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OP13:Eco-friendly Measures to Control White Root Disease of Rubber in Lampung, Indonesia

OP13:Eco-friendly Measures to Control White Root Disease of Rubber in Lampung, Indonesia



A presentation by Dr. Joko Prasetyo

A presentation by Dr. Joko Prasetyo



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    OP13:Eco-friendly Measures to Control White Root Disease of Rubber in Lampung, Indonesia OP13:Eco-friendly Measures to Control White Root Disease of Rubber in Lampung, Indonesia Document Transcript

    • 5/27/2010 Introduction Eco‐friendly Measures to Control  WHITE ROOT DISEASE in  RUBBER PLANTATIONS White Root Disease of Rubber  (Rigidoporus lignosus ) in Lampung, Indonesia ECONOMIC LOSS:  RP 2 .1 x 10 9 ( ~ $210 x 10 6 ) PER YEAR ECOLOGICAL LOSS : 3 – 15 % PLANT  DEATHS. SMALLHOLDER FARMERS’  By  IGNORANT TO THE DISEASE. Joko Prasetyo ,  Subli Mujim, Titik Nur Aeny And  EXPENSIVE TECHNOLOGY TO  CONTROL THE DISEASE IS  Radix Suharjo EXPENSIVE (MECHANICAL UP‐ Department of Plant Protection,  ROOTING). R. lignosus Universitas Lampung, Indonesia EFFECTIVE, CHEAPER, AND ECO‐ FRIENDLY  MEASURES ARE NEEDED  FOR FARMERS. POTENTIAL MEASURES  TO CONTROL WHITE ROOT DISEASE THE ANTAGONISTIC PLANTS 1) ANTAGONISTIC PLANTS 2) TRICHODERMA SPP. 3) ORGANIC MATTER 4) NATURAL SULPHUR 4) NATURAL SULPHUR 5) LIME ALL THE MEASURES ARE RECOMMENDED, BUT ONLY  Maranta arundinacea. Alpinia galanga. Sansevieria auranthii #1, #2, #3 (ESPECIALLY #1) ARE CONSIDERED  (Zingiberales: (Zingiberales: (Liliales: ECO‐FRIENDLY TO SMALL‐HOLDER FARMERS. Maranataceae) Zingiberaceae) Agavaceae) THE 1st EXPERIMENT‐FIELD DEMO OBJECTIVES • TREATMENTS:  1) TO SHOW THE EFFICACY OF RECOMMENDED CONTROL ‐ antagonistic plants (Marantha, Alpinia, Sansevieria) MEASURES AGAINST THE WHITE ROOT DISEASE OF ‐ Trichoderma ‐ organic matter (litter) RUBBER. ‐ natural sulphur  2) TO SHOW WETHER ANTAGONISTIC PLANTS CAN ) ‐ lime CONSERVE SOIL FUNGAL DIVERSITY AND BUNDANCE. ‐ control • DESIGNS: RCBD with 3 replicates. • OBSERVATIONS: ‐ white root incidence on  indicator plants ‐ the abundance of soil mcrobes (AMF, common  soil fungi, and nematodes )  1
    • 5/27/2010 THE 2nd EXPERIMENT- FIELD DEMO THE 3rd EXPERIMENT - LAB TREATMENTS: TREATMENTS: ‐ Trichoderma sp1(K1) - Antagonistic plants (Maranta, Alpinia, Sansevieria)  ‐ Trichoderma sp2 (K2) - control 1 (indicator host plants: cassava) ‐ Other fungi (K3) - control 2 (host plants: rubber) ‐ T koningii T. koningii DESIGN: RCBD with 5 replicates ‐ T. harzianum ‐ T. hamatum OBSERVATION: DESIGN: CRD with 5 replicates.  - diversity and abundance of soil fungi OBSERVATION: % growth inhibition of R. lignosus. THE 4th EXPERIMENT – LAB FOOD POISONING TECHNIQUE (Food Poisoned Techniques) TREATMENTS: ‐ Marantha root exudates ‐ Alpinia root exudates ‐ Sansevieria root exudates ‐ Control (sterile water) Root Exudates DESIGN: CRD with 5 replicates.  OBSERVATION: R. Lignosus colony diameter (3, 6 d) R. lignosus diameter Overnight collection of root exudates from antagonistic plants RESULTS Tabel 1. White root incidence in indicator  plants   (cassava) under various treatments ANTAGONISTIC PLANTS ,  WHITE ROOT INCIDENCE  TREATMENTS OF  INDICATOR PLANTS (%) TRICHODERMA SPP. , AND  NATURAL  SULPHUR  SIGNIFICANTLY DECREASED  CONTROL 18.7a WHITE ROOT INCIDENCE  LIME 12.7ab ORGANIC MATTER ORGANIC MATTER 10.0 abc 10 0 b COMPARED with CONTROL. Sansevieria 8.0 bc Alpinia 4.7 bc EFFECTS OF ANTAGONISTIC  TRICHODERMA SPP. 3.3 bc PLANTS  WERE COMPARABLE TO  NATURAL SULPHUR 2.7bc TRICHODERMA SPP.  AND  Marantha 1.0 c NATURAL  SULPHUR  LSD test at α=0.05 2
    • 5/27/2010 FUNGAL ABUNDANCE AND WHITE ROOT INCIDENCE  UNDER VARIOUS CONTROL MEASURES Table 2. Diversity and abundance of soil fungi  100.0 MYCORRHIZAE SOIL FUNGI WHITE ROOT 20 in various rhizospheres White Root Incidence (%) 80.0 16 Population of soil fungi 60.0 12 Treatments NUMBER ABUNDANCE OF ABUNDANCE OF ABUNDANCE OF (rhizospheres) OF F. GENERA PENICILLIUM ASPERGILLUS TRICHODERMA s 40.0 8 CASSAVA 6.2 a 11400 a 3889 a 3258 a 20.0 4 BARE SOIL 6.2 a 7000 b 4008 a 1196 b RUBBER 5.2 a 1800 cd 1628 abc 1157 b 0.0 0 MARANTA 4.8 a 4400 bc 3440 ab 980 b SANSEVIERIA 3.2 b 0 d 836 c 778 b ALPINIA 2.2 b 200 d 883 c 500 b White root control measures LSD test at α=0.05 ABUNDANCE OF ANTAGONISTIC PENICILLIUM, ASPERGILLUS, AND TRICHODERMA UNDER VARIOUS TREATMENTS RESULTS OF THE  ANTAGONISM TEST Table 3 Inhibition of some fungi against R. lignosus 12000 PENICILLIUM ASPERGILLUS TRICHODERMA ndance (cfu/g soil) 10000 Treatment Inhibition (%) The inhibition  8000 T. koningii 67.00 a capacities of K1  T. harzianum 51.25 bc 6000 and K2 against R.  T. hamatum 44.50 c 4000 lignosus were  li K1 (T sp1) (T. 63.75 63 75 ab Abun K2 (T. sp2) 58.00 ab 2000 comparable to T.  K3 (other fungi) 16.75 d 0 koningii LSD test at α=0.05 Plant rhizospheres Table 5. Effects of  plant root exudates   on the colony  diameter of R. lignosus at 6 days observation Table 4  Effect of plant root exudates on  Root exudates of the colony diameter of R. lignosus at 3 days  antagonistic plants significantly Colony Diameter (cm)   observation Treatments decreased the colony diameter of of  R. lignosus R. lignosus. Colony  Ex. Maranta 3.58 c Treatments diameter of  Ex. Sansevieria 4.98 b R. lignosus (cm)  Ex. Alpinia 4.72 c Control 6.47 a 6.47 a Ex. Maranta E M t 2.83 ab 2 83 b Ex. Sansevieria 2.68 b LSD test at α=0.05 Ex. Alpinia 2.64 b Control 3.10 a LSD test at α=0.05 Sansevieria Maranta Alpinia 3
    • 5/27/2010 SUGGESTED SUPPRESSION MECHANISM OF  ANTAGONISTIC PLANTS AGAINST R. LIGNOSUS CONCLUSIONS ALPINIA SANSEVIERIA • Planting antagonistic plants (Alpinia, Maranta, or Sansevieria) significantly  direct decreased white root incidence, their effects were comparable with that  of  Trichoderma spp. and natural sulphur. • B t l ti S But planting Sansevieria or Alpinia significantly decreased the abundance  i i Al i i i ifi tl d d th b d R.  of antagonistic fungi (Penicillium and Aspergillus). LIGNOSUS MARANTA • Application of Trichoderma spp., directly from cultures or indirectly  through planting  Maranta, effectively suppressed R. lignosus in vitro and  in planta.  indirect ANTAGONISTIC  MICROBES Thank You Thank Yo CULTURE CONTAINING ALPINIA ROOT EXUDATE  CULTURE CONTAINING SANSEVIERIA ROOT EXUDATE  CONSISTANTLY DOMINATED BY ASPERGILLUS AND  ALSO CONSISTANTLY DOMINATED BY ASPERGILLUS  PENICILLIUM AND PENICILLIUM 4
    • 5/27/2010 CULTURE CONTAINING MARANTHA ROOT  EXUDATE  RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN pH  CONSISTANTLY DOMINATED BY TRICHODERMA AND  AND  DIVERSITY SOIL FUNGI BACTERIA 2.5 Number of Fungal Genera 2 G 1.5 y = 15x - 58,333 R2 = 0,75 P < 0,05 1 0.5 0 3.995 4 4.005 4.01 4.015 4.02 4.025 4.03 4.035 4.04 pH RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN pH  AND WHITE ROOT INCIDENCE 16 14 WHITE ROT INCIDENC (%) 12 CE 10 8 y = -79,75x + 333,1 6 R² = 0,617 4 P < 0.05 2 0 3.995 4 4.005 4.01 4.015 4.02 4.025 4.03 4.035 4.04 pH 5