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SOC2002: Sociological Analysis and Research Methods LECTURE 6: Data Collection (2) Secondary data Lecturer: Bonnie Green [...
The research process: today… Reporting Topic/Object 1 2 3 4 5 6 LECTURES 5, 6, 7, 9 & 10 Research question Research design...
Data Collection (2):  Overview <ul><li>Numerous data collection techniques </li></ul><ul><li>Today, some of the techniques...
Secondary data <ul><li>Secondary data </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Data collected by someone else </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Both...
Secondary data <ul><li>Gaining access to the secondary data is a data collection process </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Sometimes t...
Secondary data <ul><li>Before you start consider: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Who collected the data and what were their intenti...
What do the data mean? <ul><li>Remember that each step in the research process is connected </li></ul><ul><li>Crime statis...
What do the data mean? <ul><li>Compiling official statistics can be seen as a complex process involving </li></ul><ul><ul>...
What do the data mean? <ul><li>Do not take official statistics at face value </li></ul><ul><li>Data never “speak for thems...
Collecting secondary data <ul><li>Which dataset(s) could I use? </li></ul><ul><li>How do I gain access to this data? </li>...
Collecting secondary data <ul><li>Which dataset(s) could I use? </li></ul><ul><ul><li>What secondary datasets are out ther...
Which dataset(s) could I use? <ul><li>Check out the Economic and Social Data Service ( http://www.esds.ac.uk/ ) </li></ul>...
ESDS Government <ul><li>Annual Population Survey  </li></ul><ul><li>British Crime Survey / Scottish Crime Survey  </li></u...
ESDS Longitudinal & Qualidata <ul><li>Longitudinal </li></ul><ul><ul><li>1970 British Cohort Study  </li></ul></ul><ul><ul...
Collecting secondary data <ul><li>Which dataset(s) could I use? </li></ul><ul><li>How do I gain access to this data? </li>...
Accessing secondary data <ul><li>What are the procedures for gaining access? </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Search the  ESDS catalo...
Collecting secondary data <ul><li>Which dataset(s) could I use? </li></ul><ul><li>How do I gain access to this data? </li>...
Data formats & explanatory notes <ul><li>Are the data delivered digitally or in hardcopy, and in what format? </li></ul><u...
Collecting secondary data <ul><li>Which dataset(s) could I use? </li></ul><ul><li>How do I gain access to this data? </li>...
Ethics, data protection and storage for secondary data <ul><li>Does the provider stipulate certain data storage conditions...
Data Collection (2):  Summary <ul><li>Obtaining secondary data for social research should be thought of as a process of da...
Data Collection (2):  Some advice… <ul><li>When using secondary data make sure you are using the most appropriate dataset ...
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SOC2002 Lecture 6

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  • Transcript of "SOC2002 Lecture 6"

    1. 1. SOC2002: Sociological Analysis and Research Methods LECTURE 6: Data Collection (2) Secondary data Lecturer: Bonnie Green [email_address]
    2. 2. The research process: today… Reporting Topic/Object 1 2 3 4 5 6 LECTURES 5, 6, 7, 9 & 10 Research question Research design Data collection Data analysis Interpretation Literature review, and/or field reconnaissance Choosing indicators & Project Planning Ethics Quality
    3. 3. Data Collection (2): Overview <ul><li>Numerous data collection techniques </li></ul><ul><li>Today, some of the techniques used to obtain quantitative data </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Secondary data </li></ul></ul>
    4. 4. Secondary data <ul><li>Secondary data </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Data collected by someone else </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Both quantitative and qualitative </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Secondary data analysis </li></ul><ul><ul><li>“ the analysis of data by researchers probably not involved in the collection of those data for purposes…not envisaged by those responsible for the data collection” (Bryman, 2001: 196) </li></ul></ul>
    5. 5. Secondary data <ul><li>Gaining access to the secondary data is a data collection process </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Sometimes this can be difficult and time consuming </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>To get all the data you need to generate the information and knowledge required by your question you may need more than one source </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Often large amounts of extraneous data to sift through to get to the ones you want </li></ul></ul>
    6. 6. Secondary data <ul><li>Before you start consider: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Who collected the data and what were their intentions? </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Who funded the collection of the data? </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Did they use the proper procedures? </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Does the research stand up to scrutiny? </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Reliability and validity (Bryman, 2001: 206-207) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Qualitative criteria </li></ul></ul><ul><li>What do the data mean? </li></ul>
    7. 7. What do the data mean? <ul><li>Remember that each step in the research process is connected </li></ul><ul><li>Crime statistics (May, 2001: 74-80) </li></ul><ul><li>What is “a crime”? </li></ul><ul><ul><li>“ for an act to be criminal it must be defined as such by criminal law” (May, 2001: 75) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>What is considered criminal changes over time </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>A social construct </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Detection </li></ul></ul>
    8. 8. What do the data mean? <ul><li>Compiling official statistics can be seen as a complex process involving </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Interpretation </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Discretion </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Differential application of the law </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Enforcement </li></ul></ul><ul><li>The numbers given by the official crime statistics may be a poor indicator of the incidence of crime </li></ul><ul><ul><li>“ As the authors of the British Crime Survey report note: ‘there is some doubt as to how accurately the BCS measures domestic violence’ (Mirrlees-Black et al. , 1996:30)” (May, 2001: 76) </li></ul></ul><ul><li>They may be a worse indicator of how much crime people think is going on </li></ul>
    9. 9. What do the data mean? <ul><li>Do not take official statistics at face value </li></ul><ul><li>Data never “speak for themselves” </li></ul><ul><li>You must be able to justify your choice of secondary data, and show that the indicators you have chosen are good ones </li></ul><ul><ul><li>i.e. is the numerical value given in the BCS really a good indicator of the incidence a particular crime (e.g. violent knife crime)? </li></ul></ul>
    10. 10. Collecting secondary data <ul><li>Which dataset(s) could I use? </li></ul><ul><li>How do I gain access to this data? </li></ul><ul><li>How will the data be delivered to me? </li></ul><ul><li>What are my ethical/data protection/data storage responsibilities? </li></ul>
    11. 11. Collecting secondary data <ul><li>Which dataset(s) could I use? </li></ul><ul><ul><li>What secondary datasets are out there and what is in each one? </li></ul></ul><ul><li>How do I gain access to this data? </li></ul><ul><li>How will the data be delivered to me? </li></ul><ul><li>What are my ethical/data protection/data storage responsibilities? </li></ul>
    12. 12. Which dataset(s) could I use? <ul><li>Check out the Economic and Social Data Service ( http://www.esds.ac.uk/ ) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>ESDS government </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>ESDS International </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>ESDS Longitudinal </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>ESDS Qualidata (i.e. qualitative data) </li></ul></ul>
    13. 13. ESDS Government <ul><li>Annual Population Survey </li></ul><ul><li>British Crime Survey / Scottish Crime Survey </li></ul><ul><li>British Social Attitudes Survey / Northern Ireland Social Attitudes Survey / Scottish Social Attitudes Survey / Northern Ireland Life and Times Survey / Young People's Social Attitudes </li></ul><ul><li>Expenditure and Food Survey </li></ul><ul><li>Family Expenditure Survey / Northern Ireland Family Expenditure Survey </li></ul><ul><li>Family Resources Survey </li></ul><ul><li>General Household Survey / Continuous Household Survey (Northern Ireland) </li></ul><ul><li>Health Survey For England / Welsh Health Survey / Scottish Health Survey </li></ul><ul><li>Labour Force Survey / Northern Ireland Labour Force Survey </li></ul><ul><li>National Food Survey </li></ul><ul><li>National Travel Survey </li></ul><ul><li>ONS Omnibus Survey </li></ul><ul><li>Survey of English Housing </li></ul><ul><li>United Kingdom Time Use Survey </li></ul><ul><li>Vital Statistics for England and Wales </li></ul>
    14. 14. ESDS Longitudinal & Qualidata <ul><li>Longitudinal </li></ul><ul><ul><li>1970 British Cohort Study </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>British Household Panel Survey </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>English Longitudinal Study of Ageing (ELSA) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Families and Children Study </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Longitudinal Study of Young People in England </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Millennium Cohort Study </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>National Child Development Study </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Qualidata </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Edwardians: Family Life and Work Experience Before 1918 </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Mothers and Daughters: Accounts of Health in the Grandmother Generation </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>100 Families: Families, Social Mobility and Ageing, an Intergenerational Approach </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Mothers Alone: Poverty and the Fatherless Family, 1955-1966 </li></ul></ul>
    15. 15. Collecting secondary data <ul><li>Which dataset(s) could I use? </li></ul><ul><li>How do I gain access to this data? </li></ul><ul><ul><li>What are the procedures and how long will it take? </li></ul></ul><ul><li>How will the data be delivered to me? </li></ul><ul><li>What are my ethical/data protection/data storage responsibilities? </li></ul>
    16. 16. Accessing secondary data <ul><li>What are the procedures for gaining access? </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Search the ESDS catalogue </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>“ gender” </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Via the Nesstar system </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>The British General Election Study </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Order online </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>British Crime Survey (though can view basic stats for variables ) </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Links to home websites </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>British Election Studies Survey </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><li>How long will the process take? </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Fairly quick </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>BUT, register now…especially with Christmas coming up! </li></ul></ul>
    17. 17. Collecting secondary data <ul><li>Which dataset(s) could I use? </li></ul><ul><li>How do I gain access to this data? </li></ul><ul><li>How will the data be delivered to me? </li></ul><ul><ul><li>What format will the data come in and what explanatory notes can I expect to receive? </li></ul></ul><ul><li>What are my ethical/data protection/data storage responsibilities? </li></ul>
    18. 18. Data formats & explanatory notes <ul><li>Are the data delivered digitally or in hardcopy, and in what format? </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Many ESDS datasets can be explored online </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Nesstar datasets </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>British Election Studies Survey </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Others are available on CD or for download in an SPSS compatible format </li></ul></ul><ul><li>What explanatory notes can I expect to receive? </li></ul><ul><ul><li>British Crime Survey </li></ul></ul>
    19. 19. Collecting secondary data <ul><li>Which dataset(s) could I use? </li></ul><ul><li>How do I gain access to this data? </li></ul><ul><li>How will the data be delivered to me? </li></ul><ul><li>What are my ethical/data protection/data storage responsibilities? </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Does the provider stipulate certain data storage conditions, and if so can you provide them? </li></ul></ul>
    20. 20. Ethics, data protection and storage for secondary data <ul><li>Does the provider stipulate certain data storage conditions? </li></ul><ul><ul><li>See ESDS online guide </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Can you provide them? </li></ul><ul><li>If not, you may not be able to use this dataset legally </li></ul>
    21. 21. Data Collection (2): Summary <ul><li>Obtaining secondary data for social research should be thought of as a process of data collection </li></ul><ul><li>It involves considering whether the data are relevant and what they mean </li></ul><ul><li>Acquiring/accessing the data themselves </li></ul>
    22. 22. Data Collection (2): Some advice… <ul><li>When using secondary data make sure you are using the most appropriate dataset – there may be more than one! </li></ul><ul><li>This may involve surveying available sources as part of your literature review </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Identify all the datasets contain relevant data </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>What are the pros/cons of each one? </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Look at what previous academic users said about them (i.e. search for social research that has used this dataset) </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>These may relate to the constraints of your project (i.e. it is not feasible to use a dataset that cannot deliver to you for 6 months – however ideal it may be) </li></ul></ul></ul>

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