SOC2002: Sociological Analysis and Research Methods LECTURE 5: Data Collection (1) Surveys and questionnaires Lecturer: Bo...
The research process: what we’ve covered so far… Reporting Topic/Object 1 2 3 4 5 6 Research question Research design Data...
The research process: today… Reporting Topic/Object 1 2 3 4 5 6 LECTURES 5, 6, 7, 9 & 10 Research question Research design...
Data Collection (1):  Overview <ul><li>Numerous data collection techniques </li></ul><ul><li>Today, some of the techniques...
The problem of indication <ul><li>Within social research you  must   be able to justify  your choice of methods, including...
The problem of indication <ul><li>“ We can think of the problem to a medical issue of ‘indication’ of a treatment. A parac...
Solving the problem of indication <ul><li>Consider </li></ul><ul><ul><li>The type of question you are answering </li></ul>...
Indication & the quantitative/qualitative distinction Measuring attitudes, opinions and behaviours Mapping commonsense and...
Surveys & questionnaires <ul><li>What is a questionnaire? </li></ul><ul><ul><li>“ a battery of usually closed questions…co...
Surveys & questionnaires: Structure <ul><li>Open v. closed questions </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Closed questions: respondent is...
Surveys & questionnaires: Structure <ul><li>Closed questions </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Advantages </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><...
Surveys & questionnaires: Structure <ul><li>Open questions </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Advantages </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li...
Surveys & questionnaires: Structure <ul><li>Overall Layout </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Length? </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Sh...
Surveys & questionnaires: Structure <ul><li>Layout of closed questions </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Horizontal </li></ul></ul...
Surveys & questionnaires: Structure <ul><li>Layout of horizontal questions </li></ul><ul><li>Very good __ Good __ Fair __ ...
<ul><li>Layout of horizontal questions </li></ul><ul><li>Very good  Good  Fair  Poor  Very Poor  </li></ul>Surveys & quest...
Surveys & questionnaires: Structure <ul><li>Layout of vertical questions </li></ul><ul><li>Very good __ </li></ul><ul><li>...
Surveys & questionnaires: Structure <ul><li>Layout of vertical questions </li></ul><ul><li>Very good </li></ul><ul><li>Goo...
<ul><li>Layout of Likert scales </li></ul><ul><li>Strongly agree  Agree  Undecided  Disagree  Strongly disagree   </li></u...
<ul><li>Layout of Likert scales </li></ul><ul><li>         </li></ul>Surveys & questionnaires: Structure Please circle ...
Surveys & questionnaires: Question design <ul><li>Answer your question </li></ul><ul><ul><li>What precisely do you want to...
Surveys & questionnaires: Question design <ul><li>An example </li></ul><ul><ul><li>“ How satisfied are you with your job?”...
Surveys & questionnaires: Question design <ul><li>How can we solve this problem? </li></ul><ul><li>Focus on one aspect of ...
Surveys & questionnaires: Delivery <ul><li>Common delivery methods: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Postal </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><l...
Data Collection (1):  Summary <ul><li>‘ Indication’ of methods </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Which methods to use in which cases <...
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SOC2002 Lecture 5

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  • Transcript of "SOC2002 Lecture 5"

    1. 1. SOC2002: Sociological Analysis and Research Methods LECTURE 5: Data Collection (1) Surveys and questionnaires Lecturer: Bonnie Green [email_address]
    2. 2. The research process: what we’ve covered so far… Reporting Topic/Object 1 2 3 4 5 6 Research question Research design Data collection Data analysis Interpretation Literature review, and/or field reconnaissance Choosing indicators & Project Planning Ethics Quality
    3. 3. The research process: today… Reporting Topic/Object 1 2 3 4 5 6 LECTURES 5, 6, 7, 9 & 10 Research question Research design Data collection Data analysis Interpretation Literature review, and/or field reconnaissance Choosing indicators & Project Planning Ethics Quality
    4. 4. Data Collection (1): Overview <ul><li>Numerous data collection techniques </li></ul><ul><li>Today, some of the techniques used to obtain quantitative data </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Surveys & questionnaires </li></ul></ul><ul><li>‘Indication’ of methods </li></ul>
    5. 5. The problem of indication <ul><li>Within social research you must be able to justify your choice of methods, including your data collection procedures </li></ul><ul><li>But, how do you know which is the ‘right’ method to use? </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Which types of methods are appropriate for which types of questions? </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>How do your decisions about the type of data -> information -> knowledge you hope to generate impact upon this selection? </li></ul></ul>
    6. 6. The problem of indication <ul><li>“ We can think of the problem to a medical issue of ‘indication’ of a treatment. A paracetamol is well indicated for a migraine: generally it cures a headache. However, paracetamol is not well indicated for an infection: for this problem antibiotics are better indicated.” (Bauer and Gaskell, 2000: 337) </li></ul><ul><li>“… both these interventions carry certain counter-indications: in medicine as in social research, any intervention carries both advantages and disadvantages.” (Ibid.) </li></ul>
    7. 7. Solving the problem of indication <ul><li>Consider </li></ul><ul><ul><li>The type of question you are answering </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Your objectives </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>The advantages and disadvantages of specific techniques </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Don’t </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Make an arbitrary choice </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Only use the method you know best </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Alter your research question to fit the methods you want to use (unless you are on a social research methods course) </li></ul></ul>
    8. 8. Indication & the quantitative/qualitative distinction Measuring attitudes, opinions and behaviours Mapping commonsense and what lies behind it Research question Surface/accessible responses Indepth understanding Objective Quantitative Qualitative Numbers (scores/nominal, ordinal, interval) Texts (written, visual, audio-visual) Data Statistical (representative) Purposive Sampling
    9. 9. Surveys & questionnaires <ul><li>What is a questionnaire? </li></ul><ul><ul><li>“ a battery of usually closed questions…completed by respondents themselves” (Bryman, 2001: 128) </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Key concerns </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Structure </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Question design </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Delivery </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Advantages v. disadvantages </li></ul></ul>
    10. 10. Surveys & questionnaires: Structure <ul><li>Open v. closed questions </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Closed questions: respondent is provided with a fixed and specified choice of possible answers and they must select the ones that apply </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Open questions: respondent is given the freedom to answer in their own words </li></ul></ul><ul><li>In general </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Survey questionnaires use closed questions </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Rarely all open questions </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>A combination of both may be optimal? </li></ul></ul>
    11. 11. Surveys & questionnaires: Structure <ul><li>Closed questions </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Advantages </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Easy to process answers </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Easy to compare answers for different respondents </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Fixed answers may clarify questions </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Easy to complete </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Reduce variability between researchers </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Disadvantages </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Loss of spontaneity </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Fixed choice answers can be difficult </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Difficult to make categories exhaustive -> the importance of piloting </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Cannot assume the same interpretation </li></ul></ul></ul>
    12. 12. Surveys & questionnaires: Structure <ul><li>Open questions </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Advantages </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Respondents answer in their own terms </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Allow for unusual – or surprising – answers </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Allows for interpretation of question by respondent </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Exploratory </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Disadvantages </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Time consuming to administer </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Time consuming to process </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Respondents have to make more effort </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Increased possibility for variation between researchers </li></ul></ul></ul>
    13. 13. Surveys & questionnaires: Structure <ul><li>Overall Layout </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Length? </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Short questionnaires look quicker to do </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Well spaced and laid out questionnaires look more “attractive” (Dillman, 1993 In Bryman, 2001: 133) </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Consistent and clear presentation </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Use of font, line spacing, clear question/answer pairs </li></ul></ul></ul>
    14. 14. Surveys & questionnaires: Structure <ul><li>Layout of closed questions </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Horizontal </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Vertical </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Likert scale </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Clear instructions! </li></ul></ul>
    15. 15. Surveys & questionnaires: Structure <ul><li>Layout of horizontal questions </li></ul><ul><li>Very good __ Good __ Fair __ Poor __ Very Poor __ </li></ul>Please tick the appropriate response:
    16. 16. <ul><li>Layout of horizontal questions </li></ul><ul><li>Very good Good Fair Poor Very Poor </li></ul>Surveys & questionnaires: Structure Please tick the appropriate response:
    17. 17. Surveys & questionnaires: Structure <ul><li>Layout of vertical questions </li></ul><ul><li>Very good __ </li></ul><ul><li>Good __ </li></ul><ul><li>Fair __ </li></ul><ul><li>Poor __ </li></ul><ul><li>Very Poor __ </li></ul>Please tick the appropriate response:
    18. 18. Surveys & questionnaires: Structure <ul><li>Layout of vertical questions </li></ul><ul><li>Very good </li></ul><ul><li>Good </li></ul><ul><li>Fair </li></ul><ul><li>Poor </li></ul><ul><li>Very Poor </li></ul>Please tick the appropriate response:
    19. 19. <ul><li>Layout of Likert scales </li></ul><ul><li>Strongly agree Agree Undecided Disagree Strongly disagree </li></ul>Surveys & questionnaires: Structure Please circle the appropriate response:
    20. 20. <ul><li>Layout of Likert scales </li></ul><ul><li>   </li></ul>Surveys & questionnaires: Structure Please circle the appropriate response:
    21. 21. Surveys & questionnaires: Question design <ul><li>Answer your question </li></ul><ul><ul><li>What precisely do you want to know? </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Make sure you cover all the bases </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Think about how you would answer the question </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Think about how you could answer the question </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Piloting </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Try the question out </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Be specific </li></ul>
    22. 22. Surveys & questionnaires: Question design <ul><li>An example </li></ul><ul><ul><li>“ How satisfied are you with your job?” </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>BUT, what do you mean by ‘satisfied’? </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Possibilities </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Pay </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Working environment </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Hours </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Pension provision </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Different people may focus on different things </li></ul>
    23. 23. Surveys & questionnaires: Question design <ul><li>How can we solve this problem? </li></ul><ul><li>Focus on one aspect of job satisfaction </li></ul><ul><li>Sets of items </li></ul><ul><ul><li>5 different questions all related to aspects of satisfaction with the working environment </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Example </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Do you have access to tea/coffee making facilities at your workplace? </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Do you feel you have enough desk space in your working environment? </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Do you have a dedicated printer? </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>etc. </li></ul></ul>
    24. 24. Surveys & questionnaires: Delivery <ul><li>Common delivery methods: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Postal </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>‘ On the spot’ </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Electronic </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Online </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Email </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><li>How do you choose a delivery method? </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Look at the literature </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Consider your constraints </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Who are the people you are trying to access? </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Do you have/can you get access to their postal addresses? </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Are you likely to find members of your sample in particular locations? </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Do they have access (physically and/or socially) to computers? </li></ul></ul></ul>
    25. 25. Data Collection (1): Summary <ul><li>‘ Indication’ of methods </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Which methods to use in which cases </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Analogy with medical prescription </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Techniques for collecting data (1) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Surveys and questionnaires </li></ul></ul><ul><li>But who should you survey? </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Lecture 7: sampling strategies </li></ul></ul>

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