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SOC2002 Lecture 10
 

SOC2002 Lecture 10

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SOC2002 Lecture 10 SOC2002 Lecture 10 Presentation Transcript

  • SOC2002: Sociological Analysis and Research Methods
    • LECTURE 10: Data Collection (5)
    • Ethnographic and observational methods
    Lecturer: Bonnie Green [email_address]
  • The research process: today… Friday January 18th 2008 SOC2002: Sociological Analysis & Research Methods Lecture 10 Reporting Topic/Object 1 2 3 4 5 6 LECTURES 5, 6, 7, 9 & 10 Research question Research design Data collection Data analysis Interpretation Literature review, and/or field reconnaissance Choosing indicators & Project Planning Ethics Quality
  • Data Collection (5): Overview
    • Ethnography:
      • What is it, and how is it linked to observational methodologies?
    • Observational methods of data collection:
      • Participant observation
        • Use
        • Practical aspects
      • Bemtology
    Friday January 18th 2008 SOC2002: Sociological Analysis & Research Methods Lecture 10
  • Ethnography: What is it?
    • Definition:
    Friday January 18th 2008 SOC2002: Sociological Analysis & Research Methods Lecture 10 “ We see the term as referring primarily to a particular method or set of methods” involving “the ethnographer participating ... in people’s daily lives for an extended period of time , watching what happens, listening to what is said, asking questions - in fact collecting whatever data are available to throw light on the the issues that are the focus for research” (Hammersley and Atkinson, 1995: 1)
  • Ethnography: What is it?
    • Key features:
      • Participatory
        • The researcher participates in the day-to-day life of a community in order to understand some aspect of it
      • But...
    Friday January 18th 2008 SOC2002: Sociological Analysis & Research Methods Lecture 10
  • What do we mean by participation?
    • Collins (1984)
      • Several ways of conceptualising participant observation
      • Pearsall (1970):
    Friday January 18th 2008 SOC2002: Sociological Analysis & Research Methods Lecture 10 Complete observer Complete participant Observer-as-participant Participant-as-observer ethnocentrism ‘ going native’ the fruitful ‘middle ground’
  • What do we mean by participation?
    • Collins prefers the distinction between:
      • Unobtrusive observation
        • “ investigators want to observe the actions of others while disturbing those actions as little as possible” (Collins, 1984: 56)
      • Participant comprehension
        • “ he investigator him/herself should come to be able to act in the same way as the native members ‘as a matter of course’ ” ( Ibid. : 61)
    • Contrasts them in terms of positivism and naturalism
    Friday January 18th 2008 SOC2002: Sociological Analysis & Research Methods Lecture 10
  • Participation: Unobtrusive observation & participant comprehension
    • Collins (1984):
    Friday January 18th 2008 SOC2002: Sociological Analysis & Research Methods Lecture 10
    • Where are you?
    Participant comprehension Unobtrusive observation Compromise positions Bonnie Green
  • Ethnography: What is it?
    • Key features:
      • Participatory
      • Extended
        • Traditionally, the data collection phases of ethnographic research takes place over weeks, months or years
    Friday January 18th 2008 SOC2002: Sociological Analysis & Research Methods Lecture 10
  • Ethnography: What is it?
    • Key features:
      • Participatory
      • Extended
      • Multiple inputs:
        • Watching, listening and asking questions
    Friday January 18th 2008 SOC2002: Sociological Analysis & Research Methods Lecture 10
  • Ethnography: What is it?
    • Key features:
      • Participatory
      • Extended
      • Multiple inputs:
      • Multiple data types:
        • Documentary, audio-visual, artefactual, experiential
    Friday January 18th 2008 SOC2002: Sociological Analysis & Research Methods Lecture 10
  • Data Collection (5): Overview
    • Ethnography:
      • What is it, and how is it linked to observational methodologies?
    • Observational methods of data collection:
      • Participant observation
        • Use
        • Practical aspects
      • Bemtology
    Friday January 18th 2008 SOC2002: Sociological Analysis & Research Methods Lecture 10
  • Practical aspects of participant observation
    • What is it like to be a ‘participant observer’?
    • How do I gain access to the field?
    • What do I do when I get there?
    • How do I record my data?
      • Fieldnotes and audio-visual records
      • Subjective diaries
    • How do I end the observation?
      • Leaving the field
      • Communicative validation
    Friday January 18th 2008 SOC2002: Sociological Analysis & Research Methods Lecture 10
  • Data Collection (5): Summary
    • Ethnography:
      • A data collection method which involves extended participant observation in a community of interest
      • Involves the collection of multi-modal data by watching, listening and asking questions
    • Practical considerations in participant observation:
      • ‘ Being there’, access, recording, subjectivity
    Friday January 18th 2008 SOC2002: Sociological Analysis & Research Methods Lecture 10