SOC2002 Lecture 13

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  • SOC2002 Lecture 13

    1. 1. SOC2002: Sociological Analysis and Research Methods <ul><li>LECTURE 13: Data Analysis (3) </li></ul><ul><li>Analysis of Visual Data </li></ul>Lecturer: Bonnie Green [email_address]
    2. 2. The research process: today… 1 2 3 4 5 6 LECTURES 11, 12 & 13 Reporting Research question Research design Data collection Data analysis Interpretation Literature review, and/or field reconnaissance Topic/Object Choosing indicators & Project Planning Ethics Quality
    3. 3. Data Analysis (3): Overview <ul><li>Thematic analysis: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Nvivo 7: </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>coding and browsing codes </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>queries </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><li>Visual methods: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Content analysis </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Semiology & semiotics </li></ul></ul>
    4. 4. Data Analysis (3): Overview <ul><li>Thematic analysis: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Nvivo 7: </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>coding and browsing codes </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>queries </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><li>Visual methods: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Content analysis </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Semiology & semiotics </li></ul></ul>
    5. 5. Visual Methods DATA TYPES: ● Data collection using cameras ● Data produced by cultures● Communication with images/media other than words See: http://www.visualsociology.org.uk/whatis/index.php ISSUES: ● Documentation ● Representation ● Collaboration See: http://sru.soc.surrey.ac.uk/SRU11/SRU11.html See: Rose, G. (2001). Visual Methodologies . London: Sage METHODS: ● Compositional interpretation ● Content analysis ● Semiology
    6. 6. Visual Methods DATA TYPES: ● Data collection using cameras ● Data produced by cultures ● Communication with images/media other than words See: http://www.visualsociology.org.uk/whatis/index.php ISSUES: ● Documentation ● Representation ● Collaboration See: http://sru.soc.surrey.ac.uk/SRU11/SRU11.html See: Rose, G. (2001). Visual Methodologies . London: Sage METHODS: ● Compositional interpretation ● Content analysis ● Semiology
    7. 7. Data Types <ul><li>Data collection using cameras </li></ul><ul><ul><li>T he camera is analogous to a tape recorder: allow you to collect data that cannot be expressed in words </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>V isual data allows you to juxtapose events to produce meanings </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Studying visual data produced by cultures </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Their production, consumption and meaning </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Art, photographs, film, video, fonts, advertisements, computer icons, landscape, architecture, machines, fashion, makeup, hair style, facial expressions, tattoos, etc </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Visual images are constructed and may be deconstructed </li></ul></ul>
    8. 8. Issues <ul><li>The use of photography/video 'visual notebook' (Banks, 1995) is not straightforward and unproblematic </li></ul>
    9. 9. Issues <ul><li>Documentation: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Visual data are shaped by “the ideas that led to the production” (Banks, 1995) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>For visual data produced by the researcher: </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Do not treat your recording equipment as “capable of objectively recording social behaviour or visible 'givens'&quot; ( Ibid. ) </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>You are producing 'representations of reality' that are subject to the influence of your own social, cultural and historical context </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>For visual data collected by the researcher: </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Attend to the technical, social, cultural and historical context of an image’s production </li></ul></ul></ul>
    10. 10. Issues <ul><li>Representation: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>“ Images are no more 'transparent' than written accounts...they are still representations of reality, not a direct encoding of it” ( Ibid. ) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Adopt a &quot;dual perspective&quot;: </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Ask about the content of any visual representation </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>what is the 'meaning' of this particular design motif? who is the person in the photograph? </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Ask about the context of any visual representation </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>who produced the image? why was this photograph taken of this particular person, and then kept by that particular person? </li></ul></ul></ul></ul>
    11. 11. Analytical methods: Content analysis <ul><li>Rose (2001), Chapter 3: “Counting what you (think) you see” </li></ul><ul><li>Its use with visual data is based upon “the need to be as methodologically explicit as possible in order to make your own way of seeing as explicit as possible” (2001: 58) </li></ul>
    12. 12. Analytical methods: Content analysis <ul><li>“ based on counting the frequency of certain visual elements in a clearly defined sample of images, and then analysing those frequencies” ( Ibid. ) </li></ul><ul><li>Issues are basically the same as in content analysis of written texts </li></ul><ul><ul><li>e.g. sampling, coding frame construction, coder training, inter/intra- coder reliability monitoring </li></ul></ul>
    13. 13. Analytical methods: Semiology <ul><li>Rose (2001), Chapter 4 </li></ul><ul><ul><li>“semiology confronts the question of how images make meaning” (2001: 69) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>What is the image ‘saying’ to us? </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>How has it been constructed in order to do this, (and by whom)? </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><li>Penn (2000) ; Dyer (1988); Williamson (1978) </li></ul>
    14. 14. Doing a semiological analysis: (Penn, 2000: 232-239) <ul><li>Aim is “to make explicit the cultural knowledges required in order for the reader to understand the image” (Penn, 2000: 232) </li></ul><ul><li>What to analyse: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Some materials are more amenable to semiological analysis than others </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>e.g. advertisements </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Here the author’s intentions are explicit and known </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Adverts are taken to be explicitly constructed in order to promote a product </li></ul></ul></ul>
    15. 15. Signs, sign-systems and signification <ul><li>Semiology is ‘the study of signs’ </li></ul><ul><li>The image is treated as: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>a set of ‘ signs’ which takes its meaning from... </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>...their place in wider ‘ systems of signs ’ </li></ul></ul>
    16. 16. Signs + Signifier + “ CAT”
    17. 17. Signs + = Signifier Signified + = furry animal “ CAT”
    18. 18. Signs + = Signifier Sign Signified + = furry animal “ CAT” furry animal
    19. 19. furry animal Systems of signs barking animal bird squealing animal grazing animal Long-eared animal
    20. 20. Signs, sign-systems and signification <ul><li>Semiology is ‘the study of signs’ </li></ul><ul><li>The image is treated as: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>a set of ‘ signs’ which takes its meaning from... </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>...their place in wider ‘ systems of signs ’ </li></ul></ul><ul><li>When analysing visual images we distinguish between two levels of signification </li></ul><ul><ul><li>i.e. two levels at which the image has (acquires) meaning </li></ul></ul>
    21. 21. Signs, sign-systems and signification <ul><li>Level 1: Denotation </li></ul><ul><ul><li>The ‘literal’ message </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>The sign describes something: </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>e.g. “we can look at a picture of a baby and see that it is a baby and not a toddler or an adult” (Rose, 2001: 79) </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><li>Level 2: Connotation </li></ul><ul><ul><li>The a ‘deeper’ level of meaning </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>What the sign “brings to mind”: </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>e.g. “A red rose signifies love” (Penn, 2000: 230) </li></ul></ul></ul>
    22. 22. Doing a semiological analysis: (Penn, 2000: 232-239) <ul><li>Step 1: Choose material </li></ul><ul><li>Step 2: Make a denotational inventory </li></ul><ul><li>Step 3: Analysis of conotations </li></ul><ul><li>Step 4: Stop </li></ul>
    23. 23. Doing a semiological analysis: (Penn, 2000: 232-239) <ul><li>Step 1: Choose material </li></ul><ul><li>Step 2: Make a denotational inventory </li></ul><ul><ul><li>List the components of the image systematically (i.e. the textual elements and the components of the image) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Annotate a tracing of the image (Penn, 2000: 234) </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Step 3: Analysis of conotations </li></ul><ul><li>Step 4: Stop </li></ul>
    24. 24. Doing a semiological analysis: (Penn, 2000: 232-239)
    25. 25. Doing a semiological analysis: (Penn, 2000: 232-239) <ul><li>Step 1: Choose material </li></ul><ul><li>Step 2: Make a denotational inventory </li></ul><ul><li>Step 3: Analysis of connotations </li></ul><ul><ul><li>For each denotational component ask: What does it connote? What associations does it bring to mind? </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Also think about: </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>How do elements relate to each other? </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>What cultural knowledges are required in order to read these elements? </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><li>Step 4: Stop </li></ul>
    26. 26. Further references <ul><li>Ball, M. S. & Smith, G. W. H. (1992). Analyzing Visual Data. London: Sage. [ http://www.amazon.com/Analyzing-Visual-Qualitative-Research-Methods/dp/0803934351/ref=si3_rdr_bb_product] </li></ul><ul><li>Barnard, M. (2001) Approaches to understanding visual culture. Basingstoke: Palgrave. [ http://www.amazon.com/Approaches-Understanding-Culture-Malcolm-Barnard/dp/0333772881/ref=pd_bbs_sr_1?ie=UTF8&s=books&qid=1202992987&sr=8-1] </li></ul><ul><li>Howells, R. (2003). Visual Culture. Polity </li></ul><ul><li>Leeuwen, T.V. & Jewitt, C. (eds) (2001). Handbook of Visual Analysis. London: Sage. </li></ul><ul><li>Pink, S. (2001). Doing Visual Ethnography Images, Media and Representation in Research. London: Sage. </li></ul><ul><li>Rose, G. (2001). Visual Methodologies. London: Sage. [ http://books.google.com/books?id=fWA0eqXdWccC&pg=PA37&dq=rose+2001+visual+methodology&ei=7zG0R4vOLpHCzASZ9-3KBQ&sig=VLxxXQZEuZmcb3PR8_NtXjd-sa4#PPA69,M1] </li></ul>
    27. 27. Data Analysis (3): Overview <ul><li>Thematic analysis: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Nvivo 7: </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>coding and browsing codes </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>searching </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><li>Visual methods: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Content analysis </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Semiology & semiotics </li></ul></ul>
    28. 28. N7 <ul><li>http://www.qsrinternational.com/products_nvivo.aspx : </li></ul><ul><ul><li>View tutorial </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Download 30-day trial software </li></ul></ul><ul><li>In N7, you can create a project to: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>store documents </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>organise documents </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>attach ideas (codes) to text </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>and find patterns among your ideas </li></ul></ul>
    29. 29. N7 <ul><li>http://www.qsrinternational.com/products_nvivo.aspx : </li></ul><ul><ul><li>View tutorial </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Download 30-day trial software </li></ul></ul><ul><li>In N7, you can create a project to: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>store documents </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>organise documents </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>attach ideas (codes) to text </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>and find patterns among your ideas </li></ul></ul>
    30. 30. Basic Coding in N7 <ul><li>Managing free nodes: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Merging free nodes into tree nodes </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Highlight the free nodes you wish to merge </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Drag-and-drop in tree nodes folder </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Drag-and-drop into chosen parent node </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><li>Coding data by creating new free nodes </li></ul><ul><li>Highlight text </li></ul><ul><li>On the coding toolbar: </li></ul>
    31. 31. Basic Coding in N7 <ul><li>Managing free nodes: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Merging free nodes into tree nodes </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Highlight the free nodes you wish to merge </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Drag-and-drop in tree nodes folder </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Drag-and-drop into chosen parent node </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><li>Coding data by creating new free nodes </li></ul><ul><li>Highlight text </li></ul><ul><li>On the coding toolbar: </li></ul>
    32. 32. Basic Coding in N7 <ul><li>Managing free nodes: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Merging free nodes into tree nodes </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Highlight the free nodes you wish to merge </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Drag-and-drop in tree nodes folder </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Drag-and-drop into chosen parent node </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><li>Coding data by creating new free nodes </li></ul><ul><li>Highlight text </li></ul><ul><li>On the coding toolbar: </li></ul>
    33. 33. Basic Coding in N7 <ul><li>Managing free nodes: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Merging free nodes into tree nodes </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Highlight the free nodes you wish to merge </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Drag-and-drop in tree nodes folder </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Drag-and-drop into chosen parent node </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><li>Coding data by creating new free nodes </li></ul><ul><li>Highlight text </li></ul><ul><li>On the coding toolbar: </li></ul>
    34. 34. Basic Coding in N7 <ul><li>Creating nodes before applying them to text: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Select the folder in which you want to create a new node </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Under the ‘New’ tab in the top toolbar, select ‘New node in this folder’ </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Fill in the details for this node click ‘OK’ </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Applying existing codes to text: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Highlight the text to be coded </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>In the coding toolbar: </li></ul></ul>
    35. 35. Basic Coding in N7 <ul><li>Creating nodes before applying them to text: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Select the folder in which you want to create a new node </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Under the ‘New’ tab in the top toolbar, select ‘New node in this folder’ </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Fill in the details for this node click ‘OK’ </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Applying existing codes to text: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Highlight the text to be coded </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>In the coding toolbar: </li></ul></ul>
    36. 36. Basic Coding in N7 <ul><li>Creating nodes before applying them to text: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Select the folder in which you want to create a new node </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Under the ‘New’ tab in the top toolbar, select ‘New node in this folder’ </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Fill in the details for this node click ‘OK’ </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Applying existing codes to text: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Highlight the text to be coded </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>In the coding toolbar: </li></ul></ul>
    37. 37. Basic Coding in N7 <ul><li>Browsing text coded by a node: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Highlight the node folder you want to browse </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Double-click on the node you want to browse </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>This gives you a list of all the instances of that code </li></ul></ul>
    38. 38. N7 <ul><li>http://www.qsrinternational.com/products_nvivo.aspx : </li></ul><ul><ul><li>View tutorial </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Download 30-day trial software </li></ul></ul><ul><li>In N7, you can create a project to: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>store documents </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>organise documents </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>attach ideas (codes) to text </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>and find patterns among your ideas </li></ul></ul>
    39. 39. N7 <ul><li>http://www.qsrinternational.com/products_nvivo.aspx : </li></ul><ul><ul><li>View tutorial </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Download 30-day trial software </li></ul></ul><ul><li>In N7, you can create a project to: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>store documents </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>organise documents </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>attach ideas (codes) to text </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>and find patterns among your ideas </li></ul></ul>
    40. 40. Basic Queries <ul><li>When you have started to get a feel for your data and have a collection of codes you will want to look for patterns in the data </li></ul><ul><li>Patterns may emerge as you code or be informed by theory </li></ul><ul><li>N7 uses queries to do this: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Text search </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Coding query </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Matrix coding query </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Word frequency </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Compound query </li></ul></ul>
    41. 41. Basic Queries <ul><li>When you have started to get a feel for your data and have a collection of codes you will want to look for patterns in the data </li></ul><ul><li>Patterns may emerge as you code or be informed by theory </li></ul><ul><li>N7 uses queries to do this: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Text search </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Coding query </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Matrix coding query </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Word frequency </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Compound query </li></ul></ul>
    42. 42. Text search query <ul><li>Type in search terms </li></ul><ul><li>Boolean operators </li></ul><ul><li>Tell N7 where to search (e.g. documents, annotations, etc) </li></ul><ul><li>What do you want to do with the results? </li></ul><ul><li>Do you want to save the query? </li></ul>
    43. 43. Text search query <ul><li>Type in search terms </li></ul><ul><li>Boolean operators </li></ul><ul><li>Tell N7 where to search (e.g. documents, annotations, etc) </li></ul><ul><li>What do you want to do with the results? </li></ul><ul><li>Do you want to save the query? </li></ul>
    44. 44. Text search query <ul><li>Type in search terms </li></ul><ul><li>Boolean operators </li></ul><ul><li>Tell N7 where to search (e.g. documents, annotations, etc) </li></ul><ul><li>What do you want to do with the results? </li></ul><ul><li>Do you want to save the query? </li></ul>
    45. 45. Text search query <ul><li>Type in search terms </li></ul><ul><li>Boolean operators </li></ul><ul><li>Tell N7 where to search (e.g. documents, annotations, etc) </li></ul><ul><li>What do you want to do with the results? </li></ul><ul><li>Do you want to save the query? </li></ul>
    46. 46. Simple coding queries <ul><li>The Simple tab on the Coding Query window allows you to ask for everything coded at a node </li></ul><ul><li>Different from browsing codes: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>You can restrict the query to just the items you want to ask about </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>This is more powerful when constructing advanced queries (see Richards, 2006: 91-94) </li></ul></ul>
    47. 47. Simple coding queries <ul><li>Similar options to a text search query </li></ul><ul><li>The Simple tab on the Coding Query window allows you to ask for everything coded at a node </li></ul><ul><li>Different from browsing codes: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>You can restrict the query to specific items </li></ul></ul>
    48. 48. Further N7 resources: <ul><li>Richards, L. (2006). “Teach-yourself NVivo 7: the introductory tutorials”. Resources for Richards (2005). Handling Qualitative Data . London: Sage [available at: http://www.sagepub.co.uk/richards/ ] </li></ul><ul><li>See also Richards, L. “Up and Running in your project: a post-workshop handbook for NVivo 7” [Available at: http://www.lynrichards.org/up_and_running.htm ; last accessed: 14/2/08] </li></ul>
    49. 49. Data Analysis (3): Summary <ul><li>Thematic analysis: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Nvivo 7: </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>coding and browsing codes </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>searching </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><li>Visual methods: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Content analysis </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Semiology & semiotics </li></ul></ul>
    50. 50. The research process: remaining stages... 1 2 3 4 5 6 Project Meetings Reporting Research question Research design Data collection Interpretation Literature review, and/or field reconnaissance Topic/Object Choosing indicators & Project Planning Ethics Quality Data analysis
    51. 51. The End! Thanks!

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