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The supervisor as leader
 

The supervisor as leader

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    The supervisor as leader The supervisor as leader Presentation Transcript

    • The Supervisor as Leader
    • Leading
      • The management function of influencing people to act or not act in a certain way.
      • Leadership traits that are often suggested as useful include:
        • a sense of responsibility,
        • self-confidence,
        • high energy level,
        • empathy,
        • internal locus of control, and
        • a sense of humor.
    • Internal Locus of Control:
      • The belief that one is the primary cause of what happens to oneself.
    • Leadership Styles:
      • Leadership styles are define by
        • The amount authority retained by the supervisor
        • A task-oriented or people-oriented approach, or both
        • Leader attitudes based on assumptions they have about employees.
      • Supervisors can be
        • authoritarian,
        • democratic, or
        • laissez-faire.
      • They often use more than one style of leading depending on employee and situational factors.
      • Situational factors include leader-member relations, task structure, and the position power of the leader.
      • An important part of the leadership role is giving orders or directions to employees.
      • A supervisor should make sure that employees understand directions and the reason for them.
      • Leadership behavior is affected by how the supervisor thinks of himself/herself.
        • People who believe they are capable tend to act capably.
      • Successful supervisors need to work effectively and maintain good relations with their employees, boss, and peers.
        • With employees, supervisors should set a good example, be ethical, and develop trust.
        • Supervisors should give their boss loyalty, cooperation, information, and results and be aware of and respond to the boss’s style.
        • With peers, supervisors should keep competition fair and as friendly as possible and offer support or criticism in a constructive way.
      • Paul B. Malone III,
        • “a manager focuses just on getting a task done, a leader focuses on getting it done in a way that gives employees a feeling of accomplishment and willingness to follow the leader again.”
      • Manage--
        • 1. To direct or control the use of.
        • 2. a. To exert control over. b. To make submissive to one’s authority, discipline, or persuasion.”)
      • In some cases a distinction is emphasized with leadership described as a more dynamic activity toward meeting the needs and goals of the organization..
      • Organizations seek to hire or promote employees who will be successful and an asset to the organization.
      • Is it possible to predict success or leadership ability from personality type, or are there traits that are associated with a supervisor’s success?
    • Significant Traits Associated with Leadership
      • a. Sense of responsibility.
        • Supervisors must be willing to take seriously the responsibility that goes with the job.
      • b. Self confidence .
        • Supervisors who believe in their ability to get the job done will convey confidence to employees.
      • c. High energy level.
        • Many organizations expect supervisors to willingly put in long hours in order to handle the variety of duties that come with the job.
      • d. Empathy.
        • Supervisors need to be sensitive and higher management. Supervisors who have difficulty understanding what makes people tick are at a disadvantage.
      • e. Internal locus of control.
        • People with an internal locus of control are thought to be leaders because they try harder to take charge of events.
      • f. Sense of humor.
        • People with a good sense of humor are more fun to work with or for.
    • Characteristics of a Successful Supervisor (Ch. 1)
      • The characteristics of a successful supervisor include:
        • positive attitude
        • loyal
        • fair
        • good communicator
        • able to delegate
        • wants the job
    • Additional Characteristics of a Successful Supervisor
      • Additional criteria for a successful supervisor include:
        • technical skills
        • human relations skills
        • conceptual skills
        • decision making skills
    • The 7 Habits of Highly Effective People by Stephen Covey
      • Habit 1
        • Be proactive. This refers to the taking of responsibility to make things happen.
      • Habit 2
        • Begin with the end in mind. Start with a clear picture of where you are going and what the destination will look like.
    • The 7 Habits of Highly Effective People by Stephen Covey
      • Habit 3
        • Put first things first. The principle is based upon two factors--importance and urgency.
      • Habit 4
        • Think win/win. The principle means that agreements or solutions are mutually beneficial.
    • The 7 Habits of Highly Effective People by Stephen Covey
      • Habit 5
        • Seek first to understand, then to be understood. One key to effective interpersonal communications is to listen with the intent to understand.
      • Habit 6
        • Synergize. The whole is greater than the sum of the parts.
    • The 7 Habits of Highly Effective People by Stephen Covey
      • Habit 7
        • Sharpen the saw. Enhance personal abilities.
    • Leadership Styles
      • Authoritarian
      • Democratic
      • Laissez-faire
      • Theory X
      • Theory Y
    • Authoritarian Leadership:
      • A leadership style in which the leader retains a great deal of authority.
        • This style of leadership is characterized by the supervisor giving orders and employees following the orders.
          • An example would be a military commander who expects unquestioned obedience.
          • Decisions are made quickly.
          • Works best in an emergency or crisis or where employees lack maturity.
          • Employees may become dependent on decisions from supervisors and will not do anything of their own.
    • Democractic Leadership
      • A leadership style in which the leader allows subordinates to participate in decision making and problem solving.
        • This style of leadership is characterized by the supervisor actively seeking input from the employees.
          • An example would be work groups or teams for problem solving
          • Employees feel they have a say in the ways things are done and may feel more satisfied with their jobs.
          • Decisions take longer.
          • A supervisor who leaves most decisions to the group may be viewed by some employees as weak.
    • Laissez-faire Leadership
      • A leadership style in which the leader is uninvolved and lets subordinates direct themselves.
        • This style of leadership is characterized by the noninvolvment of the supervisor.
          • An example would be research and development settings.
          • Works best in an atmosphere where creativity and innovation is required.
          • Many employees see this method as no leadership at all.
    • Theory X
      • A set of attitudes based on the view that people dislike work and must be coerced to perform.
        • Theory X assumes that people dislike work and try to avoid it and must be coerced to perform.
        • Employees would prefer to be directed.
        • Employees have to be watched and occasionally disciplined to keep them performing.
          • A Theory X supervisor would most likely be autocratic.
    • Theory Y
      • A set of attitudes based on the view that work is a natural activity and that people will work hard and creatively to achieve objectives they are committed to.
        • Employees can be trusted and discipline is not necessary to get them to perform adequately.
        • Theory Y supervisors are more likely to adopt the democratic style.
    • Theory Z
      • A set of attitudes that emphasize employee participation in all aspects of decision making.
        • Assumes employees work as hard as they can.
        • An extension of Theory Y with the addition of organizational structure and the response of management to the employees.
        • Employees are trusted, and their input or ideas are actively sought.
          • This approach to supervision would be more consistently democratic.
    • Authoritarian style of leadership
      • Organizations or departments that require
        • a regimented method of performance,
        • quick response, or
        • employees need a lot of direction.
          • The military, and military-type organizations such as correction facilities, would be an example.
          • Fire fighting would be another.
          • This style would also be appropriate in organizations where employees require a lot of direction, such as a fast-food restaurant where there is high turnover of personnel.
    • Democratic style of leadership
      • Organizations and departments that require
        • input from employees for problem solving or
        • product and process improvement.
          • This style works in organizations where there is a highly skilled work force, especially if work requires teamwork to complete work effectively.
            • An example may be companies that supply the auto industry with parts and materials.
              • These companies are being driven by competitive forces to improve quality and reduce prices through continuous improvement.
    • Laissez-faire style of leadership
      • Organizations or departments that require
        • innovative employees and
        • where creativity is important.
          • Examples include
            • research and development departments,
            • software companies,
            • and design departments.
            • Beauty salons might be another type of company where this style of leadership works best.
    • Contingency Theory
      • Supervisors are not likely to use or represent a single type.
      • Contingency models of leadership attempt to describe the situations under which a specific type of supervisor will be most successful.
      • Contingency models of leadership maintain that the best style of leadership depends on the circumstances.
    • Contingency Models
      • There are two models:
        • Fiedler’s model and
        • The Hersey-Blanchard model.
    • Fiedler’s Model
      • Supervisors will be relationship oriented (people oriented) or task oriented depending on:
          • leader-member relations, or the extent to which the leader has group members’ support and loyalty.
          • task structure, or whether there is specified procedures to follow in carrying out the task.
          • position power, or the leader’s formal authority granted by the organization.
      • Fiedler recommends that a leader determine whether his or her preferred leadership style fits the situation, and, if not, the leader should try to change the characteristics of the situation.
    • The Hersey-Blanchard Life Cycle Theory
      • Similar to Fiedler’s theory except they believe that the leadership style should reflect the maturity of the followers as measured by such traits as ability to work independently .
        • Leaders should adjust the degree of task and relationship behavior in response to the growing maturity of their followers.
        • As followers mature, leaders should move through a combination of behaviors:
          • (1) High task and low relationship behavior
          • (2) High task and high relationship behavior
          • (3) Low task and high relationship behavior
          • (4) Low task and low relationship behavior
      • Situational characteristics include:
        • The supervisor’s characteristics
        • The level of competency of employees
        • the working environment
    • Supervisor Characteristics
      • The manager’s values.
        • What is most important to the supervisor?
          • Company profits
          • Personal growth and development
          • Development of employees
        • Level of confidence in employees
          • The more confidence in the employees, the more the supervisor will involve the employees.
      • Personal leadership strengths
        • Effective leaders capitalize on their strengths.
      • Tolerance for ambiguity
        • When employees are involved, the supervisor cannot always be sure of the outcomes.
        • Will the supervisor be comfortable will this uncertainty?
    • Employee Characteristics
      • Need for independence.
        • Employees who want a lot of direction will welcome autocratic leadership.
      • Readiness to assume responsibility.
        • Employees eager to assume responsibility appreciate democratic or laissez-faire styles of leadership.
      • Tolerance for ambiguity.
        • Employees tolerant of ambiguity will accept the leadership style that gives them more input.
      • Interest in the problem to be solved.
        • Employees interested in a problem and think it is important will want to be involved.
      • Understanding of and identification with goals.
        • Employees who understand and identify with the organization’s or department’s goals will want to be involved in meeting these goals.
      • Knowledge and experience.
        • Employees with the knowledge necessary to solve a problem are more apt to want to help come up with a solution.
      • Expectations.
        • Some employees expect to participate in making decisions and solving problems.
    • Diversity
      • Growing diversity in the work place means that supervisors may have a more difficult time determining where the employees are in regard to these characteristics.
      • There is the additional danger that supervisors have preconceived ideas about how employees think and behave.
    • Situation characteristics
      • Type of organization.
        • The organization lends itself to a type of leadership.
          • For example, if supervisors are expected to manage large numbers of employees, a democratic leadership style may be time consuming and relatively challenging to use.
          • When there is a large number of employees to manage or they are dispersed over a large area, laissez-faire style leadership may be the result whether it is intended or not.
      • Effectiveness of the group.
        • Regardless of the characteristics of individual employees, some groups are more successful in handling decisions than others.
          • When employees have little experience making decisions, authoritarian style leadership may be easier to use.
      • The problem or task.
        • Problems range from simple to complex.
        • Tasks range from structured to relatively unstructured.
          • Although it appears that each of these variables suggests a specific type of leadership, such as a structured task is best handled with more control by the supervisor, in reality each problem or task is also related to the other characteristics of the situation.
      • Time available.
        • An autocratic leader is in a position to make decisions quickly.
        • Group decision making usually requires more time for discussion and sharing ideas.
    • Giving Directions
      • Supervisors practice leadership by giving employees directions.
        • Supervisors should make sure employees understand the directions.
          • Directions should be stated in specific, clear terms.
        • Employees should understand the reason for the directions.
      • When employees do not seem to be following directions,
        • perhaps they didn’t understand the directions
        • they may not realize that the supervisor is giving them an order.
    • Self-concept
      • The image a person has of himself/herself.
        • influences how the supervisor behaves.
          • Someone who believes he or she has the power will act powerful.
          • Someone who thinks himself or herself as intelligent is apt to make careful decisions.
          • When supervisors do something well, they should give themselves credit for their success.
    • SWOT Method
      • Strengths
      • Weaknesses
      • Opportunities
      • Threats
    • Developing and Maintaining Good Relations
      • A supervisor needs support from many people in the organization to be successful.
        • They need the support of their employees.
        • They also need the support of their boss and co-workers.
      • Ways to get along with almost everyone include
        • projecting a positive attitude,
        • taking an interest in other people, and
        • helping out.
      • A supervisor who is liked and respected by employees will inspire them to work harder and better.
        • Supervisors should be role models for employees by following the rules of the company.
        • They should also be fair in the treatment of employees and ethical.
      • Employees work most cooperatively with a supervisor they trust.
        • Building trust takes time and effort,
        • yet it can be lost with a single act that is unreasonable.
        • Trust is built by fair and predictable behavior.
      • No matter how good you are at planning, organizing, and leading, your ability to get along with your boss can determine the course of your career within the organization.
      • That may not always seem fair, but the fact is that your boss is the one who most often decides whether you will be promoted, get a raise, or even have a job next week.
      • A boss who likes to work with you is more likely to take a favorable view of your performance.
      • A supervisor can assume that his or her boss expects the following :
        • Loyalty
          • positive attitude about the company and his/her boss
        • Cooperation
          • works with others in the organization to achieve organizational goals.
        • Communication
          • kept informed about the department’s performance.
        • Results
          • ensures department meets or exceeds its objectives
      • If you get along with your peers, they will help you look good and get your job done.
      • If your peers resent you, the poor relations can cause an endless stream of problems.
      • Quite often your peers are competing with you for raises, bonuses, or promotions.
      • Regardless, the more you cooperate, the better you all will look.