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Terrestrial Planets (2009)
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Terrestrial Planets (2009)

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  • 1.
    • Other Terrestrial Planets
      • Mercury
      • Venus
      • Mars
  • 2. Mercury Data http://www.vegaattractions.com/images/1mercury.gif Surface Gravity if Earth = 1 0.38 Planet Symbol (draw) Mass if Earth = 1 0.055 Length of Day 58.65 Earth days Diameter if Earth = 1 0.38 Length of Year (revolution around the sun) 87.97 Earth days Diameter at the Equator 3,031 miles Moons 0 Mean Distance from the sun 36,000,000 miles 0.4 AU
  • 3. Discovery
    • Naked eye planet
    • It was first mentioned in written records of the Sumerians (3000 BC).
  • 4. Mercury is only Slightly Larger than the Moon MERCURY OUR MOON
  • 5. Mercury Visibility
    • Briefly at sunset or sunrise
    • Always close to the sun
    • Inferior planet phases provided proof of Copernican solar system
  • 6. Phases of Mercury
    • Inferior planet (between sun and earth), displays phases
    • Visible in telescopes
  • 7. Phases of Inferior Planets http://www.polaris.iastate.edu/EveningStar/Unit1/Graphics/PicES1_6c.gif http://astromm.calstatela.edu/images/planets/larousse/Me_Phases.jpg
  • 8. Eccentric Orbit
    • Mercury’s orbit is one of the most elliptical, or eccentric
    • Perihelion, 46 million km
    • Aphelion, 70 million km
  • 9. Planetary Eccentricities Which planet is most eccentric?
  • 10. Mercury’s Lobsided Orbit www.astro.lsa.umich.edu/.../ mercury_layers.jpg
  • 11. Mercury’s Temperature
    • Extreme temp changes
    • Dayside, 840 °F (450 °C)
    • Nightside, -290 °F (-180 °C)
    • Venus is the hottest planet
  • 12. Surface Features
    • Mercury resembles the moon
    • Like the moon, it lacks a substantive atmosphere
    • Mercury is heavily cratered and very old.
    • Features: Scarps (enormous cliffs)
    • Caloris Basin
    http://www.r-ds.com/images/ImagesOpera/beethoven.jpg
  • 13. Discovery Scarp
  • 14. Caloris Basin
    • About 800 miles diameter
    • Impact feature
    • Resembles lunar maria (seas)
    • Impact nearly shattered Mercury, created warped region at antipode
    http://www.record-producer.com/i/capacitor-microphone-sizzle.jpg
  • 15. Mercury Names
    • Features on Mercury named for famous writers, musicians, and painters.
    • Craters Beethoven, Homer, Mark Twain, and Matisse
    • 297 named features
  • 16. Caloris Basin & Antipode
  • 17. 16 Largest Craters on Mercury
    • Beethoven
    • Tolstoy
    • Raphael
    • Goethe
    • Homer
    • Vyasa
    • Rodin
    • Monet
    • Haydn
    • Mozart
    • Bach
    • Valmiki
    • Renoir
    • Wren
    • Vivaldi
    • Matisse
  • 18. Shakespeare quadrangle of Mercury http://www.hollowaypages.com/images/CHANDOS2.jpg
  • 19. Interior
    • Large molten iron core
    • Mercury’s metal core dominates most of the planet’s volume
    • For earth’s core, only 17%, Mercury’s 80%
  • 20. Mercury’s Day
    • Mercury rotates three times in two of its years
    • Rotation = 58.65 earth days
    • Revolution = 87.97 earth days
    • Mercury experiences only three days in two of its years.
    • 3(58.65) = 175.95
    • 2(87.97) = 175.94
  • 21. Spacecraft
    • Mariner 10: Visited Mercury in 1975.
      • Photographed 45% of surface
    • MESSENGER:
      • Launched 2004
      • Perform 2 flybys
      • Orbit Mercury starting in 2011
      • Homepage
  • 22. Mariner 10’s Mercury (all images) http://nssdc.gsfc.nasa.gov/imgcat/mission_index.html#Mariner_10
  • 23. MESSENGER
    • Launched August 2004, reached Mercury January 2008
    • Will orbit and map Mercury
    http://ltpwww.gsfc.nasa.gov/ltp/images/Messengercraft.jpg
  • 24. MESSENGER: Jan 2008
  • 25. MESSENGER: Double-Ring Crater (1/14/08) http:// messenger.jhuapl.edu /
  • 26. MESSENGER: “Spider” Crater
  • 27. MESSENGER: Jan 2009
  • 28. Water on Mercury!?
    • Ice may exist in craters at Mercury’s poles
    • Cratered areas never receive sunlight
    • Similar deposits might exist on our Moon
  • 29. Transits of Mercury
    • Transit : The passage of an inferior planet (Venus or Mercury) across the face of the sun
    • For Mercury, about 13 per century
    • Last was November 2006
    • Spaceweather Link
  • 30. Lore of Mercury
    • Wednesday, or Woden’s Day, is named for Mercury
    • Greeks: Evening appearance Apollo, morning appearance Hermes
    • Romans: God of commerce, travel, and thievery
    • Mercury was the quickest moving of the heavenly bodies, and the first to orbit earth in Ptolemy’s universe
  • 31. Venus Data http://www.vegaattractions.com/images/1venus.gif Surface Gravity if Earth = 1 0.91 Planet Symbol (draw) Mass if Earth = 1 0.815 Length of Day 243.01 Earth days Diameter if Earth = 1 0.95 Length of Year (revolution around the sun) 224.70 Earth days Diameter at the Equator 7,521miles Moons None Mean Distance from the sun 67,200,000 miles 0.72 AU
  • 32. Venus
    • Venus : Roman goddess love and beauty
    • Naked eye planet
    • Venus is the brightest of planet as seen from earth, brightest object besides sun and the moon
  • 33. Evening and Morning Star
    • Evening or Morning
    • Never visible late in evening
    • Venus can extend about 45º to the east or west of the sun
    • Venus stays in the sky much longer than Mercury which sets or rises near the sun
    • Venus often pairs with the crescent moon for pretty scenes
  • 34. Venus as Evening Star Venus as an evening star in the western sky after sunset
  • 35. Venus as Morning Star Venus as a morning star in the eastern sky before sunrise
  • 36. Changing Positions of Venus, Mercury http://www.nmm.ac.uk/upload/img/mv-orbit.jpg
  • 37. Evening Star: Venus and Moon http://www.russellsastronomy.com/sky/April-June%20Planets.htm
  • 38. Phases of Venus
    • As an inferior planet (between sun and earth), Venus displays phases that resemble the phases of earth’s moon.
    • Visible in telescopes
    • Galileo first observed the phases of Venus in the early 1600s. He was the first astronomer to use a telescope to study the night sky.
  • 39. Phases of Venus, cont.
    • Galileo’s observation of the phases of Venus provided important evidence in favor of Copernicus’s heliocentric (sun-centered) theory of the solar system.
    • Ptolemaic, or earth-centered solar system would only allow crescent phases
    • Copernican system allows “full” Venus
    http://phyun5.ucr.edu/~wudka/Physics7/Notes_www/img152.gif Galileo’s Venus Sketches
  • 40. Venus Phases, Earth and Sun Centered http://r2d2.stcloudstate.edu/~womack/astr/galileo/venuscop.jpg
  • 41. Phases of Venus ( Click Here ) http://www.robertsilvey.com/notes/Venus02t.jpg
  • 42. 8 year cycle & Synodic Period
    • Venus orbits the sun 13 times in 8 earth years
    • Result : We witness 5 Venus events every 8 earth years
    • For example, 5 inferior conjunctions of Venus occur every 8 earth years
    • Visually, appearances of Venus repeat every 8 years on virtually the same calendar date
    • The time between successive conjunctions of a planet and the earth is termed the synodic period
  • 43. Venus Synodic Period
    • Venus Synodic Period = 584 days
    • Compared to earth’s year, this is a 5:8 ratio
    • 5 x 584 = 2920 days
    • 8 x 365 = 2920 days
    • Coincidence
  • 44. 8 Year Cycle
    • Image, draw a line between earth and Venus
    • Outer edge is earth’s orbit
    • Inner circle is Venus’s orbit
    • Sun in center
    http://www.dreamhawk.com/venusearth.jpg
  • 45. Retrograde Rotation
    • Venus’s rotation is 243 earth days
    • Also retrograde, rotates clockwise
    • Mystery, perhaps an impact occurred?
  • 46. Earth’s Sister Planet
    • Venus 95% of earth’s diameter, 80% of earth’s mass
    • Earth is heaven, Venus is hell
  • 47. Atmosphere of Venus
    • Venus is entirely covered with a thick atmosphere of Carbon Dioxide.
    • Surface of Venus never visible from earth
    • Magellan spacecraft used radar to map planet’s surface
    • Immense greenhouse effect, Venus’s surface temperature equals 900ºF (hot enough to melt lead).
    • Hotter than Mercury, twice as far from the sun
    • High atmospheric pressure
    • Sulfuric acid rain
  • 48. Venus Greenhouse Effect http://www.uk2planets.org.uk/images/gallery/venus_greenhouse%20effect_esa.jpg
  • 49. Cloudy Venus Venus is covered with a dense layer of clouds that hides its surface. Unlike the benign water vapor clouds on Earth, these clouds contain large amounts of sulfur dust and sulfur compounds, giving them a yellow-orange color. The clouds on Venus are made of concentrated sulfuric acid.
  • 50. Spacecraft to Venus
    • More than 20 space missions, American and Russian
    • First Mariner 2, 1962.
    • Soviet Venera 7, the first spacecraft to land on another planet, and Venera 9, returned the first photographs of the surface.
    • Magellan mapped Venus (after 1990)
    http://members.aol.com/NYRocketScience/space/1962/s199-us-mariner2.jpg
  • 51. Mariner’s Venus http://www.solarviews.com/browse/venus/venusmar.jpg 1962
  • 52. Venus’s Surface (Venera) http://antwrp.gsfc.nasa.gov/apod/image/0311/venus_venera13.jpg
  • 53. Magellan Global Views http://nssdc.gsfc.nasa.gov/photo_gallery/photogallery-venus.html
  • 54. Venusian Landscape (Magellan)
  • 55. Venusian Crater
  • 56. Surface Features
    • Gently sloped surface, mainly lava flows
    • A few impact craters
    • Several depressions such as Atalanta Planitia .
    • Two large plateaus or highland areas ( Ishtar Terra and Aphrodite Terra ), most similar to earth’s continents
    • Several large volcanoes such as the Sif Mons, not active
    • Unique landforms such as pancake volcanoes, spider-like “arachnoids,” and coronae
  • 57. Equatorial Venus
  • 58. Venus Volcanism (all images) http://nineplanets.edu
  • 59. Unusual Volcanism, Pancake Domes
  • 60. Corona and Arachnoid
  • 61. Early Fancies
    • A swampy world with dinosaurs
    • Pure fantasy
  • 62. Transits of Venus
    • Venus transits occur twice in 8 years, separated by over 120 years
    • One of the rarest events in astronomy
    • Last transit of Venus occurred June 8, 2004, the next will be in 2012
    • Previous transit had been in 1882
  • 63. June 2004 Transit of Venus http://www.atmob.org/Photo/venus_2004/venus%20transit%208.JPG
  • 64. Transits of Venus 8 June 9, 2255 122 June 11, 2247 8 December 8, 2125 105 December 11, 2117 8 June 6, 2012 June 8, 2004 Separation in Years Transit Dates
  • 65. Feminist Planet
    • Surface features named after women
    • Ex : Amelia Earhart and Sacajawea, also ancient goddesses such as Ishtar and Aphrodite
    http://www.feministcampus.org/images/egreeting/rosie_the_riveter.jpg
  • 66. “Personality” of Venus
    • Rises quickly and is very brilliant
    • High in the sky for a few months, sinks rapidly to disappear.
    • Moves back and forth between morning and evening sky (about 9 months in each)
    • Behavior interpreted in mythology (Maya, Sumerian) and Paradise Lost
  • 67. Lore of Venus
    • Sumerians : Goddess Ishtar, conjunctions represented the goddess's death and rebirth
    • Greeks : Hesperus in the evening sky, Phosphorus in the morning sky
    • Maya : God Quetazlcóatl (winged serpent)
    • Maya Venus Calendar (Dresden Codex)
  • 68. Goddess Ishtar http://www.unige.ch/lettres/antic/mesopotamie/ishtar.jpg
  • 69. Maya Venus, Dresden Codex http://www-groups.dcs.st-and.ac.uk/~history/Diagrams/Dresden.jpeg
  • 70. Maya Venus “Observatory” at Chichen Itza http://centros.edu.aytolacoruna.es/sfxabier/world_links/mexico_observatory.jpg
  • 71. Lore of Venus: Paradise Lost
    • Milton : The movement of Venus in the sky was used as a metaphor of the fallen angel Lucifer
    • Central theme of epic poem Paradise Lost
    • Published in 1674, the poem deals directly with ideas from the Bible
  • 72. Paradise Lost http://www.clt.astate.edu/wnarey/Honors%20Seminars_files/Horror/summar3.jpg http://users.ox.ac.uk/~lina0897/emwo/images/big/PARADISE_LOST.jpg
  • 73. Mars Data http://www.vegaattractions.com/astrology/symbols.html Surface Gravity if Earth = 1 0.38 Planet Symbol (draw) Mass if Earth = 1 0.107 Length of Day 24 hr. 37 min. 22.6 sec. Diameter if Earth = 1 0.53 Length of Year (revolution around the sun) 686.98 Earth days Diameter at the Equator 4,217 miles Moons 2 Mean Distance from the sun 141,500,000 miles AU
  • 74. Red Planet
    • God of War : Mars was the Roman god of war
    • Discovery : Mars has been known since prehistoric times
    • A favored location for science fiction stories
    • Becomes very bright about every two years (opposition)
  • 75. Spacecraft
    • Mariner 4, 1965
      • No canals
    • Viking landers, 1976
      • Twin landers, sampled soil, no life
    • Mars Pathfinder, 1997
      • First rover mission
    • Spirit & Opportunity, 2004
      • Twin rovers
    • Phoenix, 2007
      • Martian Arctic, sampled soil and ice
  • 76. Mariner 4 : No Canals (1965) http://mpfwww.jpl.nasa.gov/MPF/martianchronicle/martianchron2/issue2images/mariner4photo.jpeg
  • 77. Viking (1976) http://www.hypography.com/bilder/viking_on_mars.jpg
  • 78. Pathfinder (1997) http://users.bigpond.net.au/Nick/Mars/Pathfinder.jpg
  • 79. Pathfinder (Mars or Arizona?) http://anw.com/mars/images/widescene.jpg
  • 80. Mars Exploration
    • In 2004 the Mars Expedition Rovers "Spirit" and "Opportunity" landed on Mars sending back geologic data and many pictures
    • Spirit and Opportunity are still operating
    http:// marsrovers.jpl.nasa.gov/home/index.html
  • 81. Spirit & Opportunity
    • Panoramic Photos
    • http://antwrp.gsfc.nasa.gov/apod/ap040318.html
    • http://antwrp.gsfc.nasa.gov/apod/ap040114.html
    • http://antwrp.gsfc.nasa.gov/apod/ap040204.html
  • 82.  
  • 83. Mars Phoenix, 2007 Phoenix, location near north pole of Mars
  • 84. Mars Phoenix
  • 85. Phoenix: Ice on Mars
  • 86. Mars Missions
  • 87. Cold Planet
    • Climate : Range from –207ºF at the winter pole to 80ºF on the day side during summer
    • Average temperature is –67ºF
    • Most earthlike, despite cold
    • Mars has earthlike tilt (25.19  ) and four seasons
  • 88. Dusty Planet
    • Atmosphere : Thin, mostly of carbon dioxide (95.3%) plus nitrogen (2.7%) and various other gases
    • Strong winds and immense dust storms that can cover most of the planet and last for many months
    • Dust devils
  • 89. Mars Dust Storm
  • 90. Martian Seasons Large ice cap made mostly of frozen carbon dioxide (dry ice) The dry ice melts, leaving a much smaller polar cap
  • 91. Surface Features
    • Surface: Nearly same land surface area as earth
    • Old and cratered
    • Resembles lunar highlands on earth’s moon
    • Younger features such as rift valleys, ridges, hills, and plains.
    • Unique and interesting, Olympus Mons, Valles Marineris
  • 92. Impact Craters on Mars Most of these craters are found in the Southern Hemisphere, suggesting that the northern vastness has been resurfaced.
  • 93. Olympus Mons http://www.physast.uga.edu/~jss/1010/ch10/mtoly.jpg
  • 94. Tharsis Region Olympus Mons & clouds
  • 95. Vallis Marineris (Viking)
  • 96. Mars Volcanism
    • Mars appears to lack plate tectonics, reason for huge volcanoes such as Olympus Mons.
    • Plate motions wouldn’t allow such large piles of lava to accumulate
    • No active volcanism has been observed on Mars
  • 97. Martian Water
    • Dry river and stream beds
    • Large lakes or oceans may have existed
    • Ice Caps : Permanent ice caps at its north and south poles.
      • Mainly carbon dioxide (dry ice) with a small amount of frozen water ice
    • Sedimentary rocks
  • 98. Water Features Martian winding canyon, photographed by the Viking orbiter The Yangtze River in China has similar features
  • 99. Ancient Waterways? An ancient lake A dried riverbed Sedimentation
  • 100. Layers of rock laid down by water Hemetite black rocks, usually formed in water Gullies in crater walls
  • 101. Sedimentary Layers from Water http://science.nasa.gov/headlines/images/mars_water/sediments.jpg
  • 102. Chyrse, “Teardrop” Islands http://www.esa.int/images/mars_water_400.jpg
  • 103. Martian Ice
  • 104. Martian Life?
    • Viking landers performed experiments to determine the presence of live, results inconclusive
    • Some meteorites originated on Mars
    • In 1996, NASA scientists announced the discovery of organic compounds and fossilized microorganisms in Martian meteorite ALH84001
    • Controversial
  • 105. Viking Lander
  • 106. Viking Life Experiment Trenches http://www.physics.uc.edu/~hanson/ASTRO/LECTURENOTES/ET/Earth/VikingMarsBig.jpg
  • 107. Meteorite from Mars! http://www.universetoday.com/am/uploads/meteorite.jpg http://www.newscientist.com/data/images/ns/cms/dn8004/dn8004-1_440.jpg
  • 108. Martian Life? (ALH84001) http://www.lpi.usra.edu/lpi/meteorites/Photomicrograph.gif
  • 109. Fear & Panic
    • Mars has two small moons
    • Discovered in 1877 by Asaph Hall
    • Phobos and Deimos—Fear and Panic—after two sons of the god of war mentioned in Homer’s Iliad .
    • Small satellites (Phobos is only 24 miles across), resemble asteroids
    • Similar to moons in Gulliver’s Travels (1726)
  • 110. Phobos & Deimos http://www.sarkanniemi.fi/oppimateriaali/tahtiakatemia/kuvat/aurinkokunta/deimos_phobos.jpg http://perso.wanadoo.fr/pgj/phobos-deimos-061105.gif
  • 111. Martian Names
    • Martian Nomenclature : System of Schiaparelli.
    • Imaginary and real place names from Greek and Roman literature
    • Ex : Solis Lacus (Lake of the Sun), Aurorae Sinus (Bay of Dawn), Margaritifer Sinus (coast of India), Syrtis Major (Gulf of Sidra), Mare Tyrrhenum (Tyrrhenian Sea), Hellas (Greece), Eden and Elysium
  • 112. Observing Mars
    • Mars in the Night Sky : Every two years, Mars gets very bright and easily visible.
    • Oppositions, earth and superior planet at minimum distance apart
    • At opposition, superior planet rises in the east as the sun sets in the west
  • 113. Oppositions of Mars
    • Future Oppositions
    • 7 Nov 2005
    • 24 Dec 2007
    • 29 Jan 2010
    • 3 Mar 2012
    • 8 April 2014
    • 22 May 2016
    • 27 July 2018
    • 13 Oct 2020
  • 114. Viking’s Face on Mars (1976) http://mcadams.posc.mu.edu/images%5Cface_mars.jpg
  • 115. Face the Truth Apparent “face” on the Martian surface 22 years later, with improved technology the feature looks more natural
  • 116. Alien with Spirit?
  • 117. Life on Mars?