F. Franco-Navarro. Phytopathology Program-Colegio de Postgraduados-Campus Montecillo, Montecillo 56230, Mexico State, Mexi...
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Trophic structure of soil nematodes in demonstrative plots of palm, white lily and maize in three communities around the reserve “los tuxtlas”, mexico

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Trophic structure of soil nematodes in demonstrative plots of palm, white lily and maize in three communities around the reserve “los tuxtlas”, mexico

  1. 1. F. Franco-Navarro. Phytopathology Program-Colegio de Postgraduados-Campus Montecillo, Montecillo 56230, Mexico State, Mexico. *E- F. Franco- Franco-Navarro. Phytopathology Program- Program-Colegio de Postgraduados- Postgraduados-Campus Montecillo, Montecillo 56230, Mexico State, Mexico. *E- State, Mexico. *E- mail: ffranco@colpos.mx. mail: ffranco@colpos.mx. ffranco@colpos.mx. Project: Conservation and Sustainable Management of Below-Ground Biodiversity [PROJECT FUNDED BY GEF] Below- Experimental plots with Lily (Lilium longiflorum) were located within a farmer Field experiments using three important crops for the farmers from four localities in the buffer zone of the Field experiments using three important crops for the farmers from four localities in the buffer zone of the from property. Thirty five experimental plots in random blocks (seven treatments, five treatments, Biosphere Reserve ““Los Tuxtlas”, Veracruz were carried out in order to identify how specific agricultural Biosphere Reserve Los Tuxtlas” Veracruz were carried out in order to identify how specific agricultural Tuxtlas”, replicates) were settled in the Ejido Benigno Mendoza. Treatments covered lily practices of these crops impact on the structure of soil nematodes fauna, and establish sustainable agricultural practices of these crops impact on the structure of soil nematodes fauna, and establish sustainable agricultural nematodes monoculture and lily with different rotation crops (velvetbean, Mucuna pruriens var. (velvetbean, practices that benefits farmers and maintain soil nematodes fauna in balance. In two experiments, palms practices that benefits farmers and maintain soil nematodes fauna in balance. In two experiments, palms fauna utilis, and jicama, Pachyrhizus erosus), inoculation or not inoculation of nitrogen- jicama, nitrogen- (Chamaedorea hooperiana) were planted to Natural and Secondary forest in Ejido Lopez Mateos and Ejido San (Chamaedorea hooperiana) were planted to Natural and Secondary forest in Ejido Lopez Mateos and Ejido San hooperiana) fixing bacteria and arbuscular-mycorrhizal fungi, solarization+cattle manure 30 days arbuscular- Fernando, respectively; another experiment was settled in the Ejido Benigno Mendoza, using lily (Lilium Fernando, respectively; another experiment was settled in the Ejido Benigno Mendoza, using lily (Lilium (Lilium before planting, conventional lily farming (traditional local practices) and an absolute practices) longiflorum) as crop, and finally a demonstrative experimental field sowed with (Zea mays) was settled in the longiflorum) as crop, and finally a demonstrative experimental field sowed with (Zea mays) was settled in the longiflorum) (Zea mays) control. Ejido San Pedro Soteapan. Different tactics were applied in each crop, both alone and in combination. Total Soteapan. Different tactics were applied in each crop, both alone and in combination. Total Ejido San Pedro Soteapan. ABUNDANCE & TROPHIC STRUCTURE abundance of nematodes, structure in terms of relative abundance of different trophic groups and other abundance of nematodes, structure in terms of relative abundance of different trophic groups and other indices based on microbial feeder nematodes were estimated. In the palm experiment from Lopez Mateos, indices based on microbial feeder nematodes were estimated. In tthe palm experiment from Lopez Mateos, he Mateos, 900 BEGINNING 1st Cycle 900 1st HARVEST there was a generalized reduction of nematodes at final of the experiment at nursery phase, but in natural there was a generalized reduction of nematodes at final of the experiment at nursery phase, but in natural experiment 800 800 forest, the soil of palms showed a significant increase in abundance of nematodes. In the Palm experiment forest, the soil of palms showed a significant increase in abundance of nematodes. In the Palm experiment abundance 700 700 from San Fernando, there was an increase of nematodes at final of the experiment, but in Secondary forest, soil from San Fernando, there was an increase of nematodes at final of the experiment, but in Secondary forest, soil of 600 600 with growing palms showed a lower number of nematodes than that observed in nursery. Respect to the lily with growing palms showed a lower number of nematodes than that observed in nursery. Respect to the lily 500 500 experiment in Benigno Mendoza, there was a generalized reduction of nematodes along the experiment after he experiment in Benigno Mendoza, there was a generalized reduction of nematodes along tthe experiment after 400 400 planting of the first cycle. At the final of the experiment with ““Temporal” maize (summer), an increase of planting of the first cycle. At the final of the experiment with Temporal” maize (summer), an increase of Temporal” Number of nematodes 300 300 nematodes and dominance of plant parasites happened. In the case of ““Tapachole” maize (winter), from nematodes and dominance of plant parasites happened. In the case of Tapachole” maize (winter), from Tapachole” 200 200 flowering at 1st cycle to flowering at 2nd cycle there was an increase of the number of nematodes. The flowering at 1st cycle to flowering at 2nd cycle there was an increase of the number of nematodes. The increase 100 100 presence of crops favored the increase of plant parasite nematodes and therefore they were dominant in presence of crops favored the increase of plant parasite nematodes and therefore they were dominant in nematodes 0 0 Jicama Jí Mucuna Jicama i M Jí Mucuna Solarization Regional M i S l i ió T i Total Solarization+ T i S l i ió Jicama Mucuna Jicama Mucuna Solarization Regional Total Solarization+ comparison to the other trophic groups. These results show that the agricultural activity has effects on soil comparison to the other trophic groups. These results show that the agricultural activity has effects on soil effects inoculated inoculated non- non- + Cattle inoculated inoculated manure Control Control Cattle manure (2 cycles) inoculated inoculated non- non- + Cattle inoculated inoculated manure Control Control Cattle manure (2 cycles) (3 cycles) (3 cycles) nematodes and that procedures as application of organic matter, inoculation of benefic microorganisms, crop nematodes and that procedures as application of organic matter, inoculation of benefic microorganisms, crop P E PREDATORS R M OMNIVORES rotation, etc., can help soil does not lose the organisms richness and plant production is not affected. richness and plant production is not affected. rotation, etc., can help soil does not lose the organisms richness O BF BACTERIAL FEEDERS FF FUNGAL FEEDERS PP PLANT PARASITES 900 BEFORE PLANTING 900 BEGINNING 3rd Cycle 800 800 Palms (Chamaedorea hooperiana) originating from nursery were planted to Natural forest in Ejido Lopez 700 700 Mateos. In Lopez Mateos twenty four experimental plots (eight treatments, three replicates) were settled. Mateos. replicates) 600 600 Treatments covered solarization or not solarization, inoculation or not inoculation of arbuscular-mycorrhizal solarization, arbuscular- 500 500 fungi, and application or not application of organic matter; all tactics were tested alone or in combination. At 400 400 the end of the monitoring, an evaluation of the structure of soil nematodes fauna was carried out in Natural soil 300 300 forest. A comparison with the adjacent areas was achieved in order to evaluate the effect of the plantations on order 200 200 soil nematodes fauna. ABUNDANCE & TROPHIC STRUCTURE 100 100 0 0 Jicama Mucuna Jicama Mucuna Solarization Regional Total Solarization+ Jicama Mucuna Jicama Mucuna Solarization Regional Total Solarization+ 1100 inoculated inoculated non- non- + Cattle Control Cattle manure BEGINNING NURSERY inoculated inoculated non- non- + Cattle Control Control Cattle manure Control 1000 FINAL NATURAL FOREST inoculated inoculated manure (3 cycles) (2 cycles) inoculated inoculated manure (3 cycles) (2 cycles) 900 1100 800 700 1000 Number of nematodes 600 900 500 800 400 700 A demonstrative experimental field with a history of maize (Zea mays) cultivation was selected in the Ejido San Pedro Soteapan. The experiment was settled in one hectare Soteapan. 300 600 200 under a random block experimental design (four treatments, five replicates) and 500 100 400 treatments covered maize monoculture and maize in rotation with velvetbean and 0 300 1100 1000 FINAL NURSERY 200 application or not application of fertilizer (regional dose). ABUNDANCE & TROPHIC STRUCTURE 900 100 800 0 S+Myco S+Myco+S S+OM S+OM+ S+OM+ S+OM+ SOWING 1st Cycle 700 S S+Sol ol Sol Myco Myco+S 600 ol 500 400 PRE PREDATORS 2200 2200 FLOWERING 2nd Cycle 2000 2000 300 OM OMNIVORES 1800 1800 200 BF BACTERIAL FEEDERS 100 1600 1600 0 FF FUNGAL FEEDERS 1400 1400 S S+Sol S+Myco S+Myco+S S+OM S+OM+ S+OM+ S+OM+ ol Sol Myco Myco+S PP PLANT PARASITES 1200 1200 ol 1000 1000 800 800 600 600 400 400 Number of nematodes Palms (Chamaedorea hooperiana) originating from nursery were planted to Secondary forest in Ejido San 200 200 Fernando. In San Fernando thirty two experimental plots (eight treatments, four replicates) were settled. 0 0 MAIZE + FERTILIZATION MAIZE MAIZE-MUCUNA + MAIZE-MUCUNA MAIZE + FERTILIZATION MAIZE MAIZE-MUCUNA + MAIZE-MUCUNA Treatments covered solarization or not solarization, inoculation or not inoculation of arbuscular-mycorrhizal solarization, arbuscular- FERTILIZATION FERTILIZATION PR PREDATORS E fungi, and application or not application of organic matter; all tactics were tested alone or in combination. At OM OMNIVORES the end of the monitoring, an evaluation of the structure of soil nematodes fauna was carried out in soil BF BACTERIAL FEEDERS FF FUNGAL FEEDERS Secondary forest. A comparison with the adjacent areas was achieved in order to evaluate the effect of the achieved PP PLANT PARASITES plantations on soil nematodes fauna. 2200 FLOWERING 1st Cycle FLOWERING 3rd Cycle ABUNDANCE & TROPHIC STRUCTURE 2200 2000 2000 1800 FINAL SECONDARY FOREST 1800 6000 6000 1600 1600 BEGINNING NURSERY 5000 5000 1400 1400 1200 1200 4000 4000 1000 1000 Number of nematodes 3000 3000 800 800 600 600 2000 2000 400 400 1000 1000 200 200 0 0 0 0 Í MAIZE + FERTILIZATION ÍMAIZE Í MAIZE-MUCUNA + Í MAIZE-MUCUNA MAIZE + FERTILIZATION MAIZE MAIZE-MUCUNA + MAIZE-MUCUNA S S+Sol S+Myco S+Myco+S S+OM S+OM+ S+OM+ S+OM+ Secondary 6000 FINAL NURSERY ol Sol Myco Myco+S ol forest FERTILIZATION FERTILIZATION 5000 4000 PRE PREDATORS OM OMNIVORES 1. FRECKMAN, D. W. & ETTEMA, C. H. 1993. Assessing nematode communities in agroecosystems of varying human 1. FRECKMAN, D. W. & ETTEMA, C. H. 1993. Assessing nematode communities in agroecosystems of varying human communities intervention. Agriculture, Ecosystems and Environment 45: 239-261. 2) LIANG, W., LAVIAN, I., STEINBERGER, Y. intervention. Agriculture, Ecosystems and Environment 45: 239- 3000 BF BACTERIAL FEEDERS 239-261. 2) LIANG, W., LAVIAN, I., STEINBERGER, Y. 2000 FF FUNGAL FEEDERS 2001. Effect of agriculture management on nematode communities in aa Mediterranean agroecosystem. Journal of 2001. Effect of agriculture management on nematode communities iin Mediterranean agroecosystem. Journal of n agroecosystem. 1000 PP PLANT PARASITES Nematology 33: 208-213. 3) THORNTON, C. W. AND MATLACK, G. R. 2002. Long-term disturbance effects in the Nematology 33: 208- 208-213. 3) THORNTON, C. W. AND MATLACK, G. R. 2002. Long- Long-term disturbance effects in the nematode communities of South Mississippi Woodlands. Journal of Nematology 34: 88-97. 4) WANG, K. H., nematode communities of South Mississippi Woodlands. Journal of Nematology 34: 88- 88-97. 4) WANG, K. H., 0 S S+Sol S+Myco S+Myco+S S+OM S+OM+ S+OM+ S+OM+ MCSORLEY, R. AND GALLAHER, R. N. 2004. Relationship of soil management history and nutrient status to nematode MCSORLEY, R. AND GALLAHER, R. N. 2004. Relationship of soil management history and nutrient status to nematode management ol Sol Myco Myco+S ol community structure. Nematropica, 34: 83-95. community structure. Nematropica, 34: 83- Nematropica, 83-95. 1

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