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SOC2002 Lecture 3
SOC2002 Lecture 3
SOC2002 Lecture 3
SOC2002 Lecture 3
SOC2002 Lecture 3
SOC2002 Lecture 3
SOC2002 Lecture 3
SOC2002 Lecture 3
SOC2002 Lecture 3
SOC2002 Lecture 3
SOC2002 Lecture 3
SOC2002 Lecture 3
SOC2002 Lecture 3
SOC2002 Lecture 3
SOC2002 Lecture 3
SOC2002 Lecture 3
SOC2002 Lecture 3
SOC2002 Lecture 3
SOC2002 Lecture 3
SOC2002 Lecture 3
SOC2002 Lecture 3
SOC2002 Lecture 3
SOC2002 Lecture 3
SOC2002 Lecture 3
SOC2002 Lecture 3
SOC2002 Lecture 3
SOC2002 Lecture 3
SOC2002 Lecture 3
SOC2002 Lecture 3
SOC2002 Lecture 3
SOC2002 Lecture 3
SOC2002 Lecture 3
SOC2002 Lecture 3
SOC2002 Lecture 3
SOC2002 Lecture 3
SOC2002 Lecture 3
SOC2002 Lecture 3
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SOC2002 Lecture 3

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    • 1. SOC2002: Sociological Analysis and Research Methods LECTURE 3: Social Research Design (3) Lecturer: Bonnie Green [email_address]
    • 2. Social Research Design (3): Recap
      • Last week we looked at:
        • What is social research and why do we do it?
        • Characteristics of social research
        • Social research as a process
    • 3. The research process: an overview Reporting Topic/Object 1 2 3 4 5 6 Research question Research design Data collection Data analysis Interpretation
    • 4. Social Research Design (3): Recap
      • Last week we looked at:
        • What is social research and why do we do it?
        • Characteristics of social research
        • Social research as a process
      • STEP 1: topic/object to research question
        • “ progressive focussing”
        • The literature review (further resources on the webCT)
    • 5. Social Research Design (3): Today
      • STEP 2: research question to research design
        • Choosing, developing and/or identifying indicators
        • Project planning
    • 6. The research process: an overview Reporting Topic/Object 1 2 3 4 5 6 LECTURES 2 & 3 Research question Research design Data collection Data analysis Interpretation Literature review, and/or field reconnaissance Choosing indicators & Project Planning
    • 7. Social Research Design (3): Today
      • STEP 2: research question to research design
        • Choosing, developing and/or identifying indicators
        • Project planning
      • But first…
    • 8. Social Research Design (3): Today
      • STEP 2: research question to research design
        • Choosing, developing and/or identifying indicators
        • Project planning
      • But first… some philosophy 
    • 9. Social Research Design (3): The philosophy of social research
      • What is the connection between social research and philosophy?
      • Why is it important for social researchers to consider the philosophical aspects of their work?
      • How is this going to help me?
    • 10. The connection between philosophy and social research
      • What is philosophy concerned with?
        • The nature of the world
        • ‘ truth’, ‘fact’, ‘proof’, epistemology
        • Employs various techniques: introspection
    • 11. The connection between philosophy and social research
      • What is philosophy concerned with?
        • The nature of the world
        • ‘ truth’, ‘fact’, ‘proof’, epistemology
        • Employs various techniques: introspection
      • What is social research concerned with?
        • The nature of the world
        • ‘ explanation’, ‘understanding’, “the quantity or quality of a phenomenon” (Williams and May, 1996: 8)
        • Employs various techniques: survey
    • 12. The connection between philosophy and social research
      • How do these interests intersect?
        • “philosophy and social research aim to improve our knowledge of the world” (Williams and May, 1996: 9)
        • Social research may be driven by abstract concerns
        • Social research is always underpinned by a particular philosophical framework and this has implications for the outcomes of research
    • 13. The connection between philosophy and social research
      • Other ways of thinking about this connection:
        • In terms of the relationship between science and social science
      • The relationship between data , information and knowledge
    • 14. Science & social science
      • Science and social science are comparable:
        • The goal of science is to learn ‘facts’ about the natural world
        • The goal of social science is to learn ‘facts’ about the social world
      • “ two styles of research, one logic of inference” (King, Keohane and Verba, 1994: 3)
        • “ scientific research is designed to make descriptive or explanatory inferences on the basis of empirical information about the world” (ibid. pp. 7)
    • 15. The connection between philosophy and social research
      • An Activity!
    • 16. The connection between philosophy and social research
      • What do we mean when we say something is data , information or knowledge ?
      • What is the difference between these things?
      • With a partner spend 2 minutes defining each of these terms:
        • Data
        • Information
        • Knowledge
    • 17. The connection between philosophy and social research
      • Data:
        • been collected
        • numerical
        • what comes before conclusions
        • First step
        • ‘bad’
    • 18. The connection between philosophy and social research
      • Information:
        • interpreted in relation to something?
        • processed data
        • can’t always be verified – open to interpretation
    • 19. The connection between philosophy and social research
      • Knowledge:
        • things we believe (to be true)
        • Brought about by research – more ‘concrete’ than information
        • some sort of understanding
        • CONTEXT
    • 20. The connection between philosophy and social research
      • Data:
        • 8 out of 10
    • 21. The connection between philosophy and social research
      • Data:
        • 8 out of 10
      • Information:
        • 8 out of 10 cats preferred cat food brand B (Kitty Kat)
    • 22. The connection between philosophy and social research
      • Data:
        • 8 out of 10
      • Information:
        • 8 out of 10 cats preferred cat food brand B (Kitty Kat)
      • Knowledge:
        • Within a highly competitive industry, the result that 8 out of 10 cats still prefer Kitty Kat, despite a reduction in the nutritional content of the food, is highly significant
    • 23. Social Research Design (3)
      • STEP 2: research question to research design
        • Choosing, developing and/or identifying indicators
        • Project planning
    • 24. The research process: an overview Reporting Topic/Object 1 2 3 4 5 6 LECTURES 2 & 3 Research question Research design Data collection Data analysis Interpretation Literature review, and/or field reconnaissance Choosing indicators & Project Planning
    • 25. The research process: Step 2 - research question to research design
      • Indicators
        • What are they?
      • An example
        • Study of the public interest in UK newspaper reporting
        • Research Question: Did UK newspaper coverage of the of the 1990 parliamentary decision regarding the future of stem cell research represent communication in ‘the public interest’?
    • 26. The research process: Step 2 - research question to research design
      • The public interest is defined in terms of
        • Neutrality
        • Plurality
      • What are indicators of ‘neutrality’ and ‘plurality’ in newspaper reporting?
        • Degree of evaluation
        • Number of viewpoints represented
        • Presentation of both negative and positive consequences
        • Presentation of both groups advantaged and disadvantaged
    • 27. The research process: Step 2 - research question to research design
      • Indicators
        • Observable
        • Unambiguous
        • Clearly defined and linked to underlying concepts
      • Seminar activity: finding indicators for your projects
    • 28. The research process: Step 2 - research question to research design
      • Project planning
        • Why is it important?
          • Social research is systematic enquiry
          • Good research projects must have well defined aims and scope
          • Social research is always constrained
          • Social research must be publicly accountable
          • Ethical implications must be assessed
      • How do you do it?
    • 29. The research process: Step 2 - research question to research design
      • Break the project down into phases:
        • Literature review
        • Research design
        • Data collection
        • Data analysis
        • Interpretation
        • Writing up &reporting
    • 30. The research process: Step 2 - research question to research design
      • Break the project down into phases:
        • Literature review
          • Selection
          • Reviewing
        • Research design
        • Data collection
        • Data analysis
        • Interpretation
        • Writing up & reporting
    • 31. The research process: Step 2 - research question to research design
      • Break the project down into phases:
        • Literature review
        • Research design
          • Selecting methods
          • Obtaining approvals
          • Preparing materials
        • Data collection
        • Data analysis
        • Interpretation
        • Writing up & reporting
    • 32. The research process: Step 2 - research question to research design
      • Break the project down into phases:
        • Literature review
        • Research design
        • Data collection
          • Negotiating access
          • Interviewing
          • Photographs
        • Data analysis
        • Interpretation
        • Writing up & reporting
    • 33. The research process: Step 2 - research question to research design
      • Break the project down into phases:
        • Literature review
        • Research design
        • Data collection
        • Data analysis
          • Data entry
          • Data cleaning
          • Data analysis
        • Interpretation
        • Writing up & reporting
    • 34. The research process: Step 2 - research question to research design
      • Consider constraints:
        • How much time do you have?
        • What resources do you have?
        • Do you need ethical approval?
        • Who do you need approval from?
        • What equipment will you need?
        • Will you need particular software for your analysis?
      • Make a Gantt chart!
    • 35. The research process: Step 2 - research question to research design
      • What is a Gantt Chart?
        • a scheduling tool for displaying the progression of a project in the form of a bar chart
        • Horizontal axis: time relative to the beginning of the project
        • Vertical axis: a number of rows each representing a phase of the project or task to be completed
    • 36. The research process: Step 2 - research question to research design
      • An example:
      2 months 6 1 month 5 1 month 4 5 months 3 2 months 2 1 month 1 Dec Nov Oct Sept Aug Jul Jun May Apr Mar Feb Jan Duration Task
    • 37. Social Research Design (3): Summary
      • Moving from research question to research design:
        • Reflect upon the philosophy underlying your project
          • What assumptions have you made about your topic/object?
          • What might the implications of these be for the data, information, and knowledge you generate?
        • Develop, identify or construct relevant indicators
        • Plan your project effectively. Think about:
          • Constraints
          • Ethics
          • Feasibility

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