OP14:Towards Sustainable Agriculture with Integrated soil fertility management option: A case study in Kenya

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A presentation by Prof. James Kahindi and Dr. Sheila Okoth

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OP14:Towards Sustainable Agriculture with Integrated soil fertility management option: A case study in Kenya

  1. 1. 5/27/2010 OBJECTIVES Evaluation of bio‐inoculants on  germination of maize and  bean seeds Assessment of  effectiveness of bio pesticides in  Assessment of effectiveness of bio‐pesticides in controlling soil borne diseases  Okoth S. A., Karanja N. K., Kahindi, J.H.P., Jefwa, J., Kimenju J. and Wachira P. Assessment of the interactions of the bio‐inoculants and  other soil ISFM ACTIVITIES EXPERIMENTAL DESIGN DEMONSTRATIONS The experiment was laid out in a Randomized Complete Demonstration plots = 4 on‐farm Design (RCD) replicated 5 times as shown below: 1. Trichoderma harzianum 1 Ti h d h i EXPERIMENTAL PLOTS 2. Bacillus subtilis Experimental plots = 12 Test strips on‐farm and at the two  3. Mycorrhizae (AMF) Farmers Training Centers (ATC)  4. TSP&CAN 5. Control  6. Mavuno (composite fertilizer) 7. Manure (Cow manure) In a Maize X Bean cropping system  Trials at the ATC under different  ISFM Inputs management practices Demonstration strip 5kg per plot of manure Mavuno 5 kg mavuno fertilizer  Farmer practice : TSP 4.5 kg/plot  and 3.9kg/plot CAN  Control Mijingu phosphate rock (4kg/plot  and CAN 0.4 kg/plot )  Experimental (ATC and on farm) Manure (9 kg /plot) Mavuno fertilizer (0.9kg/plot) Farmer practice (TSP 0.8 kg and 0.5kg CAN)  AMF (Seed coating) Trichoderma (Seed coating) 1
  2. 2. 5/27/2010 Test crops Maize H516 : spacing 90 x 30 Beans variety Mwezi Moja: spacing:75 X 25  cm Sampling stages RESULTS Baseline (soil only) Germination Bean Flowering Bean Podding Harvest Table 1: Effect of Trichoderma and soil amendment on bean root PROMOTION OF SEED GERMINATION AND  growth SEEDLING GROWTH BY FUNGAL INOCULUM Collar Diameter (mm) Length (mm) Std. Error of Treatment # Mean Mean Mean (mm) Std. Error of Mean Control 53 0.1121 A* 0.00108 9.493 A* 0.1469 • Plots treated with TSP and CAN + Trichoderma recorded   Manure 53 0.1161 ABC 0.00131 9.656 AB 0.1692 the largest maize root and stem diameter and stem length  Manure + Trichoderma 41 0.1204 ABCD 0.00215 9.874 AB 0.2012 followed by TSP and Mavuno+ Trichoderma fertilizers  Mavuno 54 0.1230 BC 0.00167 10.237 AB 0.1303 • Plots treated with TSP and CAN recorded the highest  Plots treated with TSP and CAN recorded the highest Mavuno + Trichoderma 47 0.1237 CD 0.00253 10.366 B 0.2401 values of bean root size and stem diameter.  • Combination treatments of fertilizer with Trichoderma Trichoderma 45 0.1145 AB 0.00146 9.854 AB 0.1641 performed better than single fertilizer or inoculum  TSP+CAN 51 0.1292 D 0.00263 10.462 B 0.1952 application with both maize and beans TSP+CAN + Trichoderma 17 0.1239 CD 0.00374 10.083 AB 0.3100 Total 361 0.1200 0.00076 9.995 0.0677 *Figures followed by the same letter are not significantly different according to Tukey’s Honestly Significant Difference (HSD) test Table 2. Effect of soil amendment on frequency of isolation of  Fusarium spp. from soil and root seedlings Total frequency of isolation Treatment Soil Roots No. of species Control 17 28 10 TSP + CAN 14 24 10 Manure 21 24 14 Mavuno 13 31 9 Mijingu + CAN 1 3 3 Tr Tr/Mv  Manure + Trichoderma 8 17 9 Mavuno + Trichoderma 15 29 9 Trichoderma 21 36 18 2
  3. 3. 5/27/2010 Table 3. Effects of ISFM Treatments on Fusarium Density and Root  Table 4. Influence of crop type and farm treatment on  Infection Fusarium density in soil and roots Treatment Fusarium inoculum Fusarium incidence density (CFU) per 10g of in roots Treatment Root infection incidence (Mean) Soil inoculum density (MeanCFU/10g) soil (Mean of frequency) 4895 ± 781 78.33 ± 3.10 Bean Maize Bean Maize Control Control 97.0 84.9 4457 5114 TSP+CAN 7662 ± 972 77.05 ± 3.08 TSP + CAN 72.9 79.1 6914 8036 Manure 1195.2 ± 401.1 82.05 ± 2.99 Manure 86.1 80.0 1586 1000 Mavuno 3500 ± 481 76.33 ± 3.64 Mavuno 74.3 77.4 2114 4193 Mijingu + CAN 60.0 100.0 400 767 Mijingu + CAN 675 ± 92.1 92 1 90.00 ± 6.55 90 00 6 55 Manure + Trichoderma 71.7 81.8 5317 4700 Manure + 4918 ± 1008 78.24 ± 3.44 Mavuno + Trichoderma 76.7 76.5 3450 3973 Trichoderma Trichoderma 80.0 77.5 1203 909 Mavuno + 3788 ± 671 76.59 ± 2.85 Crop P - value 0.721** 0.4341** Trichoderma Crop X Treatment P - value 0.016* <.001* Trichoderma seed 1012.9 ± 318.8 89.18 ± 2.42 • Effect of Trichoderma is seen in germination and early root development and  coat has potential to use under intensive agriculture (green houses) – i.e in drought  P - value <0.001** 0.052* prone areas  • As a seed coat the efficacy of the bio‐control does not stay for long. It is  • Mij+CAN controls/suppresses density of Fusarium inoculum  recommended that it should be applied in irrigation water or hydroponics • Trichoderma and manure lowers density Fig. 1. Effect of soil fertility  Fig 2:  Influence of soil fertility management  practices on plant parasitic and  practices on non‐parasitic nematodes non‐parasitic nematodes 600 40 500 bers/200cm3 35 Nematode numbers/200 3 soil 400 30 0cm Nematode numb 25 300 Meloidogyne 20 Pratylenchus 200 15 10 100 5 0 0 Bacillus Bacillus Bacillus Control Manure Mavuno Bacillus Bacillus Bacillus Control Manure Mavuno subtilis + subtilis subtils + subtilis subtilis + subtils + Manure Mavuno Manure Mavuno Fig. 3. Effect of selected soil fertility management practices on  EFFECT OF ORGANIC AND INORGANIC FERTILIZERS AND  (a) galling of bean on station and, (b) on farmers fields MICROBIAL INOCULATION AS A MEANS OF  AUGMENTING THE POPULATION OF BENEFICIAL SOIL  6 5 a FUNGI a 4 ling index 4 b G allin g In d e x b b 3 bc bc b b bc b 2 c 2 b b 1. Chicken manure influenced positively the  p y Gall 1 population of beneficial nematodes while at  0 0 the same time suppressing nematodes  BS BS+ BS+ Manure Mavuno Control manure mavuno pathogenic to plants as shown in Fig.4. below: lsd=1.39 S.e=0.697 3
  4. 4. 5/27/2010 Fig.4. Influence of organic amendments on  Fig.5. Effect of organic amendments on  structure of nematode communities in the soil occurrence of nematode destroying fungi 450 2.  60 % of all the isolated nematode destroying fungi occurred  in the plots treated with cow manure 400 N em ato d e n um br e s /1 00 c m s o il 350 3 300 Bacterivores / 250 Fungivores 200 Phytonematodes Predators 150 100 50 0 Chicken manure Chicken+cow manure Cow manure control Mean percentage colonization of napier and tomato  Table.5. Effect of selected soil fertility management  roots by AMF and Trichoderma bio‐inoculants practices on bean yield in  Embu 3.  Mean percentage colonization of napier and tomato  roots by AMF and Trichoderma bio‐inoculants was high  4.  Increased bean yield was observed in plots inoculated with  in plots where AMF was added together with  Bacillus subtilis with addition of  organic amendments Trichoderma or with fertilizer  Plant Treatments Percentage colonization Treatment Kg/ha Napier AMF 38.7a Bacillus subtillis 698 P52+AMF 41.8b Bacillus subtillis +Manure Manure 1067 AMF+DAP-F 37.9a Entry point appressorium P52+AMF+DAP-F 41.5b Bacillus subtillis +Mavuno 820 Tomato AMF 49.19a Bacillus subtillis + TSP+CAN 580 P52+AMF 58.44b TSP+CAN 468 AMF+DAP-F Infection points P52+AMF+DAP-F Infection points Manure 550 Tea AMF Infection points Mavuno 515 P52+AMF Infection points Control 183 AMF+DAP-F Infection points P52+AMF+DAP-F Infection points LSD 199.6 Vesicle CONCLUSION • Organic amendments enhance build up of free‐living  CONCLUSION CONT’D nematodes, and populations of antagonistic organisms  such as  Bacillus, Trichoderma and beneficial  • Some inorganic fertilizers (TSP+CAN) promote growth  Mycorrhizae and Nematophagous fungi  of Fusarium spp. in soil while others inhibit  (Mijingu+CAN) • Application of inorganic fertilizer could be modifying  A li i fi i f ili ld b dif i the environment in favor of Fusarium.  • Bio‐inoculants work best when inoculated together  with organic fertilizers. • Crop type is important  when choosing a disease  management strategy since the interaction between  the cropping system and the microbes  will influence  • Bio‐inoculants have potential for use as bio‐fertilizers  the occurrence and abundance of the latter.  and as a bio‐pesticides in precision agriculture  4

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