Wonders Of The Sky 2009 Day Sky


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Wonders Of The Sky 2009 Day Sky

  1. 1. Wonders of the Sky
  2. 2. Light & Color Classic <ul><li>M. Minnaert’s classic Light and Color in the Outdoors work is a comprehensive discussion of atmospheric optical phenomena </li></ul><ul><li>Inspiration for these lessons </li></ul>http://www.amazon.com/Light-Color-Outdoors/dp/0387979352
  3. 3. Wonders of the Day Sky
  4. 4. Blue Sky
  5. 5. Blue Sky Factors <ul><li>Factors effecting how blue the sky is </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Cleanliness of air, amount of dust or pollution </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Observer’s altitude </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Water vapor content of air (humidity) </li></ul></ul><ul><li>The bluest sky would be under dry, clean, unpolluted air on a high mountain </li></ul><ul><li>The air is bluest at an angle of 90 ° (right angle) from the sun-termed polarization band </li></ul><ul><li>The sky at night is also blue, revealed by photography </li></ul>
  6. 6. Blue Sky at Night http://hiidenkontti.net/hpl/photos/misc/0101-a02.jpg
  7. 7. Night Moves
  8. 8. Grand Canyon in Moonlight
  9. 9. Van Gogh, The Starry Night , 1889
  10. 10. Rainbow and Antisolar Point <ul><li>Rainbows are visible in a band opposite the sun’s position ( antisolar point ) </li></ul><ul><li>The sun must be at most 42° above the horizon for a rainbow to be visible </li></ul><ul><li>Created by reflection of sunlight by water droplets </li></ul>
  11. 11. Rainbow Phenomena http://www.hmi.de/bereiche/info/dualismus/images/Hawaii_Rainbow.jpg Primary rainbow Secondary rainbow Alexander’s dark band Note that the color order of each rainbow is reversed, red faces each other
  12. 12. Rainbows
  13. 13. Missouri Rainbow http://www.missouriskies.org/rainbow/february_rainbow_2006.html
  14. 14. Supernumerary Bands <ul><li>Supernumerary arcs are purple and green bands on the inside of the primary rainbow </li></ul><ul><li>These are colors beyond the regular ROYGBV colors </li></ul>The arrow indicates supernumerary colors
  15. 15. Rare Moonbow http://homepage3.nifty.com/justin/diary/img_diary/Moonbow.JPG
  16. 16. Moonbow and Dipper
  17. 17. Fogbow http://www.jimcline.com/whales/fogbow001_std.jpg
  18. 18. End of the Rainbow?
  19. 19. Halos <ul><li>The most common halo is a ring of light 22 ° from the sun or moon, the 22° halo </li></ul><ul><li>Sundogs, or parhelia , appear as bright spots near the 22° halo on either side of the sun </li></ul><ul><li>Created by ice crystals high overhead </li></ul>Caution : Never look directly at the sun! 22 ° Halo
  20. 20. Halo and Sundogs http://www2.und.edu/our/photo/images/campusscenes/campusscenes1107789753_large.jpg Sundogs are bright patches on either side of the halo
  21. 21. 22 ° halo http://www.spaceweather.com/swpod2006/10feb06/levesque1.jpg
  22. 22. Lunar Halo http://www.spaceweather.com/swpod2006/11jan06/bush.jpg
  23. 23. Click Lunar Halo Movie
  24. 24. Circumzenithal Arc <ul><li>The circumzenithal arc is a rainbow-like arc that partially circles the overhead point (zenith) </li></ul><ul><li>Compared to the rainbow, the CA resembles a smile </li></ul>Have a nice day!
  25. 25. Circumzenithal Arc http://www.livingwilderness.com/patterns/czarc.jpg
  26. 26. Smile in the Sky
  27. 27. Parhelic Circle <ul><li>The parhelic circle is a horizontal arc passing through the sun and running parallel to the horizon around the sky </li></ul><ul><li>This photo shows the entire sky in one view </li></ul>Parhelic circle
  28. 28. Panorama Parhelic circle 22-Degree Halo
  29. 29. Halo Phenomena http://hyperphysics.phy-astr.gsu.edu/hbase/atmos/imgatm/halo.gif
  30. 30. Pillars <ul><li>A low sun often shows a pillar of light reflected from ice crystals—a sun pillar </li></ul><ul><li>Pillars are also visible above streetlights </li></ul>http://www.acme.com/jef/photos/04nov2003_sun_pillar/mvc-6382r.jpg
  31. 31. Streetlight Pillars http://www.spaceweather.com/swpod2006/20feb06/Gavan1.jpg
  32. 32. Bremen Sun Pillar <ul><li>Katie Laudeman </li></ul><ul><li>Winter, 2008 </li></ul>
  33. 33. Coronas <ul><li>The corona is a small, circular glow that appears to surround the moon (right) or sun </li></ul><ul><li>Can be white or colored rings </li></ul><ul><li>Created by water droplets, ice crystals, or pollen grains </li></ul>
  34. 34. Pollen Corona
  35. 35. Iridescent Clouds http://cimss.ssec.wisc.edu/wxwise/class/iredsnce.html <ul><li>The colors of iridescent clouds are similar to the corona </li></ul><ul><li>Iridescence is often visible in clouds positioned near the sun </li></ul><ul><li>Use sunglasses </li></ul>
  36. 36. Iridescent Cloud http://cimss.ssec.wisc.edu/wxwise/class/iredsnce.html
  37. 37. Glory <ul><li>The glory is an effect similar to a corona </li></ul><ul><li>The glory resembles colored rings that surround the point opposite of the sun (antisolar) </li></ul><ul><li>Glories are best seen from aircraft flying over clouds </li></ul><ul><li>The shadow of the plane can be surrounded by colored rings </li></ul><ul><li>When a person’s shadow displays a glory, it is termed the spectre of the brocken </li></ul>Look for a glory when flying
  38. 38. Glory on Cloudtops http://www.eurastro.de/missions/anta03/GIS50A.JPG
  39. 39. Glory
  40. 40. Specter of the Brocken http://www.walkingbritain.co.uk/gallery/visitors/images/p043.jpg
  41. 41. Heiligenschein <ul><li>A form of glory named the heiligenschein can be often seen as a glow of light around the shadow of an observer’s head </li></ul><ul><li>The heiligenschein is visible in wet or dewy grass (and even on the moon!) </li></ul>http://home.arcor.de/alexander.wuensche/media/astro/tau_opp/heiligenschein_2004apr21.jpg
  42. 42. Apollo 14 Heiligenschein
  43. 43. Bishop’s Ring <ul><li>The Bishop’s Ring is a rare corona that is visible after a large volcanic eruptions </li></ul><ul><li>Volcanic gas and dust injected into the atmosphere creates the Bishop’s Ring </li></ul>Bishop’s Ring following the Mt. Pinatubo eruption, 1992
  44. 44. Concentric Rings <ul><li>Concentric rings are produced by wet or icy branches </li></ul><ul><li>The rings can be viewed with a light source shining from behind (sun, streetlight) the branches </li></ul>
  45. 45. Dappled Light <ul><li>Dappled light is visible beneath trees </li></ul><ul><li>The tiny spaces between leaves form pinhole cameras producing thousands of overlapping images of the sun’s disk upon the ground beneath the tree </li></ul>
  46. 46. Camera Halos <ul><li>Visible often in movies, camera halos are created by light scattered from the individual lenses inside a camera </li></ul><ul><li>Decorative, but not natural </li></ul>
  47. 47. Daytime Sightings <ul><li>The moon is often visible during the day </li></ul><ul><li>Most of the moon’s waxing phases (between new and full moon) can be seen in daylight </li></ul><ul><li>Venus is visible during the day when it is positioned away from the sun </li></ul><ul><li>Computerized telescopes can be used to find bright stars and planets during the day </li></ul>The First Quarter moon is visible in daylight and rises around noon
  48. 48. Daytime Moon, Venus http://www.labteq.net/darkfire_observatory/images/sso/slides/Daytime%20Moon%20and%20Venus.jpg Venus lies below the moon in this image
  49. 49. Venus by Day, Telescope http://hea-www.harvard.edu/hrc.ARCHIVE/2004/2004104.000000-2004104.240000/SpaceWeather/index.html
  50. 50. Late-Day Moon The moon’s phase in this image is waxing gibbous
  51. 51. Contrails <ul><li>Contrails: Short for “condensation trails” </li></ul><ul><li>An artificial cloud produced by aircraft exhaust </li></ul><ul><li>Exhaust provides water vapor condensation nuclei for water droplet formation </li></ul><ul><li>Useful for judging humidity </li></ul><ul><li>Contrails are short-lived in dry air, long-lived in humid air </li></ul>
  52. 52. Jet & Crescent Moon
  53. 53. Contrail Clutter <ul><li>NASA satellite image, Oct 2004 </li></ul>
  54. 54. Contrail Shadow
  55. 55. Odd Clouds: Mammatus <ul><li>Sagging, pouchlike structure </li></ul><ul><li>Represents a cloud that formed in sinking air </li></ul>
  56. 56. Mammatus Clouds
  57. 57. Virga <ul><li>Virga represents a streaklike form of precipitation that evaporates before reaching the ground </li></ul>
  58. 58. Clouds Trailing Virga