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SOC2002 Lecture 5
SOC2002 Lecture 5
SOC2002 Lecture 5
SOC2002 Lecture 5
SOC2002 Lecture 5
SOC2002 Lecture 5
SOC2002 Lecture 5
SOC2002 Lecture 5
SOC2002 Lecture 5
SOC2002 Lecture 5
SOC2002 Lecture 5
SOC2002 Lecture 5
SOC2002 Lecture 5
SOC2002 Lecture 5
SOC2002 Lecture 5
SOC2002 Lecture 5
SOC2002 Lecture 5
SOC2002 Lecture 5
SOC2002 Lecture 5
SOC2002 Lecture 5
SOC2002 Lecture 5
SOC2002 Lecture 5
SOC2002 Lecture 5
SOC2002 Lecture 5
SOC2002 Lecture 5
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SOC2002 Lecture 5

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  • Transcript

    • 1. SOC2002: Sociological Analysis and Research Methods LECTURE 5: Data Collection (1) Surveys and questionnaires Lecturer: Bonnie Green [email_address]
    • 2. The research process: what we’ve covered so far… Reporting Topic/Object 1 2 3 4 5 6 Research question Research design Data collection Data analysis Interpretation Literature review, and/or field reconnaissance Choosing indicators & Project Planning Ethics Quality
    • 3. The research process: today… Reporting Topic/Object 1 2 3 4 5 6 LECTURES 5, 6, 7, 9 & 10 Research question Research design Data collection Data analysis Interpretation Literature review, and/or field reconnaissance Choosing indicators & Project Planning Ethics Quality
    • 4. Data Collection (1): Overview
      • Numerous data collection techniques
      • Today, some of the techniques used to obtain quantitative data
        • Surveys & questionnaires
      • ‘Indication’ of methods
    • 5. The problem of indication
      • Within social research you must be able to justify your choice of methods, including your data collection procedures
      • But, how do you know which is the ‘right’ method to use?
        • Which types of methods are appropriate for which types of questions?
        • How do your decisions about the type of data -> information -> knowledge you hope to generate impact upon this selection?
    • 6. The problem of indication
      • “ We can think of the problem to a medical issue of ‘indication’ of a treatment. A paracetamol is well indicated for a migraine: generally it cures a headache. However, paracetamol is not well indicated for an infection: for this problem antibiotics are better indicated.” (Bauer and Gaskell, 2000: 337)
      • “… both these interventions carry certain counter-indications: in medicine as in social research, any intervention carries both advantages and disadvantages.” (Ibid.)
    • 7. Solving the problem of indication
      • Consider
        • The type of question you are answering
        • Your objectives
        • The advantages and disadvantages of specific techniques
      • Don’t
        • Make an arbitrary choice
        • Only use the method you know best
        • Alter your research question to fit the methods you want to use (unless you are on a social research methods course)
    • 8. Indication & the quantitative/qualitative distinction Measuring attitudes, opinions and behaviours Mapping commonsense and what lies behind it Research question Surface/accessible responses Indepth understanding Objective Quantitative Qualitative Numbers (scores/nominal, ordinal, interval) Texts (written, visual, audio-visual) Data Statistical (representative) Purposive Sampling
    • 9. Surveys & questionnaires
      • What is a questionnaire?
        • “ a battery of usually closed questions…completed by respondents themselves” (Bryman, 2001: 128)
      • Key concerns
        • Structure
        • Question design
        • Delivery
        • Advantages v. disadvantages
    • 10. Surveys & questionnaires: Structure
      • Open v. closed questions
        • Closed questions: respondent is provided with a fixed and specified choice of possible answers and they must select the ones that apply
        • Open questions: respondent is given the freedom to answer in their own words
      • In general
        • Survey questionnaires use closed questions
        • Rarely all open questions
        • A combination of both may be optimal?
    • 11. Surveys & questionnaires: Structure
      • Closed questions
        • Advantages
          • Easy to process answers
          • Easy to compare answers for different respondents
          • Fixed answers may clarify questions
          • Easy to complete
          • Reduce variability between researchers
        • Disadvantages
          • Loss of spontaneity
          • Fixed choice answers can be difficult
          • Difficult to make categories exhaustive -> the importance of piloting
          • Cannot assume the same interpretation
    • 12. Surveys & questionnaires: Structure
      • Open questions
        • Advantages
          • Respondents answer in their own terms
          • Allow for unusual – or surprising – answers
          • Allows for interpretation of question by respondent
          • Exploratory
        • Disadvantages
          • Time consuming to administer
          • Time consuming to process
          • Respondents have to make more effort
          • Increased possibility for variation between researchers
    • 13. Surveys & questionnaires: Structure
      • Overall Layout
        • Length?
          • Short questionnaires look quicker to do
          • Well spaced and laid out questionnaires look more “attractive” (Dillman, 1993 In Bryman, 2001: 133)
        • Consistent and clear presentation
          • Use of font, line spacing, clear question/answer pairs
    • 14. Surveys & questionnaires: Structure
      • Layout of closed questions
          • Horizontal
          • Vertical
          • Likert scale
        • Clear instructions!
    • 15. Surveys & questionnaires: Structure
      • Layout of horizontal questions
      • Very good __ Good __ Fair __ Poor __ Very Poor __
      Please tick the appropriate response:
    • 16.
      • Layout of horizontal questions
      • Very good Good Fair Poor Very Poor
      Surveys & questionnaires: Structure Please tick the appropriate response:
    • 17. Surveys & questionnaires: Structure
      • Layout of vertical questions
      • Very good __
      • Good __
      • Fair __
      • Poor __
      • Very Poor __
      Please tick the appropriate response:
    • 18. Surveys & questionnaires: Structure
      • Layout of vertical questions
      • Very good
      • Good
      • Fair
      • Poor
      • Very Poor
      Please tick the appropriate response:
    • 19.
      • Layout of Likert scales
      • Strongly agree Agree Undecided Disagree Strongly disagree
      Surveys & questionnaires: Structure Please circle the appropriate response:
    • 20.
      • Layout of Likert scales
      •   
      Surveys & questionnaires: Structure Please circle the appropriate response:
    • 21. Surveys & questionnaires: Question design
      • Answer your question
        • What precisely do you want to know?
      • Make sure you cover all the bases
        • Think about how you would answer the question
        • Think about how you could answer the question
      • Piloting
        • Try the question out
      • Be specific
    • 22. Surveys & questionnaires: Question design
      • An example
        • “ How satisfied are you with your job?”
        • BUT, what do you mean by ‘satisfied’?
      • Possibilities
        • Pay
        • Working environment
        • Hours
        • Pension provision
      • Different people may focus on different things
    • 23. Surveys & questionnaires: Question design
      • How can we solve this problem?
      • Focus on one aspect of job satisfaction
      • Sets of items
        • 5 different questions all related to aspects of satisfaction with the working environment
      • Example
        • Do you have access to tea/coffee making facilities at your workplace?
        • Do you feel you have enough desk space in your working environment?
        • Do you have a dedicated printer?
        • etc.
    • 24. Surveys & questionnaires: Delivery
      • Common delivery methods:
        • Postal
        • ‘ On the spot’
        • Electronic
          • Online
          • Email
      • How do you choose a delivery method?
        • Look at the literature
        • Consider your constraints
        • Who are the people you are trying to access?
          • Do you have/can you get access to their postal addresses?
          • Are you likely to find members of your sample in particular locations?
          • Do they have access (physically and/or socially) to computers?
    • 25. Data Collection (1): Summary
      • ‘ Indication’ of methods
        • Which methods to use in which cases
        • Analogy with medical prescription
      • Techniques for collecting data (1)
        • Surveys and questionnaires
      • But who should you survey?
        • Lecture 7: sampling strategies

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