How to Write for and GetPublished in Scientific Journals      Daniel McGowan, PhD      Science Director      Edanz Group  ...
A little about me…                     Edanz Group | 2
Presentation Section One: Scientific publishing Section Two: Before you start… Section Three: Structuring your manuscri...
Section One Scientific publishing Why publish? Publishing in English The publishing timeline Peer review              ...
Why publish?               Nature is complex                               Edanz Group | 5
Why publish?     We use complex technologies and     methods to understand it…                                       Edanz...
Why publish? …and the science is often necessarily complex                                                 Edanz Group | 7
Why publish? To exchange ideas globally! Your research is not complete until it has             been published            ...
Why publish?   New findings of                                 New validated relevance published                          ...
Why publish in English? English is the international language of science Other scientists want to hear from Brazilian re...
Increased competition Relative growth from 100% baseline in 1990                                         Edanz Group | 11
Peer review Exists to ensure that your paper is  as scientifically robust AND  complete as possible before joining  the ‘...
Peer review improves your manuscript Few papers are accepted without revision Rejection and revision are integral to the...
What do journal editors and reviewers want? Is the manuscript sufficiently novel? Is the manuscript of broad enough inte...
What do journal editors want?       Good quality science! Will stand up to peer review Original research that advances a...
Section Two Before you start … Read Study design Select an appropriate journal Ethical issues                         ...
Reading helps your writing Both sides of the brain are essential and work in  harmony            Reading              Log...
Read Know the background material Read broadly Determine the key papers in your field What is the current state of und...
The importance of reading Ensures the most appropriate research questions are asked Ensures the most appropriate methods...
Reading improves your writing Read as often as possible Discuss with your colleagues         Assists you with journal s...
Strategies for reading            Read Title and Abstract first           Self-assess knowledge of topic         Read Resu...
Experimental design Get it right CRITICAL  What is your hypothesis or research question?             THE AIM(S) OF YOUR S...
Experimental design Get it right Sample sizes (n) large enough? Which statistical test(s)?      When in doubt – talk to ...
Journal Selection                    Edanz Group | 24
Choosing a target journal: timing The target journal should be chosen:   After the results to be published have been    ...
Choosing a target journal Journal selection should be based on an honest  evaluation of the manuscript Compare with the ...
Match your manuscript with the journal What is the message? Who will be interested? How significant are your results? ...
Factors to consider Which factor is most important to you?                                   Edanz Group | 28
Evaluating significance: importance Specific interest only or of interest to many Affect many (e.g. new tool) Support f...
Evaluating significance: novelty How new are my results compared with those already published?                     New fi...
Evaluating significance: relevance Are my findings of relevance only to a specific geographical region or ethnic populati...
Evaluating significance: appeal Is my work in an area of ‘popular appeal’? E.g. is it likely to be reported in mainstream...
Publication ethicsDO NOT…Multiple submissionsPlagiarismImproper author contributionData fabrication and falsification...
Conflicts of Interest Actual OR perceived “Authors MUST disclose interests that might APPEAR to affect       their abilit...
Conflicts of Interest Acknowledge ALL financial support Financial or personal connections to your work   Stocks, patent...
Section Three Structuring your manuscript You are telling a story       Beginning → Middle → End      (Introduction)     ...
‘Tell them three times’ Introduction/Beginning   Assertion   ‘tell them what you are going to tell them,’ Body/Middle ...
Basic manuscript structure Expanded IMRaD model   Abstract   Introduction    Assertion   Methods   Results         Ev...
The ‘write’ order For maximum clarity and consistency, write  your manuscript in this order: Methods           Write duri...
The importance of your title                          World Class                      Physics ManuscriptGrabs the reader’...
Abstract Summarizes your work Concise (100–300 words) 1–4 sentences – describe problem(s) addressed 1–4 sentences –obje...
Introduction Why?What question (problem) was         studied?The answer to this question is contained within              ...
Introduction Beginning Sufficient background information   Puts your work into context   Start with a broad background ...
Introduction Middle Rationale   The reason(s) for doing this work?   Why is it important?   Justify your work Explain...
Introduction End State the methods you plan to use Clearly and explicitly state 1–3 specific hypotheses or objectives of...
Methods How did you carry out your work? Subheadings   Easier to read Past tense New methods must be described in suff...
Methods Common headings & order Materials/Reagents Patients/Subjects                           Ethics declarations Anim...
Materials and methods ExampleMaterials and methodsMaterials. Culture media were obtained from Life Technologies(Gaithersbu...
Results What did you find? Accurate, brief, clear Use subheadings Use past tense to describe your results When referri...
Results ExampleResultsOkadaic acid induces death of dentate gyrus neurons selectively.Hippocampal slice cultures treated w...
Display items Tables and figures Present a large amount of data quickly and  efficiently Present most significant result...
Display items Tables               Clear concise legend/captionData dividedinto                   )categoriesfor clarity  ...
Display items Figures                                    Complicated                                    data separatedMult...
Discussion So what?   What do these findings          mean?    The answer to this question is in the                Discus...
Discussion Beginning AVOID repeating the results section Answer the research question(s) posed Emphasize the major find...
Discussion Middle Interpret your results …    Compare with other studies      Same or different?      Possible reasons...
Discussion End Restate major conclusion(s)    In summary … OR            In conclusion … Possible real world applicatio...
References ALWAYS format your references Formatting is required in text for citations and  for your references section ...
Section Four Hints and tips Clear communication Language Cover letters Responding to reviewer comments                ...
Expectations Information is easier to  interpret and more uniform  when placed where most  readers expect to find it Goo...
Verb placement Readers expect verbs to closely follow subjects                            syntactic resolution           ...
Avoid reader confusion Readers can be confused if subject and verb are  separated by too much contentThe smallest of the ...
Avoid reader confusionThe smallest of the URFs is URFA6L, a 207-nucleotide (nt) reading frameoverlapping out of phase the ...
Which voice? Active vs. passive Use the active voice unless your target  journal states otherwiseBlood samples were colle...
Active voice                  Subject                            Verb               Active    Sentences written in the ac...
Stress position Readers focus on information at the end of a  sentence.                  Subject                         ...
Stress positionThe dog sat when her mistress offered a treat.The dog sat when a treat was offered by hermistress.When the ...
Topic position Readers expect a sentence/phrase to be a story  about whoever shows up first                      Subject ...
Topic position                        sentence         idea                idea   idea   idea                Topic link L...
Topic sentences Easier to read Indicates to the reader the main idea of  a paragraph Provides the writer with a focus S...
Topic sentences ExampleIN HIS STUDIES OF THE CONDITIONED REFLEX,PAVLOV WORKED ALMOST ENTIRELY WITHDOGS AND WITH THE SALIVA...
Readability“only 4% of readers understand a 27-word sentence                      first time” Reader objectives    Only ...
Sentence length Keep it short & simple We examined numerous peer-reviewed journals Easy to read articles had an average ...
Goals to aim for … Maximum 25–30 words per sentence Not more than four 30-word sentences in the whole manuscript Use pu...
Simple is best Simple language IS best Makes YOUR science more relevant Minimizes confusion – maximizes understanding ...
Simple words Examples    PREFERRED           AVOID    more                additional    enough              adequate    cl...
Unnecessary words Write simply  In order to…In order to determine the fractalkine expression in the aorta ofApoE −/− mice...
Unnecessary words Further examples PREFERRED         AVOID Because           For the reason that First             In the ...
Common mistakes Comparisons Frequently made in the Results section Compare “like” with “like” Avoid ambiguity Use with...
Avoiding ambiguity Comparisons Relative terms, such as more, higher and greater,  require a reference for comparison Use...
Cover letters Competition for publication space and for  editors’ attention is very high It may not be enough to send a ...
Your cover letter General rules Address to the editor personally State your manuscript title and publication type Give ...
Cover letters ExampleDear Dr Lisberger,Please find enclosed our manuscript entitled “Amyloid-like inclusions in the brains...
Recommending reviewers“… the contact details (including email addresses) of at least four potential peerreviewers for your...
Potential reviewers From your reading and references   Groups doing similar work, producing similar results   Possible ...
Peer review Very few papers are  immediately accepted  without need for any  revisions                         Complete r...
Reasons for rejection: the science     Methods               Validations            Research question     Statistics      ...
Reasons for rejection: the manuscript  Methods detail               Citations          Rationale and aims  Results format ...
Reasons for rejection: otherInappropriate journal      Inappropriate   selected: scope,     timing: too early or  impact, ...
Revision How to respond Politely respond to ALL the reviewers’  comments in a response letter Make it easy to see the ch...
Revision How to respond Conduct the additional experiments suggested    If this is impossible, you MUST explain why You...
Post-referee revisions The responseDear Dr. _____________: [address the editor byname]Thank you for your consideration of ...
Post-referee revisions Point-by-point[After the introduction to the response, address allreviewer points individually]Revi...
Post-referee revisions Disagreement[Sometimes you will disagree with the reviewer. Keepyour response polite and profession...
Understanding reviewer comments           “The English needs to be improved”         “Your writing is difficult to underst...
Understanding reviewer comments“The authors hypothesized to look for the pharmacokinetics ofthe insulin using this 4 mm ne...
Help your readers understand“If you can’t explain something simply,you don’t understand it well.”         – Albert Einstei...
Online resources Paradigm Online Writing Assistanthttp://www.powa.org/                                        Springer Br...
Free resource                Edanz Group | 99
Edanz Journal Advisorsimplifying publication success  featuring Journal Selector                                  Edanz Gr...
How to use it1. Insert English sample text   author’s abstract, short description, key phrases   or abstract from similar ...
2. Filter and refine revise sample text to refine results Impact Factor publication frequency                         Edan...
3. Narrow your options        atch analysis        asic journal        information        matched previous        publicat...
4. Visit journal websitesto make final decision                            Edanz Group | 104
coming soon at edanzediting.com/JSTfollow us on twitter    @JournalAdvisor                        Edanz Group | 105
Thank youGood luck!             Edanz Group | 106
Any questions?If you have queries about writing:read2write@edanzgroup.comhttp://edanzediting.com/brazil_march_2012        ...
English editing for scientists, by scientists Expert scientific editors Services to raise your chances of acceptance En...
ServicesServices for acceptance  Language Editing  Journal Selection  Expert Scientific Review  Abstract Writing  Cov...
Expert editors in all scientific fields          Dr Stephen Cooke          2006 – PhD Immunology, King’s College, UK      ...
English editing for scientists, by           scientists  www.edanzediting.com                                 Edanz Group ...
Edanz Group | 112
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How to Write for and Get Published in Scientific Journals

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Palestra proferida no Workshop sobre como publicar artigos científicos em inglês, na Biblioteca da Escola de Engenharia de São Carlos, por Daniel McGowan, Science Director da Edanz Group

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  • basically just illustrated the process of doing research, then how knowledge of published research can feed into that so maybe a new method is published that is of relevance for your research and you can incorporate that into your study design or there are new findings that change the context in which you interpret your own findings so by publishing your own work you contribute to the work of others, and others contribute to yours through the publication of their own work
  • Will explain the specific methodologies sections
  • One of our major aims is to make the submission process easier for authors. Edanz has developed a beta version of a 'Springer Journal Selector’ to be placed within Springer.com and the Springer Author Academy to assist authors to easily identify Springer journals relevant to their papers and that meet their goals for publication success. Springer's Journal Selector will be useful for authors across all subject areas and from any country. Authors whose first language is not English and/or who come from emerging markets, such as China, the Middle East and South America will find the tool particularly helpful.
  • Note that the tool will not work well using only a few key words
  • One aim for Springer is to make the submission process easier for authors. Edanz has developed a beta version of a 'Springer Journal Selector’ that can be placed within Springer.com and the Springer Author Academy to assist authors to easily identify Springer journals relevant to their papers and that meet their goals for publication success. Springer's Journal Selector will be useful for authors across all subject areas and from any country. Authors whose first language is not English and/or who come from emerging markets, such as China, the Middle East and South America will find the tool particularly helpful. This slide shows the features of the soon-to-be-launched Journal Advisor. Time allowing, you can point out the following features (from top to bottom): - Interactive guide to publication success: Authors tell us what stage they're at and we recommend the next steps and resources for acceptance - Journal Selector - Educational resources such as videos from the Springer Author Academy
  • How to Write for and Get Published in Scientific Journals

    1. 1. How to Write for and GetPublished in Scientific Journals Daniel McGowan, PhD Science Director Edanz Group Universidade de São Paulo (Campus São Carlos) 13 March 2012
    2. 2. A little about me… Edanz Group | 2
    3. 3. Presentation Section One: Scientific publishing Section Two: Before you start… Section Three: Structuring your manuscript Section Four: Hints and tips Edanz Group | 3
    4. 4. Section One Scientific publishing Why publish? Publishing in English The publishing timeline Peer review Edanz Group | 4
    5. 5. Why publish? Nature is complex Edanz Group | 5
    6. 6. Why publish? We use complex technologies and methods to understand it… Edanz Group | 6
    7. 7. Why publish? …and the science is often necessarily complex Edanz Group | 7
    8. 8. Why publish? To exchange ideas globally! Your research is not complete until it has been published Edanz Group | 8
    9. 9. Why publish? New findings of New validated relevance published method published Hypothesis Draw Design conclusions research Perform research Edanz Group | 9
    10. 10. Why publish in English? English is the international language of science Other scientists want to hear from Brazilian researchers! Allows you to become an effective science communicator International reputation enabling collaborations and work opportunities Edanz Group | 10
    11. 11. Increased competition Relative growth from 100% baseline in 1990 Edanz Group | 11
    12. 12. Peer review Exists to ensure that your paper is as scientifically robust AND complete as possible before joining the ‘collective knowledge’ as part of the literature An opportunity to improve your contribution So discoveries get correct accrediting Edanz Group | 12
    13. 13. Peer review improves your manuscript Few papers are accepted without revision Rejection and revision are integral to the peer review process Edanz Group | 13
    14. 14. What do journal editors and reviewers want? Is the manuscript sufficiently novel? Is the manuscript of broad enough interest? Novelty Aims and Scope Significance Impact Factor Edanz Group | 14
    15. 15. What do journal editors want? Good quality science! Will stand up to peer review Original research that advances a field in some way Interesting to the journal’s readership Active research areas Clear and concise English Edanz Group | 15
    16. 16. Section Two Before you start … Read Study design Select an appropriate journal Ethical issues Edanz Group | 16
    17. 17. Reading helps your writing Both sides of the brain are essential and work in harmony Reading Logic Creativity Reading Writing Similarly, reading and writing are connected Edanz Group | 17
    18. 18. Read Know the background material Read broadly Determine the key papers in your field What is the current state of understanding? Identify gaps in the knowledge Edanz Group | 18
    19. 19. The importance of reading Ensures the most appropriate research questions are asked Ensures the most appropriate methods are used Ensures results are interpreted in the appropriate context Ensures the most relevant studies are cited Helps with identification of suitable target journals Edanz Group | 19
    20. 20. Reading improves your writing Read as often as possible Discuss with your colleagues  Assists you with journal selection  Provides ideas for your next manuscript Edanz Group | 20
    21. 21. Strategies for reading Read Title and Abstract first Self-assess knowledge of topic Read Results or the relevant parts of the Results Read Discussion for interpretation Refer to Introduction and Methods only if necessary Edanz Group | 21
    22. 22. Experimental design Get it right CRITICAL What is your hypothesis or research question? THE AIM(S) OF YOUR STUDY What methods are appropriate?  Do you have the relevant resources? Identify your controls Edanz Group | 22
    23. 23. Experimental design Get it right Sample sizes (n) large enough? Which statistical test(s)? When in doubt – talk to a statistician! Does your study comply with ALL ethics requirements? Edanz Group | 23
    24. 24. Journal Selection Edanz Group | 24
    25. 25. Choosing a target journal: timing The target journal should be chosen:  After the results to be published have been obtained (with no new ones coming)  After a decision has been made on how high to aim—high, medium or low impact  Before writing the manuscript Edanz Group | 25
    26. 26. Choosing a target journal Journal selection should be based on an honest evaluation of the manuscript Compare with the stated aims and scope and impact factor of potential target journals Novelty Aims and Scope Significance Impact Factor Edanz Group | 26
    27. 27. Match your manuscript with the journal What is the message? Who will be interested? How significant are your results? Where have similar articles been published? Edanz Group | 27
    28. 28. Factors to consider Which factor is most important to you? Edanz Group | 28
    29. 29. Evaluating significance: importance Specific interest only or of interest to many Affect many (e.g. new tool) Support for (or contradiction of) an existing theory Substantially improve our understanding of a phenomenon or provide a new technology or disease treatment? Edanz Group | 29
    30. 30. Evaluating significance: novelty How new are my results compared with those already published? New findings Incremental Conceptual advances advances Low to medium Medium to high impact factor impact factor Edanz Group | 30
    31. 31. Evaluating significance: relevance Are my findings of relevance only to a specific geographical region or ethnic population or do they have implications for other regions and populations? High impact factor journals may consider specific findings if they are the first of their kind or of international significance. Edanz Group | 31
    32. 32. Evaluating significance: appeal Is my work in an area of ‘popular appeal’? E.g. is it likely to be reported in mainstream or lay scientific media Examples: Edanz Group | 32
    33. 33. Publication ethicsDO NOT…Multiple submissionsPlagiarismImproper author contributionData fabrication and falsificationImproper use of human subjects and animalsConflicts of interest Edanz Group | 33
    34. 34. Conflicts of Interest Actual OR perceived “Authors MUST disclose interests that might APPEAR to affect their ability to present or review data objectively” Guidelines  Committee on Publication Ethics (COPE)  European Association of Science Editors (EASE)  Council of Science Editors (CSE)  International Committee of Medical Journal Editors (ICMJE)  Good publication practice for communicating company sponsored medical research: the GPP2 Guidelines (BMJ 2009, 339:b4330) Edanz Group | 34
    35. 35. Conflicts of Interest Acknowledge ALL financial support Financial or personal connections to your work  Stocks, patents, consultancies, direct relationships “The Clinical Trial Service Unit has a staff policy of not accepting honoraria or other payments from the pharmaceutical industry, except for the reimbursement of costs to participate in scientific meetings. Coordinating centre members of the writing committee (R Collins, J Armitage, S Parish, R Peto) have, therefore, only had such costs reimbursed. P Sleight has received honoraria and costs for participating in meetings.” – Heart Protection Study Collaborative Group, The Lancet (2002) 360:7 Edanz Group | 35
    36. 36. Section Three Structuring your manuscript You are telling a story Beginning → Middle → End (Introduction) (Body) (Conclusion) MUST be easy to read AND easy to understand Edanz Group | 36
    37. 37. ‘Tell them three times’ Introduction/Beginning  Assertion  ‘tell them what you are going to tell them,’ Body/Middle  Evidence  ‘tell them,’ Conclusion/End  Affirmation  ‘tell them again what you told them’. Edanz Group | 37
    38. 38. Basic manuscript structure Expanded IMRaD model  Abstract  Introduction Assertion  Methods  Results Evidence and  Discussion Affirmation  References Edanz Group | 38
    39. 39. The ‘write’ order For maximum clarity and consistency, write your manuscript in this order: Methods Write during the research Results Introduction Write after selecting your Discussion target journal Title Write last Abstract Edanz Group | 39
    40. 40. The importance of your title World Class Physics ManuscriptGrabs the reader’s Introduces your manuscript A label for indexing attention to an editor Convey the main topics of manuscript Be specific and concise AVOID jargon, abbreviations and acronyms Edanz Group | 40
    41. 41. Abstract Summarizes your work Concise (100–300 words) 1–4 sentences – describe problem(s) addressed 1–4 sentences –objectives/hypotheses 1–2 sentences – techniques; AVOID details 1–3 sentences – most important results Final sentence – concluding statement The majority of people will only read this section, it must be able to ‘stand alone’ Edanz Group | 41
    42. 42. Introduction Why?What question (problem) was studied?The answer to this question is contained within your Introduction Beginning → Middle → End Edanz Group | 42
    43. 43. Introduction Beginning Sufficient background information  Puts your work into context  Start with a broad background General Specific Comprehensive literature review Cite reviews Edanz Group | 43
    44. 44. Introduction Middle Rationale  The reason(s) for doing this work?  Why is it important?  Justify your work Explain how you tried to address the problem (1–2 sentences) DO NOT state results from your study Edanz Group | 44
    45. 45. Introduction End State the methods you plan to use Clearly and explicitly state 1–3 specific hypotheses or objectives of your study Edanz Group | 45
    46. 46. Methods How did you carry out your work? Subheadings  Easier to read Past tense New methods must be described in sufficient detail that they can be reproduced Established methods can be referenced  Save time and effort Edanz Group | 46
    47. 47. Methods Common headings & order Materials/Reagents Patients/Subjects Ethics declarations Animals Study design Clinical trial registration number Treatments Specific methodologies … Statistics Edanz Group | 47
    48. 48. Materials and methods ExampleMaterials and methodsMaterials. Culture media were obtained from Life Technologies(Gaithersburg, MD). Okadaic acid was purchased from Alexis Company Materials described first(Läufelfingen, Switzerland). Antibodies to MEK1/2 and phosphorylatedMAPK were purchased from New England Biolabs (Beverley, MA). Suppliers/locations givenInduction of cell death. Cell death was induced as described previously [15]. Clear subheadingsBriefly, cell death was induced by adding okadaic acid (0-300 nM, Alexis Co.)after washing slice cultures in serum-free medium. References used to save spaceLight and electron microscopy. Cultures were fixed in 2.5% glutaraldehydeand 1% formaldehyde, treated with 1% OsO4 in 0.1 M phosphate buffer, pH7.4, dehydrated in a graded series of ethanol and propylene oxide, and flat- Enough information toembedded in an epoxy resin (Durcupan ACM, Fluka, Neu-Ulm, Germany).Semi-thin sections were stained with toluidine blue, and ultra-thin sections reproduce the experimentwere stained with 1% uranyl acetate for 20 min and 1% lead citrate for2 min.Statistics. For statistical analysis, 2-tailed Student’s t-test was used to assess Statistical test parametersthe significance of mean differences. Differences were consideredsignificant at a P-value of 0.05 or less. provided Edanz Group | 48
    49. 49. Results What did you find? Accurate, brief, clear Use subheadings Use past tense to describe your results When referring to figures and tables, use present tense DO NOT explain your results DO NOT duplicate data among figures, tables and text Edanz Group | 49
    50. 50. Results ExampleResultsOkadaic acid induces death of dentate gyrus neurons selectively.Hippocampal slice cultures treated with OA (1–300 nM) showed selective Clear subheadingscell death of neurons in the dentate gyrus, but neurons in the CA1–3regions were largely unaffected. Cell death occurred in a time- and dose-dependent manner. Propidium iodide staining of treated slides indicated….Electron microscopy revealed a number of ultrastructural changes inhippocampal pyramidal neurons, particularly those in the CA3 region, inslices treated with 300 nM OA for 24 h (Fig 3). These changes included Graphics used to saveslight nuclear aggregations (arrow in Fig 3A), accumulation of mitochondriaaround nuclei (arrowheads in Fig 3B) and an increased amount of spaceendoplasmic reticulum (Fig 3C). As shown in Figure 4, the nuclei ofpyramidal neurons in the CA1 and CA3 regions…Involvement of MAPK signaling in the effect of OA. Compared with slicestreated with medium only and treated slices at 0 h, slices treated with 300nM OA showed increasing levels of phosphorylated MAPK at 4 h, 8 h, 16 hand 24 h, with no corresponding change in the levels of total MAPK. This Clear comparisons madeincrease was prevented in slices that were co-incubated with a proteinkinase inhibitor. In addition, the levels of phosphorylated Tau were higherin OA-treated slices than in control slices… Edanz Group | 50
    51. 51. Display items Tables and figures Present a large amount of data quickly and efficiently Present most significant result as a figure or table Keep it simple — use separate panels if necessary AVOID duplication with the text Label all parts of your figures Legends must be able to ‘stand alone’ Edanz Group | 51
    52. 52. Display items Tables Clear concise legend/captionData dividedinto )categoriesfor clarity Abbreviations defined Edanz Group | 52
    53. 53. Display items Figures Complicated data separatedMultiple panels: sets of related into smallerdata are shown in a single figure and simpler components Axes clearly labeledClear, ‘stand alone’ legend Edanz Group | 53
    54. 54. Discussion So what? What do these findings mean? The answer to this question is in the Discussion Beginning → Middle → End Edanz Group | 54
    55. 55. Discussion Beginning AVOID repeating the results section Answer the research question(s) posed Emphasize the major finding(s) first What is your major conclusion, based on the results you have presented? Edanz Group | 55
    56. 56. Discussion Middle Interpret your results …  Compare with other studies  Same or different?  Possible reasons why? Unexpected results Briefly describe any limitations  Samples sizes  Complementary tests  How could experiments be improved? Edanz Group | 56
    57. 57. Discussion End Restate major conclusion(s)  In summary … OR In conclusion … Possible real world applications and implications Suggest future work“Clinical and research priorities include furthering our understanding of the pathogenesis of M. pneumoniae-associated CNS disease, development of more reliable serologic assays, and defining the role of quantitative PCR in distinguishing acute infection from asymptomatic carriage and prolonged post-infection shedding” – Bitun & Richardson Curr Infect Dis Rep 2010, 12:282-290 Edanz Group | 57
    58. 58. References ALWAYS format your references Formatting is required in text for citations and for your references section Use reference management software Edanz Group | 58
    59. 59. Section Four Hints and tips Clear communication Language Cover letters Responding to reviewer comments Edanz Group | 59
    60. 60. Expectations Information is easier to interpret and more uniform when placed where most readers expect to find it Good writers are aware of these expectations Readability Edanz Group | 60
    61. 61. Verb placement Readers expect verbs to closely follow subjects syntactic resolution Subject Sentence Verb Verb . Subject and verb far apart = poor readability Edanz Group | 61
    62. 62. Avoid reader confusion Readers can be confused if subject and verb are separated by too much contentThe smallest of the URFs (URFA6L), a 207-nucleotide (nt) reading frame overlapping out ofphase the [NH2]-terminal portion of theadenosinetriphosphatase (ATPase) subunit 6 gene,has been identified as the animal equivalent of therecently discovered yeast H-ATPase subunit 8 gene. Edanz Group | 62
    63. 63. Avoid reader confusionThe smallest of the URFs is URFA6L, a 207-nucleotide (nt) reading frameoverlapping out of phase the [NH2]-terminal portion of theadenosinetriphosphatase (ATPase) subunit 6 gene; it has been identified as theanimal equivalent of the recently discovered yeast H-ATPase subunit 8 gene.The smallest of the URFs (URFA6L) has been identifiedas the animal equivalent of the recently discovered yeastH-ATPase subunit 8 gene; URFA6L is a 207-nucleotide (nt)reading frame overlapping out of phase the [NH2]-terminal portion of the adenosinetriphosphatase(ATPase) subunit 6 gene.We identified the smallest of the URFs (URFA6L) as theanimal equivalent of the recently discovered yeast H-ATPase subunit 8 gene. URFA6L is a … . Edanz Group | 63
    64. 64. Which voice? Active vs. passive Use the active voice unless your target journal states otherwiseBlood samples were collected from 256 patients.We collected blood from 256 patients. Edanz Group | 64
    65. 65. Active voice Subject Verb Active  Sentences written in the active voice are: SIMPLE DIRECT CLEAR EASY TO READ Edanz Group | 65
    66. 66. Stress position Readers focus on information at the end of a sentence. Subject Verb take-home information . “Save the best until last” Edanz Group | 66
    67. 67. Stress positionThe dog sat when her mistress offered a treat.The dog sat when a treat was offered by hermistress.When the mistress offered her a treat, the dog sat.Readers, without thinking, concentrate on theend of a sentence. Edanz Group | 67
    68. 68. Topic position Readers expect a sentence/phrase to be a story about whoever shows up first Subject Topic position Verb Stress position . Edanz Group | 68
    69. 69. Topic position sentence idea idea idea idea Topic link Linkage and context The family went into the courtyard to see the new puppy. The dog sat when her owner offered a treat. Everyone was so excited they broke into applause. However, as the courtyard was situated right next to my bedroom, the sound woke me from my sleep. Edanz Group | 69
    70. 70. Topic sentences Easier to read Indicates to the reader the main idea of a paragraph Provides the writer with a focus Should be the first sentence of a paragraph Then discuss/explain the topic Summarize with a concluding sentence Beginning → Middle → End Edanz Group | 70
    71. 71. Topic sentences ExampleIN HIS STUDIES OF THE CONDITIONED REFLEX,PAVLOV WORKED ALMOST ENTIRELY WITHDOGS AND WITH THE SALIVARY REFLEX. Implicitin all of his work is the notion that everything the doglearns from puppyhood on is a result of the associationof certain events (which happen to occur at the sametime) with the biologically adequate stimulus to somenative response such as withdrawing, struggling, eating,sex behavior, or the like. What the dog can learn…Henry Garrett, “Great Experiments in Psychology” Edanz Group | 71
    72. 72. Readability“only 4% of readers understand a 27-word sentence first time” Reader objectives  Only need to read once  Do not have to read slowly  Can understand author logic immediately Edanz Group | 72
    73. 73. Sentence length Keep it short & simple We examined numerous peer-reviewed journals Easy to read articles had an average sentence length of around 17 words Sentences that are 15−20 words Long sentences and repetition One sentence: one idea Edanz Group | 73
    74. 74. Goals to aim for … Maximum 25–30 words per sentence Not more than four 30-word sentences in the whole manuscript Use punctuation to your advantage  periods (.) and commas (,) Think about ‘reader expectation’ and match the expectation with the contents Edanz Group | 74
    75. 75. Simple is best Simple language IS best Makes YOUR science more relevant Minimizes confusion – maximizes understanding Science is often complex  Use simple language to help more people understand your work Edanz Group | 75
    76. 76. Simple words Examples PREFERRED AVOID more additional enough adequate clear apparent try attempt show demonstrate try endeavor very exceedingly Edanz Group | 76
    77. 77. Unnecessary words Write simply  In order to…In order to determine the fractalkine expression in the aorta ofApoE −/− mice and the effect of high-dose aspirin intervention onfractalkine expression and atherosclerotic lesion formation, westudied …To determine the fractalkine expression in the aorta of ApoE −/−mice and the effect of high-dose aspirin intervention onfractalkine expression and atherosclerotic lesion formation, westudied … Edanz Group | 77
    78. 78. Unnecessary words Further examples PREFERRED AVOID Because For the reason that First In the first place Soon In the not too distant future Four Four in number Green Green color After Subsequent to Before Prior to Usually Except in a very few instances Edanz Group | 78
    79. 79. Common mistakes Comparisons Frequently made in the Results section Compare “like” with “like” Avoid ambiguity Use with, NOT toThe tumor excised from the pancreas was compared with theliver.The tumor excised from the pancreas was compared withthat from the liver. Edanz Group | 79
    80. 80. Avoiding ambiguity Comparisons Relative terms, such as more, higher and greater, require a reference for comparison Use than or compared with Reactions with the new thermal cycler were faster. Faster than what? Reactions with the new thermal cycler were faster than those with the old cycler. Edanz Group | 80
    81. 81. Cover letters Competition for publication space and for editors’ attention is very high It may not be enough to send a cover letter to a journal editor like this:Dear Editor-in-Chief,I am sending you our manuscript entitled “Techniques to detect circoviruses in Indianbird species” by Raye et al. We would like to have the manuscript considered forpublication in Virology Methods Online.Please let me know of your decision at your earliest convenience.Sincerely yours,Warren Raye, PhD Edanz Group | 81
    82. 82. Your cover letter General rules Address to the editor personally State your manuscript title and publication type Give a brief background, rationale and description of your results Explain the importance of your findings and why they would be of interest to the journal’s target audience Provide corresponding author details Edanz Group | 82
    83. 83. Cover letters ExampleDear Dr Lisberger,Please find enclosed our manuscript entitled “Amyloid-like inclusions in the brains of Huntington’s disease patients”, byMcGowan et al., which we would like to submit for publication as a Research Paper in Neuroscience.Recent immunohistochemical studies have revealed the presence of neuronal inclusions containing an N-terminal portion ofthe mutant huntingtin protein and ubiquitin in the brain tissues of Huntington’s disease (HD) patients; however, the role of Give thethese inclusions in the disease process has remained unclear. One suspected disease-causing mechanism in Huntington’s background todisease and other polyglutamine disorders is the potential for the mutant protein to undergo a conformational change to a the researchmore stable anti-parallel β-sheet structure…To confirm if the immunohistochemically observed huntingtin- and ubiquitin-containing inclusions display amyloid features,we performed Congo red staining and both polarizing and confocal microscopy on post-mortem human brain tissues obtained What was donefrom five HD patients, two AD patients, and two normal controls. Congo red staining revealed a small number of amyloid-like and what wasinclusions showing green birefringence by polarized microscopy, in a variety of cortical regions.... ….detected inclusions foundobserved in parallel sections, suggesting that only a relatively small proportion of inclusions in HD adopt an amyloid-likestructure.We believe our findings would appeal to a broad audience, such as the readership of Neuroscience. As a wide-reaching journal Interest topublishing original research on all aspects of neuroscience… journal’s readersWe confirm that this manuscript has not been published elsewhere and is not under consideration by another journal. Allauthors have approved the manuscript and agree with submission to Neuroscience. We have read and have abided by the Conforms tostatement of ethical standards for manuscripts submitted to Neuroscience. The authors have no conflicts of interest to journaldeclare. requirementsPlease address all correspondence to…. Edanz Group | 83
    84. 84. Recommending reviewers“… the contact details (including email addresses) of at least four potential peerreviewers for your paper. These should be experts in your field of study, who will be ableto provide an objective assessment of the manuscripts quality. Any peer reviewers yousuggest should not have recently published with any of the authors of your manuscriptand should not be members of the same research institution.”Who ARE these experts?Read as much as possible!Know your competitorsProvide a reason for recommending/excluding areviewerEditors have the final decision on reviewer choice Edanz Group | 84
    85. 85. Potential reviewers From your reading and references  Groups doing similar work, producing similar results  Possible collaborators Networking  Meetings, conferences and congresses  People that comment positively Aim for younger and mid-level scientists Scientists new to a field Edanz Group | 85
    86. 86. Peer review Very few papers are immediately accepted without need for any revisions Complete rejection Journal editor Major revisions decision Minor revisions Acceptance Edanz Group | 86
    87. 87. Reasons for rejection: the science Methods Validations Research question Statistics Data versus conclusions Edanz Group | 87
    88. 88. Reasons for rejection: the manuscript Methods detail Citations Rationale and aims Results format Limitations Edanz Group | 88
    89. 89. Reasons for rejection: otherInappropriate journal Inappropriate selected: scope, timing: too early or impact, audience late Edanz Group | 89
    90. 90. Revision How to respond Politely respond to ALL the reviewers’ comments in a response letter Make it easy to see the changes  Refer to line and page numbers  Different color font  Highlight the text Edanz Group | 90
    91. 91. Revision How to respond Conduct the additional experiments suggested  If this is impossible, you MUST explain why You can disagree with reviewers BUT provide evidence (cite references) Comply with deadlines Edanz Group | 91
    92. 92. Post-referee revisions The responseDear Dr. _____________: [address the editor byname]Thank you for your consideration of our manuscriptentitled _____________ [insert manuscript titlehere]. We have reviewed the comments of thereviewers and have thoroughly revised themanuscript. We found the comments helpful, andbelieve our revised manuscript represents asignificant improvement over our initial submission.In response to the reviewers’ suggestions we have[summarize the key changes here] Edanz Group | 92
    93. 93. Post-referee revisions Point-by-point[After the introduction to the response, address allreviewer points individually]Reviewer Comment: In your analysis of the data you have chosen touse a somewhat obscure fitting function (regression). In myopinion, a simple Gaussian function would have sufficed. Moreover,the results would be more instructive and easier to compare toprevious results.Response: We agree with the reviewer’s assessment of the analysis.Our tailored function makes it impossible to fully interpret the datain terms of the prevailing theories. In addition, in its current form itwould be difficult to tell that this measurement constitutes asignificant improvement over previously reported values. We haveredone the analysis using a Gaussian fitting function. Edanz Group | 93
    94. 94. Post-referee revisions Disagreement[Sometimes you will disagree with the reviewer. Keepyour response polite and professional]Reviewer Comment: In your analysis of the data you have chosento use a somewhat obscure fitting function (regression). In myopinion, a simple Gaussian function would have sufficed.Moreover, the results would be more instructive and easier tocompare to previous results.Response: We agree with the reviewer that a simple Gaussian fitwould facilitate comparison with the results of other studies.However, our tailored function allows for the analysis of the datain terms of the Smith model [Smith et al, 1998]. We have addedtwo sentences to the paper (page 3 paragraph 2) to explain the useof this function and Smith’s model. Edanz Group | 94
    95. 95. Understanding reviewer comments “The English needs to be improved” “Your writing is difficult to understand”GrammarLong, complex sentences and paragraphsNon-native expressionsGaps in the logicPoor organization of the manuscriptFlowToo much information Edanz Group | 95
    96. 96. Understanding reviewer comments“The authors hypothesized to look for the pharmacokinetics ofthe insulin using this 4 mm needle; However they didnt dobioequivalence analyses for glucose pharmacodynamics. That isone of my concerns about this methodology.”Questions from reviewers may not always beapparentCosmetic changes Edanz Group | 96
    97. 97. Help your readers understand“If you can’t explain something simply,you don’t understand it well.” – Albert EinsteinWrite to express NOT impressConsider your audience – their native languagemay not be English Edanz Group | 97
    98. 98. Online resources Paradigm Online Writing Assistanthttp://www.powa.org/ Springer Brasil Springer Exemplarhttp://www.springerexemplar.com/ @Springer_Brasil Google Scholarhttp://scholar.google.com/ Purdue Online Writing Labhttp://owl.english.purdue.edu/owl/ Edanz Group | 98
    99. 99. Free resource Edanz Group | 99
    100. 100. Edanz Journal Advisorsimplifying publication success featuring Journal Selector Edanz Group | 100
    101. 101. How to use it1. Insert English sample text author’s abstract, short description, key phrases or abstract from similar paper Edanz Group | 101
    102. 102. 2. Filter and refine revise sample text to refine results Impact Factor publication frequency Edanz Group | 102
    103. 103. 3. Narrow your options atch analysis asic journal information matched previous publications Edanz Group | 103
    104. 104. 4. Visit journal websitesto make final decision Edanz Group | 104
    105. 105. coming soon at edanzediting.com/JSTfollow us on twitter @JournalAdvisor Edanz Group | 105
    106. 106. Thank youGood luck! Edanz Group | 106
    107. 107. Any questions?If you have queries about writing:read2write@edanzgroup.comhttp://edanzediting.com/brazil_march_2012 Edanz Group | 107
    108. 108. English editing for scientists, by scientists Expert scientific editors Services to raise your chances of acceptance Ensuring clear communication of your science Rapid completion Edanz Group | 108
    109. 109. ServicesServices for acceptance  Language Editing  Journal Selection  Expert Scientific Review  Abstract Writing  Cover Letter Writing  Point-by-Point Response Check Edanz Group | 109
    110. 110. Expert editors in all scientific fields Dr Stephen Cooke 2006 – PhD Immunology, King’s College, UK Worked as a post-doctoral fellow for both the Arthritis and Rheumatism Council (ARC) and Cancer Research UK (CRUK)Dr Conan Fee 1989 – PhD Chemical & Process Engineering, University of Canterbury, NZDirector of Biomolecular Interactions Centre at the University of Canterbury; has published over 160 journal articles, bookchapters, conference papers, and patents Dr Jennifer Smith 1999 – PhD Botany, University of Otago, NZ Experienced peer reviewer for functional plant biology, and enzyme and microbial technology Dr Alison Sherwin 1992 – PhD Biochemistry, University of Kent at Canterbury, UK Has edited over 3,000 manuscripts in the Health and Life Sciences for Japanese and Chinese authors Dr Kristen Demarest Dr Andrew Gorman 2000 – PhD Neurobiology and Behavior, SUNY, USA 2001 – PhD Geophysics, University of British Columbia, CA Currently staff scientist at Scripps Research Institute Lecturer at the Geology Department, University of Otago Dr Natasha Lundin Dr Brett Kraabel 2007 – PhD Chemistry, University of Otago, NZ 1995 – PhD Physics, University of California Santa Barbara, USA Cover article author in Angewandte Chemie Specialist in condensed matter physics, optics and materials science Edanz Group | 110
    111. 111. English editing for scientists, by scientists www.edanzediting.com Edanz Group | 111
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