The supervisor as leader


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The supervisor as leader

  1. 1. The Supervisor as Leader
  2. 2. Leading <ul><li>The management function of influencing people to act or not act in a certain way. </li></ul><ul><li>Leadership traits that are often suggested as useful include: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>a sense of responsibility, </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>self-confidence, </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>high energy level, </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>empathy, </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>internal locus of control, and </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>a sense of humor. </li></ul></ul>
  3. 3. Internal Locus of Control: <ul><li>The belief that one is the primary cause of what happens to oneself. </li></ul>
  4. 4. Leadership Styles: <ul><li>Leadership styles are define by </li></ul><ul><ul><li>The amount authority retained by the supervisor </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>A task-oriented or people-oriented approach, or both </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Leader attitudes based on assumptions they have about employees. </li></ul></ul>
  5. 5. <ul><li>Supervisors can be </li></ul><ul><ul><li>authoritarian, </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>democratic, or </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>laissez-faire. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>They often use more than one style of leading depending on employee and situational factors. </li></ul>
  6. 6. <ul><li>Situational factors include leader-member relations, task structure, and the position power of the leader. </li></ul>
  7. 7. <ul><li>An important part of the leadership role is giving orders or directions to employees. </li></ul><ul><li>A supervisor should make sure that employees understand directions and the reason for them. </li></ul>
  8. 8. <ul><li>Leadership behavior is affected by how the supervisor thinks of himself/herself. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>People who believe they are capable tend to act capably. </li></ul></ul>
  9. 9. <ul><li>Successful supervisors need to work effectively and maintain good relations with their employees, boss, and peers. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>With employees, supervisors should set a good example, be ethical, and develop trust. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Supervisors should give their boss loyalty, cooperation, information, and results and be aware of and respond to the boss’s style. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>With peers, supervisors should keep competition fair and as friendly as possible and offer support or criticism in a constructive way. </li></ul></ul>
  10. 10. <ul><li>Paul B. Malone III, </li></ul><ul><ul><li>“a manager focuses just on getting a task done, a leader focuses on getting it done in a way that gives employees a feeling of accomplishment and willingness to follow the leader again.” </li></ul></ul>
  11. 11. <ul><li>Manage-- </li></ul><ul><ul><li>1. To direct or control the use of. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>2. a. To exert control over. b. To make submissive to one’s authority, discipline, or persuasion.”) </li></ul></ul>
  12. 12. <ul><li>In some cases a distinction is emphasized with leadership described as a more dynamic activity toward meeting the needs and goals of the organization.. </li></ul>
  13. 13. <ul><li>Organizations seek to hire or promote employees who will be successful and an asset to the organization. </li></ul><ul><li>Is it possible to predict success or leadership ability from personality type, or are there traits that are associated with a supervisor’s success? </li></ul>
  14. 14. Significant Traits Associated with Leadership <ul><li>a. Sense of responsibility. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Supervisors must be willing to take seriously the responsibility that goes with the job. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>b. Self confidence . </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Supervisors who believe in their ability to get the job done will convey confidence to employees. </li></ul></ul>
  15. 15. <ul><li>c. High energy level. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Many organizations expect supervisors to willingly put in long hours in order to handle the variety of duties that come with the job. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>d. Empathy. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Supervisors need to be sensitive and higher management. Supervisors who have difficulty understanding what makes people tick are at a disadvantage. </li></ul></ul>
  16. 16. <ul><li>e. Internal locus of control. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>People with an internal locus of control are thought to be leaders because they try harder to take charge of events. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>f. Sense of humor. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>People with a good sense of humor are more fun to work with or for. </li></ul></ul>
  17. 17. Characteristics of a Successful Supervisor (Ch. 1) <ul><li>The characteristics of a successful supervisor include: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>positive attitude </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>loyal </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>fair </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>good communicator </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>able to delegate </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>wants the job </li></ul></ul>
  18. 18. Additional Characteristics of a Successful Supervisor <ul><li>Additional criteria for a successful supervisor include: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>technical skills </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>human relations skills </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>conceptual skills </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>decision making skills </li></ul></ul>
  19. 19. The 7 Habits of Highly Effective People by Stephen Covey <ul><li>Habit 1 </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Be proactive. This refers to the taking of responsibility to make things happen. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Habit 2 </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Begin with the end in mind. Start with a clear picture of where you are going and what the destination will look like. </li></ul></ul>
  20. 20. The 7 Habits of Highly Effective People by Stephen Covey <ul><li>Habit 3 </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Put first things first. The principle is based upon two factors--importance and urgency. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Habit 4 </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Think win/win. The principle means that agreements or solutions are mutually beneficial. </li></ul></ul>
  21. 21. The 7 Habits of Highly Effective People by Stephen Covey <ul><li>Habit 5 </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Seek first to understand, then to be understood. One key to effective interpersonal communications is to listen with the intent to understand. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Habit 6 </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Synergize. The whole is greater than the sum of the parts. </li></ul></ul>
  22. 22. The 7 Habits of Highly Effective People by Stephen Covey <ul><li>Habit 7 </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Sharpen the saw. Enhance personal abilities. </li></ul></ul>
  23. 23. Leadership Styles <ul><li>Authoritarian </li></ul><ul><li>Democratic </li></ul><ul><li>Laissez-faire </li></ul><ul><li>Theory X </li></ul><ul><li>Theory Y </li></ul>
  24. 24. Authoritarian Leadership: <ul><li>A leadership style in which the leader retains a great deal of authority. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>This style of leadership is characterized by the supervisor giving orders and employees following the orders. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>An example would be a military commander who expects unquestioned obedience. </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Decisions are made quickly. </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Works best in an emergency or crisis or where employees lack maturity. </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Employees may become dependent on decisions from supervisors and will not do anything of their own. </li></ul></ul></ul>
  25. 25. Democractic Leadership <ul><li>A leadership style in which the leader allows subordinates to participate in decision making and problem solving. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>This style of leadership is characterized by the supervisor actively seeking input from the employees. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>An example would be work groups or teams for problem solving </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Employees feel they have a say in the ways things are done and may feel more satisfied with their jobs. </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Decisions take longer. </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>A supervisor who leaves most decisions to the group may be viewed by some employees as weak. </li></ul></ul></ul>
  26. 26. Laissez-faire Leadership <ul><li>A leadership style in which the leader is uninvolved and lets subordinates direct themselves. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>This style of leadership is characterized by the noninvolvment of the supervisor. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>An example would be research and development settings. </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Works best in an atmosphere where creativity and innovation is required. </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Many employees see this method as no leadership at all. </li></ul></ul></ul>
  27. 27. Theory X <ul><li>A set of attitudes based on the view that people dislike work and must be coerced to perform. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Theory X assumes that people dislike work and try to avoid it and must be coerced to perform. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Employees would prefer to be directed. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Employees have to be watched and occasionally disciplined to keep them performing. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>A Theory X supervisor would most likely be autocratic. </li></ul></ul></ul>
  28. 28. Theory Y <ul><li>A set of attitudes based on the view that work is a natural activity and that people will work hard and creatively to achieve objectives they are committed to. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Employees can be trusted and discipline is not necessary to get them to perform adequately. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Theory Y supervisors are more likely to adopt the democratic style. </li></ul></ul>
  29. 29. Theory Z <ul><li>A set of attitudes that emphasize employee participation in all aspects of decision making. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Assumes employees work as hard as they can. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>An extension of Theory Y with the addition of organizational structure and the response of management to the employees. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Employees are trusted, and their input or ideas are actively sought. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>This approach to supervision would be more consistently democratic. </li></ul></ul></ul>
  30. 30. Authoritarian style of leadership <ul><li>Organizations or departments that require </li></ul><ul><ul><li>a regimented method of performance, </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>quick response, or </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>employees need a lot of direction. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>The military, and military-type organizations such as correction facilities, would be an example. </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Fire fighting would be another. </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>This style would also be appropriate in organizations where employees require a lot of direction, such as a fast-food restaurant where there is high turnover of personnel. </li></ul></ul></ul>
  31. 31. Democratic style of leadership <ul><li>Organizations and departments that require </li></ul><ul><ul><li>input from employees for problem solving or </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>product and process improvement. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>This style works in organizations where there is a highly skilled work force, especially if work requires teamwork to complete work effectively. </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>An example may be companies that supply the auto industry with parts and materials. </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>These companies are being driven by competitive forces to improve quality and reduce prices through continuous improvement. </li></ul></ul></ul></ul></ul>
  32. 32. Laissez-faire style of leadership <ul><li>Organizations or departments that require </li></ul><ul><ul><li>innovative employees and </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>where creativity is important. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Examples include </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>research and development departments, </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>software companies, </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>and design departments. </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Beauty salons might be another type of company where this style of leadership works best. </li></ul></ul></ul></ul>
  33. 33. Contingency Theory
  34. 34. <ul><li>Supervisors are not likely to use or represent a single type. </li></ul><ul><li>Contingency models of leadership attempt to describe the situations under which a specific type of supervisor will be most successful. </li></ul><ul><li>Contingency models of leadership maintain that the best style of leadership depends on the circumstances. </li></ul>
  35. 35. Contingency Models <ul><li>There are two models: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Fiedler’s model and </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>The Hersey-Blanchard model. </li></ul></ul>
  36. 36. Fiedler’s Model <ul><li>Supervisors will be relationship oriented (people oriented) or task oriented depending on: </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>leader-member relations, or the extent to which the leader has group members’ support and loyalty. </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>task structure, or whether there is specified procedures to follow in carrying out the task. </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>position power, or the leader’s formal authority granted by the organization. </li></ul></ul></ul>
  37. 37. <ul><li>Fiedler recommends that a leader determine whether his or her preferred leadership style fits the situation, and, if not, the leader should try to change the characteristics of the situation. </li></ul>
  38. 38. The Hersey-Blanchard Life Cycle Theory <ul><li>Similar to Fiedler’s theory except they believe that the leadership style should reflect the maturity of the followers as measured by such traits as ability to work independently . </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Leaders should adjust the degree of task and relationship behavior in response to the growing maturity of their followers. </li></ul></ul>
  39. 39. <ul><ul><li>As followers mature, leaders should move through a combination of behaviors: </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>(1) High task and low relationship behavior </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>(2) High task and high relationship behavior </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>(3) Low task and high relationship behavior </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>(4) Low task and low relationship behavior </li></ul></ul></ul>
  40. 40. <ul><li>Situational characteristics include: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>The supervisor’s characteristics </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>The level of competency of employees </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>the working environment </li></ul></ul>
  41. 41. Supervisor Characteristics <ul><li>The manager’s values. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>What is most important to the supervisor? </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Company profits </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Personal growth and development </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Development of employees </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Level of confidence in employees </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>The more confidence in the employees, the more the supervisor will involve the employees. </li></ul></ul></ul>
  42. 42. <ul><li>Personal leadership strengths </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Effective leaders capitalize on their strengths. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Tolerance for ambiguity </li></ul><ul><ul><li>When employees are involved, the supervisor cannot always be sure of the outcomes. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Will the supervisor be comfortable will this uncertainty? </li></ul></ul>
  43. 43. Employee Characteristics <ul><li>Need for independence. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Employees who want a lot of direction will welcome autocratic leadership. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Readiness to assume responsibility. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Employees eager to assume responsibility appreciate democratic or laissez-faire styles of leadership. </li></ul></ul>
  44. 44. <ul><li>Tolerance for ambiguity. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Employees tolerant of ambiguity will accept the leadership style that gives them more input. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Interest in the problem to be solved. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Employees interested in a problem and think it is important will want to be involved. </li></ul></ul>
  45. 45. <ul><li>Understanding of and identification with goals. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Employees who understand and identify with the organization’s or department’s goals will want to be involved in meeting these goals. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Knowledge and experience. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Employees with the knowledge necessary to solve a problem are more apt to want to help come up with a solution. </li></ul></ul>
  46. 46. <ul><li>Expectations. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Some employees expect to participate in making decisions and solving problems. </li></ul></ul>
  47. 47. Diversity <ul><li>Growing diversity in the work place means that supervisors may have a more difficult time determining where the employees are in regard to these characteristics. </li></ul><ul><li>There is the additional danger that supervisors have preconceived ideas about how employees think and behave. </li></ul>
  48. 48. Situation characteristics <ul><li>Type of organization. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>The organization lends itself to a type of leadership. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>For example, if supervisors are expected to manage large numbers of employees, a democratic leadership style may be time consuming and relatively challenging to use. </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>When there is a large number of employees to manage or they are dispersed over a large area, laissez-faire style leadership may be the result whether it is intended or not. </li></ul></ul></ul>
  49. 49. <ul><li>Effectiveness of the group. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Regardless of the characteristics of individual employees, some groups are more successful in handling decisions than others. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>When employees have little experience making decisions, authoritarian style leadership may be easier to use. </li></ul></ul></ul>
  50. 50. <ul><li>The problem or task. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Problems range from simple to complex. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Tasks range from structured to relatively unstructured. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Although it appears that each of these variables suggests a specific type of leadership, such as a structured task is best handled with more control by the supervisor, in reality each problem or task is also related to the other characteristics of the situation. </li></ul></ul></ul>
  51. 51. <ul><li>Time available. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>An autocratic leader is in a position to make decisions quickly. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Group decision making usually requires more time for discussion and sharing ideas. </li></ul></ul>
  52. 52. Giving Directions <ul><li>Supervisors practice leadership by giving employees directions. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Supervisors should make sure employees understand the directions. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Directions should be stated in specific, clear terms. </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Employees should understand the reason for the directions. </li></ul></ul>
  53. 53. <ul><li>When employees do not seem to be following directions, </li></ul><ul><ul><li>perhaps they didn’t understand the directions </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>they may not realize that the supervisor is giving them an order. </li></ul></ul>
  54. 54. Self-concept <ul><li>The image a person has of himself/herself. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>influences how the supervisor behaves. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Someone who believes he or she has the power will act powerful. </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Someone who thinks himself or herself as intelligent is apt to make careful decisions. </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>When supervisors do something well, they should give themselves credit for their success. </li></ul></ul></ul>
  55. 55. SWOT Method <ul><li>Strengths </li></ul><ul><li>Weaknesses </li></ul><ul><li>Opportunities </li></ul><ul><li>Threats </li></ul>
  56. 56. Developing and Maintaining Good Relations <ul><li>A supervisor needs support from many people in the organization to be successful. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>They need the support of their employees. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>They also need the support of their boss and co-workers. </li></ul></ul>
  57. 57. <ul><li>Ways to get along with almost everyone include </li></ul><ul><ul><li>projecting a positive attitude, </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>taking an interest in other people, and </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>helping out. </li></ul></ul>
  58. 58. <ul><li>A supervisor who is liked and respected by employees will inspire them to work harder and better. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Supervisors should be role models for employees by following the rules of the company. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>They should also be fair in the treatment of employees and ethical. </li></ul></ul>
  59. 59. <ul><li>Employees work most cooperatively with a supervisor they trust. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Building trust takes time and effort, </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>yet it can be lost with a single act that is unreasonable. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Trust is built by fair and predictable behavior. </li></ul></ul>
  60. 60. <ul><li>No matter how good you are at planning, organizing, and leading, your ability to get along with your boss can determine the course of your career within the organization. </li></ul><ul><li>That may not always seem fair, but the fact is that your boss is the one who most often decides whether you will be promoted, get a raise, or even have a job next week. </li></ul><ul><li>A boss who likes to work with you is more likely to take a favorable view of your performance. </li></ul>
  61. 61. <ul><li>A supervisor can assume that his or her boss expects the following : </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Loyalty </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>positive attitude about the company and his/her boss </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Cooperation </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>works with others in the organization to achieve organizational goals. </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Communication </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>kept informed about the department’s performance. </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Results </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>ensures department meets or exceeds its objectives </li></ul></ul></ul>
  62. 62. <ul><li>If you get along with your peers, they will help you look good and get your job done. </li></ul><ul><li>If your peers resent you, the poor relations can cause an endless stream of problems. </li></ul><ul><li>Quite often your peers are competing with you for raises, bonuses, or promotions. </li></ul><ul><li>Regardless, the more you cooperate, the better you all will look. </li></ul>