CHAPTER FOUR4.0 PRESENTATION AND DISCUSSION OF FINDINGSThis chapter is concerned with presentation, discussion and analysis of the findings.4.1 PERSONAL AND SITUATIONAL CHARACTERISTICSIn assessing the effects of provision of services on Most Vulnerable Children (MVC)in Mtwara district, it is important to consider respondent personal and situationcharacteristics since the characteristings have influence on the respondent behaviour.4.1.1 Personal Charactertistics among Members of HouseholdsRespondent personal characteristics include sex, age, marital status and education. Inview about respondent sex and age, in overall, results in table one and chart 1 showthat 58% of the respondents were female respondents while the rest 42% were malerespondents.Table 4.1.1: Respondent Sex and Age1. Respondent Sex Ward Sex Nambu Tangazo Mayanga Nanguruwe Total N 14 12 11 11 48Male % 48 41 38 39 42 N 15 17 18 17 67Female % 52 59 62 61 58 N 29 29 29 28 115Overall % 100 100 100 100 1002. Age Groups Ward Age Groups Nambu Tangazo Mayanga Nanguruwe Total N 0 3 2 1 618 - 25 % 0 10 7 4 5 N 10 5 9 10 3426 - 35 % 35 17 31 36 30 N 10 10 6 8 3436 - 45 % 35 35 21 29 30 N 7 6 7 7 2746 - 60 % 24 21 24 25 24 N 2 5 5 2 14Above 60 % 7 17 17 7 12 N 29 29 29 28 115Overall % 100 100 100 100 100In looking at indivdual wards, the difference between female and male respondents ishighest in Mayanga ward and smallest in Nambu ward.
Figure 4.1.1: Respondent Sex Chart 1 Respondent Sex 70 62 61 59 60 52 48 50 41 39 38 Percent 40 30 20 10 0 Nambu Tangazo Mayanga Nanguruwe Ward Male FemaleFigure 4.1.2: Age of Respondents Chart 2 Respondent Age Groups Above 60 18 - 25 12% 5% 26 - 35 46 - 60 30% 23% 36 - 45 30% 18 - 25 26 - 35 36 - 45 46 - 60 Above 60In looking at respondents age groups, results show that the majority of therespondents, 83% were in the active age groups which is the age of majority.
Figure 4.1.3: Respondents Education Chart 3 Respondent Education 100 90 80 70 60 Percent 50 40 30 20 10 0 Nambu Tangazo Mayanga Nanguruwe Ward No Education Primary SecondaryResults table 2 and chart 3 show that 82% of the respondents have no formaleducation while 15% have primary education. In looking at individual wards, thesituation is serious in Mayanag ward where 97% of the respondents have no formaleducation. The situation is better in Nanguruwe where 61% of the respondents haveno formal education while 11% have secondary education.Table 4.1.2: Respondent Marital Status1. Respondent Education WardEducation Nambu Tangazo Mayanga Nanguruwe TotalNo Education N 23 26 28 17 94 % 79 90 97 61 82 N 6 2 1 8 17Primary % 21 7 3 29 15 N 0 1 0 3 4Secondary % 0 3 0 11 4 N 29 29 29 28 115Overall % 100 100 100 100 1002. Marital Status WardStatus Nambu Tangazo Mayanga Nanguruwe TotalSingle N 1 3 2 0 6 % 3 10 7 0 5 N 17 11 16 17 61Married % 59 38 55 61 53 N 6 9 5 10 30Divorced % 21 31 17 36 26 N 5 6 6 1 18Widowed % 17 21 21 4 16 N 29 29 29 28 115Overall % 100 100 100 100 100
In looking at respondent marital status, results show that only 53% of the respondentswere married while the rest 5% were single, 26% divorced and 18% widowed.4.2 SITUATIONAL CHARACTERISTICS OF HOUSEHOLDSSituational characteristics cover household family size and respondent mainoccupation.Table 4.2.1: Household Family SizeNumber of People in a Household WardNumber Nambu Tangazo Mayanga Nanguruwe Total N 16 21 17 9 633-5 % 55 72 59 32 55 N 13 8 12 18 516 - 10 % 45 28 41 64 44 N 0 0 0 1 1Above 4 % 0 0 0 4 1 N 29 29 29 28 115Overall % 100 100 100 100 100Figure 4.2.1: Household Family Size Chart 4 Household Family Size 80 70 60 50 percen 40 30 20 10 0 Nambu Tangazo Mayanga Nanguruwe Ward 3 - 5 6 - 10 Above 10In view about respondent sources of income, in overall, farming combined withfishing, livestock and business form main source of income.
Table 4.2.2: Respondent Sources of income WardOccupation Statistics Nambu Tangazo Mayanga Nanguruwe Total N 16 15 23 24 78Faming % 55 52 79 86 68 N 1 1 - - 2Fishing % 3 3 - - 2 N - 4 - - 4Livestock Keeping % - 14 - - 4 N - 1 1 - 2Business % - 3 3 - 2 N - - 1 - 1Wage Employment % - - 3 - 1 N 7 4 - - 11Faming & Fishing % 24 14 - - 10 N 3 - - - 3Farming & Livestock % 10 - - - 3 N 2 3 4 4 13Farming & Business % 7 10 14 14 11 N - 1 - - 1Fishing & Livestock % - 3 - - 1 N 29 29 29 28 115Overall % 100 100 100 100As far as average annual income is concerned, in overall, results show that 86% of therespondents earn below T Shs 200,000/= in annual basis.Table 4.2.3: Respondent Annual Income WardIncome Statistics Total Nambu Tangazo Mayanga Nanguruwe N 26 21 23 28 98Below 200,000/= % 90 75 79 100 86 N 3 6 1 - 10200,000-300,000 % 10 21 3 - 9 N - 1 3 - 4300,000-400,000 % - 4 10 - 4 N - - 2 - 2400,000 and above % - - 7 - 2 N 29 28 29 28 114Overall % 100 100 100 100 100
4.3 DATA COLLECTED FROM SERVICE PROVIDERS ABOUT MVC4.3.1 Age profile of MVCThe following information was gathered by the researcher in order to analyse the ageprofile of MVC. The findings of the study were presented as shown in the table andfigure below;Table 4.3.1: Age profile of MVC Number of respondents Percentages Boys Girls Total6-10 years 6 2 8 40%11-15 years 5 2 7 35%16-18 years 4 1 5 25%Total 15 5 20 100%Figure 4.3.1: Age profile of MVC Number of respondents 7 6-10 years 6 11-15 years 5 16-18 years 4 Boys 3 Girls 2 1 0The findings of the study show that 40% of MVC were aged 6-10 years, followed bythose aged between 11-15 years while those aged between 16-18 were the least. Thetrend was similar for both, boys and girls. These findings suggest that the likelihoodof a child to become a MVC diminished as they get older, probably because, as thechildren get older, they become able to take care of themselves.
4.3.2 Education profile of MVCThe following information was gathered by the researcher in order to analyse theeducation profile of MVC. The findings of the study were presented as shown in thetable and figure below;Table 4.3.2: Education profile of MVC Number of respondent Percentages Boys Girls TotalNo Education 7 3 10 50%Drop out 6 2 8 40%Completed Primary school 2 0 2 10%Total 15 5 20 100%Table 4.3.2: Education profile of MVC Number of respondents 8 No Education 7 Drop out 6 5 Boys 4 Girls 3 Completed primary 2 education 1 0The findings of the study show that 50% of MVC had no education, followed by 40%of respondents who had dropped out of school and 10% of respondents who hadcompleted primary education. These findings suggest that the likelihood of MVChaving no education or dropping out of school is high.
4.3.3 Place to sleep for MVCThe following information was gathered by the researcher in order to find out whereMVC sleep at night at the time they were identified. The findings of the study werepresented as shown in the table and figure below;Table 4.3.3: Place to sleep for MVC Number of respondent Percentages Boys Girls TotalOn the street 9 2 11 55%Churches and mosques 2 1 3 15%Ghetto 2 1 3 15%At home 2 1 3 15%Total 15 5 20 100%Figure 4.3.3: Place to sleep for MVC Number of respondents 10 On the Street 8 6 Boys 4 Girls Churches and mosques Ghetto At home 2 0The findings of the study show that at the time they were identified by serviceproviders, 55% of MVC sleep on the street, 15% of respondents each sleep inmosques and churches, Ghetto and at home. These findings suggest that majority ofMVC sleep on the street in places such as; shop verandas, road ditches and foodselling places.
4.3.4 Number of years as MVC before being identified by service providersThe researcher analysed the feedback from service providers to establish for how longMVC have been in that vulnerable situation before they were identified by the serviceproviders. The objective of asking this question was to determine whether the abilityof MVC to cope with life in the streets is determined by the number of years theyhave been living in the streets. The feedback was presented as shown below;Table 4.3.4: Number of years as MVC before being identified Number of respondents Percentage0-2 year 2 10%3-4 years 3 15%5-6 years 9 45%7 years or more 6 30%Total 20 100%Figure 4.3.4: Number of years as MVC before being identifiedNumber of respondents 10 5-6 years 9 8 7 7 years or more 6 5 4 3-4 years 3 1-2 years 2 1 0The findings of the survey show that majority of MVC have been MVC for 5 years ormore. These findings show that majority of MVC are experienced with life in thestreets and are thus probably able to cope better compared to those who have beenliving in the streets for a few number of years.
4.3.5 Reasons for being MVCHaving collected demographics information about MVC, the researcher analysed thefeedback from service providers on the reasons for being MVC. The findings of thesurvey were presented as shown in the table and figure below;Table 4.3.5: Reasons for becoming MVC Number of respondents Percentage Poverty 9 45% Orphanhood 5 25% Abuse at home 2 10% Separation of parents 4 20% Total 20 100%Figure 4.3.5: Reasons for becoming MVC Number of respondents 10 General poverty 9 8 7 6 Orphan hood 5 Separation of parents 4 3 Abuse at home 2 1 0The findings above show that 45% of respondents became MVC due to povertyfollowed by 25% of respondents who became MVC die to orphanhood (loss of oneparents or both parents), 20% of respondents who became MVC due to separation ofparents and 10% of respondents became MVC due to abuse from parents, familymembers of neighbours. On the issue of poverty, the researcher found out that mostrespondents become MVC because their parents could no longer provide them withbasic needs namely; food, clothing and shelter. This is congruent with previousfindings on the level of household incomes in the study area.
4.3.6 Problems faced by MVCThe researcher asked respondents to mention the problems faced by MVC before theywere identified and put under the care of service providers. The objective was tofindout whether services offered by service providers took in to consideration theproblems faced by MVC before they were identified.Table 4.3.6: Problems faced by MVC Number of respondents PercentageAbuse and harassment 4 20%Lack of food 8 40%Lack of shelter 6 30%Lack of heath service 2 10%Total 20 100%Figure 4.3.6: Problems faced by MVC Number of respondents 14 12 10 Lack of food 8 Lack of shelter 6 Abuse and harassment 4 2 Lack of health services 0This study revealed a number of problems faced by these children, the main problembeing lack of food (40%), followed by lack of shelter (30%), abuse and harassmentespecially from the police (20%) and lack of access to treatment when they get sick.
4.3.7 Coping mechanisms used by MVC on lack of foodTo establish the coping mechanism used by MVC to cope with the problem of lack offood, the researcher asked respondents to mention how MVC used to cope with tlackof food before they were identified. The feedback from respondents was presented asshown in the table and figure below;Table 4.3.7: Coping mechanisms used by MVC on lack of food Number of respondents PercentageEating leftovers 4 20%Do petty business 9 45%They work in exchange for food 6 30%Beg 1 5%Total 20 100%Figure 4.3.7: Coping mechanisms used by MVC on lack of food Number of respondents 14 12 Doing petty 10 business (buy) 8 Work in exchange for food 6 Eating Leftovers 4 2 Begging 0The findings of the study showed that 45% of respondents said that MVCs coped withlack of food by doing petty business, 30% of respondents said that MVC coped withlack of food by working in exchange for food, 20% of respondents said that MVCcoped with lack of food by eating leftovers while 5% of respondents said that MVCcope with the problem of lack of food by begging.
4.3.8 Means of earning income used by MVCTo establish the way MVC used to earn income before they were identified, theresearcher analysed the feedback from respondents and the feedback fromrespondents was documented as shown in the table and figure below;Table 4.3.8: Means of earning income used by MVC Number of respondents PercentageWashing dishes, cleaning 9 45%Washing cars 4 20%Selling of sweets and groundnuts 3 15%Collecting/selling metal scrap 2 10%Washing and cutting fish 2 10%Total 20 100%Figure 4.3.8: Means of earning income used by MVC Number of respondents washing 10 dishes 8 6 Washing and guarding cars selling collecting and washing 4 water selling metal and cutting scraps fish 2 0The findings of the study showed that 45% of respondents wash dishes/cleaning inhotels, 20% of respondents wash and guard cars, 15% of respondents sell sweets, 10%of respondents collect and sell sweets while 10% of respondents wash and cut fish.
4.3.9 Mechanism used by MVC to cope with lack of health careTo establish the coping mechanism used by MVC to cope with the problem of lack ofhealth services before they were identified, the researcher asked respondents tomention how MVC used to cope with lack of health care before they were idenified.The feedback from respondents was presented as shown in the table and figure below;Table 4.3.9: Mechanism used by MVC to cope with lack of health care Number of respondents PercentageSleep off the illness 2 10%Go to hospital or buy medicine 13 65%Go to traditional healers 5 25%Total 20 100%Figure 4.3.9: Mechanism used by MVC to cope with lack of health care Number of respondents Go to hospital 14 buy medicine 12 10 8 Go to traditional 6 healers 4 Sleep off the illness 2 0The findings reveal that out of 20 respondents, only 65% of respondents said thatMVC used to cope with lack of access to health services by going to hospital to askfor free medical treatment or buy medicine from pharmacies if they have money. 25%of respondents said that MVC cope by going to traditional healers while 10% ofrespondents said that they cope with lack of access by sleeping off the illness. Thesefindings show that MVC are very vulnerable to health problems and that is their mostpressing need.
The researcher also observed that some preventable health problems occur to MVCbecause they have no access to proper diagnosis and treatment or even hygiene andsanitation. They rarely have access to facilities they need for their daily hygiene andsanitation, such as toilets, and clean, safe water supply. Many MVC have sufferedchronic diseases, including typhoid, tuberculosis and malaria.The researcher also found out that health problems faced by MVC are caused by thefact that MVC are often barefooted; fighting with each other and beatings from policeand other people exposed them to many risks. Eating leftovers that were dirty, leftuncovered and exposed to flies, and led to various infections and diseases. Lack ofproper shelter and clothing exposed them to skin infections.The researcher also found that, before they were identified, 55% of MVC observedduring the study used sleep on the street, shop verandas, road ditches and food sellingplaces, 15% of MVC used to sleep in mosques and churches, Ghetto and at home.These findings suggest that lack of shelter is among the most pressing needs of MVCwhich must be addressed by service providers.4.3.11 Ability of MVC to cope with living conditions before they were identifiedTo establish whether MVC were able to cope with living conditions before they wereidentified by service providers, the researcher analysed the feedback from respondentson the matter and it was documented as shown in the table and figure below;;Table 4.3.11: Ability of MVC to cope with living conditions Yes NoNo. of respondents 4 16Percentage 20% 80%
Figure 4.3.11: Ability of MVC to cope with living conditions KEY: NO YESThe results show that 80% of respondents said that MVC were not able to cope withliving conditions before they were identified, while 20% of respondents said that 20%of respondents were not able to cope with living conditions. These findings show howvulnerable MVC are and that they need help. Hence the need for service providers asit is the objective of this study.4.4 MVC PROGRAMMES IN THE STUDY AREAThis section focuses on the awareness of households about MVC programmes as wellas types of MVC programmes available in the study area. Results from the studyshow that 75% the respondents involved in the study were aware about theavailability of MVC programmes. In view about types of MVC programme providermentioned, results show Local Government as the main programme provider.The types of services provided by the Local Government incloude school expenses onschool uniforms, school fees, food and mosquito nets. Looking at individual wards,Nambu ward mentioned EDUCAID and KIMWAM as additional programmeproviders. As far as Tangazo ward is concerned, the ward mentioned TASAF andAMREF as additional programmes providers.
The other two wards Mayanga and Nanguruwe mentioned FAWOPA and MSOAPOrespectively as additional programmes provider. The study went further to considerelements of comprehensive care by MVC programmes. In considering individualwards, results show that the ward received primary health care and HIV prevention,care and treatment as well as educational and vocational training.In view about health care, in Nambu ward, local government was the mainprogramme provider and the servive is provided to both children, caregiver andperents. In the same ward, with regard to education, NGOs and local government arethe main programme providers and the children are beneficiaries of such services.Both children, caregiver and parents are the beneficiaries of primary health care.In education, the children become the beneficiaries of such service and localgovernment was mentioned to be the programme provider. In view aboutNanguruwe, only the children are beneficiaries of the primary health care andeducation. While NGOs support primary health care, NGOs and local govenmentsupport education and vocational training.4.5 EFFECTS OF PARTICIPATION IN PROVISION OF MVC SERVICESThis section deliberates on the effects of stakeholders participation in provision ofMVC services to the people in the study area. The enlights on stakeholderparticipation in trained staff at all levels, effectively and efficiently functioningcommittees which are responsible for MVC at all levels, effective and efficient care,support and protection response system at all levels.Availability of adequate resources for responding to needed care, support andprotection from MVC, building capacity of NGOs partners to improve and expandhigh quality comprehensive care, using schools as platforms for intergrated serviceprovision, mobilizing communities to reach large population of number of childrenand households in rural areas with comprehensive essential services and working withdepertments of social welfare and local MVC to develop care of desperately neededskilled village based social workers. The results are shown in the table below;
Table 4.5: The effects of stakeholders participation in provision of MVC services Nambu Tangazo Mayanga Nanguruwe Progrmme Progrmme Progrmme ProgrmmeStakeholderParticipatioon Effect Effect Effect Effect 1. Committee not 1. Improvement 1. lack of 1. lack ofTrained Staff at 3 responsible 3 on malaria 2,3 children 3 childrenall levels follow-up follow-up 1. Community not 1. Lack of 1. Lack of 1. ParentsEffectively and aware cooperation responsibility discouragedefficiently 3 2. Children not 3 leading to poor 3 3 2. Ill treat others on servicesfunctioning visited projectcommittees performance 1. Children 1. Children get 1. Improve on 1. Children problem on education services in problem onEffective and 3 malaria solved 3 support 2 education 3 malaria solvedefficient care 2. No health insurance 1. Lack of service 1. Lack of service 1. The children 1. The childrenAvailability of on education on education are too many are too manyadequate 3 3 2,3 2,3 and health care and health care against limited against limitedresources services services 1. Services is 1. Services is 1. Services is 1. Services isBuilding capacity provided only provided only provided only provided onlyof NGOs 2,3 2 2 2,3 in some parts in some parts in some parts in some partspartners the ward the ward the ward the wardUsing schools as 1. Discrimination 1. Discrimination 1. Discriminationplatforms for at school at school at school 2 2 2,3 3intergrated 2. Children get 2. Childreservices education dislike schoolsMobilising 1. Community 1. Community 1. Community 1. Children docommunities to not yet not yet not yet not get servicesreach large 3 mobilized 2,3 mobilized 3 mobilized 3 becausenumber of community notchildren mobilized 1. Community 1. The govt 1. No supportWorking with is aware and educate the from the limiteddepartments of 3 3 3 3 giving aids to children resourcessocial welfare some childrenThe results shown in the table below show that the participation of stakeholders inprovision of services has resulted in improvements in provision of halth care services,education services and shelter to MVC. However, the study also found that thereefforts are hindered by numerous factors such as; lack of awareness and cooperationamong community members, competence among service providers, lack ofavaliability of resources compared to the large number of MVC who need the servicesand discouragement among community members onaccessing the services.
CHAPTER FIVE5.0 CONCLUSION AND RECOMMENDATIONSThis chapter presents he conclusion reached by the study and recommendations madeto improve the current situation;5.1 CONCLUSIONFrom findings of the study, the researcher found that the provision of services toMVC has helped to improve the welfare of MVC through provision of basic servicessuch as health care, education, food, clothing and shelter. The study found out thatchildren who were once living on the streets without food or health care can now getthose services.Also, the study concludes that, despite of the benefits brought by the provision ofservices to MVC, the efforts are hindered by various factors such as; lack ofawareness and cooperation among community members, competence among serviceproviders, lack of avaliability of resources compared to the large number of MVCwho need the services and discouragement among community members onaccessingthe services.5.2 RECOMMENDATIONS FOR ACTIONBased on the findings of this study, the following recommendations are suggested inorder to solve the factors hindering provision of services to MVC; Public education through the media, such as radio and/or television, should be intensified to change people’s attitudes toward participation in provision of services to MVC. MVC should be perceived as equal members of the community and efforts should be done to help them. Where services for MVC are provided, they should be governed by the principle of collective responsibility, which encourages close participation of members of the community. Community members should be trained in order to mitigate and offset the existing challenges.
The government, and the community at large need to recognize that childrenand youth are full of imagination, desires, and hopes, and that they must beinvolved in decisions that affect their lives. We must find out more about theirproblems and prospects and how we can best help them.