedience.
        • Decisions are made quickly.
        • Works best in an emergency or crisis or where employees lack maturity.
        • Employees may become dependent on decisions from supervisors and will not do anything of their own.
  • 25. Democractic Leadership
    • A leadership style in which the leader allows subordinates to participate in decision making and problem solving.
      • This style of leadership is characterized by the supervisor actively seeking input from the employees.
        • An example would be work groups or teams for problem solving
        • Employees feel they have a say in the ways things are done and may feel more satisfied with their jobs.
        • Decisions take longer.
        • A supervisor who leaves most decisions to the group may be viewed by some employees as weak.
  • 26. Laissez-faire Leadership
    • A leadership style in which the leader is uninvolved and lets subordinates direct themselves.
      • This style of leadership is characterized by the noninvolvment of the supervisor.
        • An example would be research and development settings.
        • Works best in an atmosphere where creativity and innovation is required.
        • Many employees see this method as no leadership at all.
  • 27. Theory X
    • A set of attitudes based on the view that people dislike work and must be coerced to perform.
      • Theory X assumes that people dislike work and try to avoid it and must be coerced to perform.
      • Employees would prefer to be directed.
      • Employees have to be watched and occasionally disciplined to keep them performing.
        • A Theory X supervisor would most likely be autocratic.
  • 28. Theory Y
    • A set of attitudes based on the view that work is a natural activity and that people will work hard and creatively to achieve objectives they are committed to.
      • Employees can be trusted and discipline is not necessary to get them to perform adequately.
      • Theory Y supervisors are more likely to adopt the democratic style.
  • 29. Theory Z
    • A set of attitudes that emphasize employee participation in all aspects of decision making.
      • Assumes employees work as hard as they can.
      • An extension of Theory Y with the addition of organizational structure and the response of management to the employees.
      • Employees are trusted, and their input or ideas are actively sought.
        • This approach to supervision would be more consistently democratic.
  • 30. Authoritarian style of leadership
    • Organizations or departments that require
      • a regimented method of performance,
      • quick response, or
      • employees need a lot of direction.
        • The military, and military-type organizations such as correction facilities, would be an example.
        • Fire fighting would be another.
        • This style would also be appropriate in organizations where employees require a lot of direction, such as a fast-food restaurant where there is high turnover of personnel.
  • 31. Democratic style of leadership
    • Organizations and departments that require
      • input from employees for problem solving or
      • product and process improvement.
        • This style works in organizations where there is a highly skilled work force, especially if work requires teamwork to complete work effectively.
          • An example may be companies that supply the auto industry with parts and materials.
            • These companies are being driven by competitive forces to improve quality and reduce prices through continuous improvement.
  • 32. Laissez-faire style of leadership
    • Organizations or departments that require
      • innovative employees and
      • where creativity is important.
        • Examples include
          • research and development departments,
          • software companies,
          • and design departments.
          • Beauty salons might be another type of company where this style of leadership works best.
  • 33. Contingency Theory
  • 34.
    • Supervisors are not likely to use or represent a single type.
    • Contingency models of leadership attempt to describe the situations under which a specific type of supervisor will be most successful.
    • Contingency models of leadership maintain that the best style of leadership depends on the circumstances.
  • 35. Contingency Models
    • There are two models:
      • Fiedler’s model and
      • The Hersey-Blanchard model.
  • 36. Fiedler’s Model
    • Supervisors will be relationship oriented (people oriented) or task oriented depending on:
        • leader-member relations, or the extent to which the leader has group members’ support and loyalty.
        • task structure, or whether there is specified procedures to follow in carrying out the task.
        • position power, or the leader’s formal authority granted by the organization.
  • 37.
    • Fiedler recommends that a leader determine whether his or her preferred leadership style fits the situation, and, if not, the leader should try to change the characteristics of the situation.
  • 38. The Hersey-Blanchard Life Cycle Theory
    • Similar to Fiedler’s theory except they believe that the leadership style should reflect the maturity of the followers as measured by such traits as ability to work independently .
      • Leaders should adjust the degree of task and relationship behavior in response to the growing maturity of their followers.
  • 39.
      • As followers mature, leaders should move through a combination of behaviors:
        • (1) High task and low relationship behavior
        • (2) High task and high relationship behavior
        • (3) Low task and high relationship behavior
        • (4) Low task and low relationship behavior
  • 40.
    • Situational characteristics include:
      • The supervisor’s characteristics
      • The level of competency of employees
      • the working environment
  • 41. Supervisor Characteristics
    • The manager’s values.
      • What is most important to the supervisor?
        • Company profits
        • Personal growth and development
        • Development of employees
      • Level of confidence in employees
        • The more confidence in the employees, the more the supervisor will involve the employees.
  • 42.
    • Personal leadership strengths
      • Effective leaders capitalize on their strengths.
    • Tolerance for ambiguity
      • When employees are involved, the supervisor cannot always be sure of the outcomes.
      • Will the supervisor be comfortable will this uncertainty?
  • 43. Employee Characteristics
    • Need for independence.
      • Employees who want a lot of direction will welcome autocratic leadership.
    • Readiness to assume responsibility.
      • Employees eager to assume responsibility appreciate democratic or laissez-faire styles of leadership.
  • 44.
    • Tolerance for ambiguity.
      • Employees tolerant of ambiguity will accept the leadership style that gives them more input.
    • Interest in the problem to be solved.
      • Employees interested in a problem and think it is important will want to be involved.
  • 45.
    • Understanding of and identification with goals.
      • Employees who understand and identify with the organization’s or department’s goals will want to be involved in meeting these goals.
    • Knowledge and experience.
      • Employees with the knowledge necessary to solve a problem are more apt to want to help come up with a solution.
  • 46.
    • Expectations.
      • Some employees expect to participate in making decisions and solving problems.
  • 47. Diversity
    • Growing diversity in the work place means that supervisors may have a more difficult time determining where the employees are in regard to these characteristics.
    • There is the additional danger that supervisors have preconceived ideas about how employees think and behave.
  • 48. Situation characteristics
    • Type of organization.
      • The organization lends itself to a type of leadership.
        • For example, if supervisors are expected to manage large numbers of employees, a democratic leadership style may be time consuming and relatively challenging to use.
        • When there is a large number of employees to manage or they are dispersed over a large area, laissez-faire style leadership may be the result whether it is intended or not.
  • 49.
    • Effectiveness of the group.
      • Regardless of the characteristics of individual employees, some groups are more successful in handling decisions than others.
        • When employees have little experience making decisions, authoritarian style leadership may be easier to use.
  • 50.
    • The problem or task.
      • Problems range from simple to complex.
      • Tasks range from structured to relatively unstructured.
        • Although it appears that each of these variables suggests a specific type of leadership, such as a structured task is best handled with more control by the supervisor, in reality each problem or task is also related to the other characteristics of the situation.
  • 51.
    • Time available.
      • An autocratic leader is in a position to make decisions quickly.
      • Group decision making usually requires more time for discussion and sharing ideas.
  • 52. Giving Directions
    • Supervisors practice leadership by giving employees directions.
      • Supervisors should make sure employees understand the directions.
        • Directions should be stated in specific, clear terms.
      • Employees should understand the reason for the directions.
  • 53.
    • When employees do not seem to be following directions,
      • perhaps they didn’t understand the directions
      • they may not realize that the supervisor is giving them an order.
  • 54. Self-concept
    • The image a person has of himself/herself.
      • influences how the supervisor behaves.
        • Someone who believes he or she has the power will act powerful.
        • Someone who thinks himself or herself as intelligent is apt to make careful decisions.
        • When supervisors do something well, they should give themselves credit for their success.
  • 55. SWOT Method
    • Strengths
    • Weaknesses
    • Opportunities
    • Threats
  • 56. Developing and Maintaining Good Relations
    • A supervisor needs support from many people in the organization to be successful.
      • They need the support of their employees.
      • They also need the support of their boss and co-workers.
  • 57.
    • Ways to get along with almost everyone include
      • projecting a positive attitude,
      • taking an interest in other people, and
      • helping out.
  • 58.
    • A supervisor who is liked and respected by employees will inspire them to work harder and better.
      • Supervisors should be role models for employees by following the rules of the company.
      • They should also be fair in the treatment of employees and ethical.
  • 59.
    • Employees work most cooperatively with a supervisor they trust.
      • Building trust takes time and effort,
      • yet it can be lost with a single act that is unreasonable.
      • Trust is built by fair and predictable behavior.
  • 60.
    • No matter how good you are at planning, organizing, and leading, your ability to get along with your boss can determine the course of your career within the organization.
    • That may not always seem fair, but the fact is that your boss is the one who most often decides whether you will be promoted, get a raise, or even have a job next week.
    • A boss who likes to work with you is more likely to take a favorable view of your performance.
  • 61.
    • A supervisor can assume that his or her boss expects the following :
      • Loyalty
        • positive attitude about the company and his/her boss
      • Cooperation
        • works with others in the organization to achieve organizational goals.
      • Communication
        • kept informed about the department’s performance.
      • Results
        • ensures department meets or exceeds its objectives
  • 62.
    • If you get along with your peers, they will help you look good and get your job done.
    • If your peers resent you, the poor relations can cause an endless stream of problems.
    • Quite often your peers are competing with you for raises, bonuses, or promotions.
    • Regardless, the more you cooperate, the better you all will look.

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