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PK10:Ecosystem services in deforested Amazonian landscapes
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PK10:Ecosystem services in deforested Amazonian landscapes

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A presentation by Prof. Patrick lavelle on the AMAZ project

A presentation by Prof. Patrick lavelle on the AMAZ project

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PK10:Ecosystem services in deforested Amazonian landscapes PK10:Ecosystem services in deforested Amazonian landscapes Document Transcript

  • AMAZ The Amazon paradoxe Ecosystem services in deforested Amazonian landscapes Tailandia, Para, Brésil Mars 2008 In Amazonia, laws do not  prevent deforestation The AMAZ team Pacaja, Para, Brésil 16 teams from Brazil, Colombia and France Mai 2008 60 researchers 200 students Mining explotation of  Natural Capital does not  >1000 farmers and family prevent poverty 3  years How to design applicable public policies??? PUBLIC POLICIES BRASIL COLOMBIA Pará Caqueta 3 landscape windows 3 landscape windows SOCEC Maçaran Tradicio Silvo Agrosilvo Palmares Pacaja Education Production Infrastructure 3 sub windows duba Sampling protocole pastoril nal pastoril systems Credit PL1 PL2 PL3 M1 M2 M3 Pa1 Pa2 Pa3 T1 T2 T3 S1 S2 S3 A1 A2 A3 17 17 17 17 17 17 17 17 17 17 17 17 17 17 17 17 17 17 LANDSCAPES YEAR I 151 farms 302 151 farms NATURAL BIODIVERSITY SOCIOECO LANSCAPE 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 CLIMATE SOIL WATER PRODUCTIONS REGULATION FERTILITY RESOURCES 27 farms YEAR II 27 farms BIODIVERSITY 54 Productions Soil Ecosystem Services ECOSYSTEM SERVICES WP1 SOCIOECO WP2 LANDSCAPE Farm socioeconomic classification Selected farms Landscape metrics Milk LID CAF11901 CAF11901 CAF11901 TYPE paturage avec arbres dispers es NoData paturage propre CA PLAND PD ED 3,9475 23,0208 139,9621 250,4738 4,5675 26,6365 116,6351 225,1057 0,02 0,1166 5,8318 2,3327 AREA_AM SHAPE_AM PARA_AM ENN_AM LNUM 0,724 0,882 0,02 2,0077 1248,8917 27,4033 1,8483 1026,8199 25,0461 1,1667 3500 0 4 0 1 CAF11901 friche jeune 0,34 1,9828 34,9905 29,7419 0,0688 1,0564 1794,1176 66,8178 12 Intermediate size CAF11901 paturage avec ligneux arbus tifs 0,7525 4,3884 69,981 68,8147 0,1032 1,1468 1674,4186 53,0699 3 CAF11901 friche vielle 4,1925 24,4496 75,8128 259,8046 0,5906 2,0517 1190,2206 26,0503 13 CAF11901 plantation agro fores tiere d hevea 2,6275 15,3229 81,6446 149,0013 0,5368 1,5062 1080,8754 33,6068 10 CAF11901 plantation de palme africaine 0,7 4,0822 52,4858 63,2745 0,1011 1,2432 1728,5714 52,8242 9 CAF12001 paturage propre 0,07 0,7421 21,2033 10,6016 0,0352 1,25 2857,1429 210,238 1 CAF12001 friche vielle 1,0325 10,9462 148,423 137,2913 0,1594 1,3684 1685,23 32,3114 13 CAF12001 plantation agro fores tiere d hevea 5,6775 60,1908 42,4066 231,1158 5,3741 2,9316 546,015 15,9226 10 CAF12001 paturage avec ligneux arbus tifs 0,6375 6,7585 106,0164 99,6554 0,0796 1,0832 1662,7451 47,0496 3 CAF12001 paturage avec arbres dispers es 0,9675 10,2571 74,2115 112,9075 0,2974 1,7718 1529,7158 36,8916 4 CAF12001 NoData 1,0075 10,6812 116,6181 138,8815 0,2319 1,4491 1548,3871 31,8433 0 CAF12001 plantation de palme africaine 0,04 0,4241 10,6016 8,4813 0,04 1 2000 0 9 CAF12101 paturage avec arbres dispers es 3,805 20,0845 131,9609 231,9873 0,3973 1,6386 1287,7792 31,0398 4 CAF12101 NoData 4,965 26,2074 105,5688 176,8277 0,989 1,6987 926,4854 24,0106 0 CAF12101 paturage propre 0,745 3,9324 31,6706 38,7965 0,4075 1,7138 1449,6644 87,6993 1 CAF12101 plantation agro fores tiere d hevea 1,59 8,3927 47,5059 83,6632 0,6337 1,5168 1075,4717 43,73 10 CAF12101 friche vielle 5,395 28,4772 95,0119 254,9485 2,189 2,844 950,8804 25,6516 13 CAF12101 paturage avec ligneux arbus tifs 0,6075 3,2067 42,2275 51,2008 0,1028 1,1944 1646,0905 72,4862 3 CAF12101 friche jeune 0,28 1,478 36,9491 26,92 0,0488 1,0235 2071,4286 47,2563 12 CAF12101 plantation de palme africaine 1,5575 8,2212 68,6197 102,1378 0,3213 1,3702 1296,9502 34,4454 9 CAF22201 paturage avec arbres dispers es 4,4725 25,8676 109,8901 256,5067 1,3101 2,3456 1086,6406 25,7721 4 CAF22201 paturage propre 1,93 11,1625 86,7553 139,3869 0,3409 1,7855 1471,5026 43,6022 1 CAF22201 plantation agro fores tiere d hevea 4,425 25,5928 63,6206 179,2944 2,2258 1,9415 763,8418 30,604 10 CAF22201 NoData 2,1525 12,4494 98,3227 132,1573 0,3016 1,314 1212,5436 33,5834 0 CAF22201 friche vielle 3,5625 20,6044 63,6206 205,321 0,883 2,3195 1145,2632 27,7649 13 CAF22201 paturage avec ligneux arbus tifs 0,6225 3,6003 69,4043 58,1261 0,0798 1,0599 1734,9398 43,8123 3 CAF22201 plantation de palme africaine 0,125 0,723 17,3511 10,1215 0,0517 1,0233 2080 207,3966 9 CAF22301 paturage avec arbres dispers es 1,8825 19,2337 122,6054 184,4189 0,4604 1,721 1274,9004 43,5286 4 CAF22301 friche vielle 1,6675 17,037 122,6054 166,539 0,3313 1,44 1223,3883 65,1164 13 CAF22301 paturage propre 1,27 12,9757 40,8685 112,8991 0,6942 1,9009 1023,622 44,1911 1 CAF22301 NoData 1,775 18,1354 153,2567 206,3857 0,2554 1,3597 1335,2113 45,1014 0 CAF22301 paturage avec ligneux arbus tifs 0,225 2,2989 40,8685 30,6513 0,0939 1,1006 1733,3333 121,0504 3 CAF22301 plantation agro fores tiere d hevea 2,7 27,5862 20,4342 119,5402 2,6212 2,3882 618,5185 25 10 CAF22301 plantation de palme africaine 0,1875 1,9157 30,6513 27,5862 0,1386 1,2427 1706,6667 66,5941 9 CAF22301 friche jeune 0,08 0,8174 20,4342 16,3474 0,04 1 2000 205,061 12 CAF22401 NoData 0,9525 8,5292 89,5456 115,9615 0,1447 1,3469 1574,8031 35,0253 0 CAF22401 friche vielle 1,3325 11,9319 143,2729 141,0343 0,2263 1,4672 1568,4803 33,9888 13 CAF22401 paturage avec arbres dispers es 2,3975 21,4685 89,5456 163,8684 1,4544 2,3291 980,1877 26,7033 4 CAF22401 plantation agro fores tiere d hevea 5,78 51,7573 53,7273 179,9866 3,2867 1,8534 486,1592 25,452 10 CAF22401 plantation de palme africaine 0,0975 0,8731 35,8182 17,9091 0,0347 1 2461,5385 118,2912 9 CAF22401 friche jeune 0,1525 1,3656 17,9091 19,2523 0,0935 1,1054 1573,7705 96,1769 12 CAF22401 paturage avec ligneux arbus tifs 0,415 3,7161 62,6819 64,9205 0,0646 1,199 2000 34,8838 3 CAF22401 paturage propre 0,04 0,3582 8,9546 6,2682 0,04 1 2000 0 1 CAF32501 friche vielle 11,305 26,5563 49,3305 224,4538 2,7381 3,3181 940,2919 25,3741 13 CAF32501 paturage avec arbres dispers es 10,755 25,2643 117,4536 251,7031 1,6967 2,2788 1102,7429 26,6517 4 CAF32501 plantation agro fores tiere d hevea 2,795 6,5657 65,774 89,852 0,1721 1,2484 1481,2165 38,9332 10 CAF32501 paturage avec ligneux arbus tifs 4,535 10,653 79,8685 128,4942 0,3695 1,517 1312,0176 29,8421 3 CAF32501 NoData 6,91 16,2321 86,9157 177,9422 1,5126 2,6863 1214,1823 27,3871 0 CAF32501 paturage propre 5,2675 12,3737 61,0759 128,2593 1,0213 2,2247 1123,8728 27,0294 1 CAF32501 plantation de palme africaine 0,8825 2,0731 30,5379 32,2997 0,1444 1,2854 1677,0538 69,4225 9 CAF32501 friche jeune 0,12 0,2819 0 12 0 2819 4,6981 4 6981 5,2854 5 2854 0,0667 0 0667 1,2222 1 2222 2000 25 4951 25,4951 12 CAF32601 NoData 4,15 13,5433 58,7419 119,9315 1,7351 2,1345 990,3614 37,4858 0 CAF32601 plantation de palme africaine 0,33 1,0769 13,0538 17,7858 0,0924 1,2594 1727,2727 169,891 9 CAF32601 friche vielle 5,3375 17,4186 81,586 192,543 0,5813 1,9042 1189,6956 29,9678 13 CAF32601 paturage avec arbres dispers es 12,0875 39,4468 68,5323 332,2183 2,0044 2,8535 935,6774 24,1856 4 CAF32601 paturage avec ligneux arbus tifs 3,8275 12,4908 78,3226 135,596 0,3769 1,4588 1157,4135 30,4523 3 CAF32601 friche jeune 0,04 0,1305 3,2634 2,6108 0,04 1 2000 0 12 CAF32601 paturage propre 2,725 8,8929 71,7957 118,4629 0,1924 1,411 1427,5229 28,6048 1 Family Agriculture CAF32601 plantation agro fores tiere d hevea 2,145 7,0001 52,2151 87,2971 0,2195 1,3703 1333,3333 34,3168 10 CAF32701 NoData 15,175 39,0078 56,5516 193,9464 7,9739 3,0342 618,1219 15,7179 0 CAF32701 friche vielle 4,3275 11,124 46,2695 109,7616 1,1389 2,0556 1044,483 26,7731 13 CAF32701 paturage avec arbres dispers es 6,8375 17,576 53,9811 173,2536 0,9941 2,2946 1083,7294 29,1595 4 CAF32701 paturage avec ligneux arbus tifs 3,25 8,3542 46,2695 82,771 0,667 1,6391 1052,3077 39,4357 3 CAF32701 paturage propre 8,4325 21,676 25,7053 113,4889 2,9715 2,2791 607,1746 38,2541 1 CAF32701 plantation de palme africaine 0,4825 1,2403 17,9937 18,7649 0,0862 1,0355 1533,6788 47,0978 9 CAF32701 plantation agro fores tiere d hevea 0,3975 1,0218 17,9937 16,9655 0,0715 1,0431 1710,6918 38,5785 10 CSP11001 plantation agro fores tiere d hevea 1,305 1,7317 15,9241 19,8388 0,1472 1,1053 1287,3563 127,6472 10 CSP11001 verger 12,58 16,6938 49,0993 122,5492 2,7163 2,1722 775,8347 28,5167 6 Small farms CSP11001 plantation d'arbus tes fouragers 19,4325 25,7871 35,8292 165,1461 3,2944 2,6304 688,0226 36,4995 11 CSP11001 paturage propre 15,005 19,9118 50,4263 143,9804 1,3418 1,877 805,065 42,2705 1 CSP11001 NoData 11,0875 14,7132 31,8482 100,3881 2,0434 2,1513 789,177 37,6087 0 CSP11001 friche vielle 13,5325 17,9577 7,962 59,45 12,3068 3,0976 399,0393 17,4865 13 CSP11001 friche jeune 1,2625 1,6753 13,2701 17,8483 0,1927 1,0873 1164,3564 52,5515 12 CSP11001 paturage avec ligneux arbus tifs 1,1525 1,5294 2,654 10,417 0,8733 1,4793 720,1735 395,2847 3 CSP11101 plantation d'arbus tes fouragers 3,0575 12,2373 48,0288 91,0546 0,6533 1,5738 938,6754 90,5293 11 CSP11101 friche vielle 5,61 22,4535 28,0168 111,0666 1,2121 1,6913 673,7968 61,4578 13 CSP11101 NoData 12,0775 48,339 20,012 133,0798 11,7019 2,9916 374,2496 34,8415 0 CSP11101 paturage propre 2,2125 8,8553 52,0312 80,4483 0,5037 1,4445 1021,4689 60,3746 1 Poor CSP11101 plantation agro fores tiere d hevea 0,4375 1,7511 20,012 21,0126 0,0945 1,0514 1417,1429 101,5068 10 CSP11101 verger 1,055 4,2225 32,0192 48,6292 0,1656 1,2168 1279,6209 70,0341 6 CSP11101 friche jeune 0,4775 1,9111 20,012 22,6136 0,0971 1,018 1319,3717 98,722 12 CSP11101 paturage avec ligneux arbus tifs 0,0575 0,2301 8,0048 3,2019 0,0484 1 2260,8696 57,0088 3 CSP11201 NoData 8,825 58,5406 19,9005 149,9171 8,2317 2,7679 418,1303 35,0036 0 CSP11201 plantation d'arbus tes fouragers 2,4725 16,4013 53,068 101,8242 1,148 1,581 816,9869 40,9957 11 CSP11201 verger 0,7975 5,2902 39,801 47,0978 0,3084 1,2748 1115,9875 76,4759 6 CSP11201 paturage propre 2,7 17,9104 53,068 143,2836 1,8482 2,603 948,1481 37,956 1 CSP11201 plantation agro fores tiere d hevea 0,125 0,8292 13,267 9,9502 0,1201 1,56 1920 545 10 CSP11201 friche jeune 0,02 0,1327 6,6335 2,3217 0,02 1,1667 3500 0 12 CSP11201 paturage avec arbres dispers es 0,09 0,597 6,6335 7,9602 0,09 1 1333,3333 0 4 CSP11201 friche vielle 0,045 0,2985 6,6335 3,9801 0,045 1 2000 0 13 CSP21301 friche vielle 3,835 6,3821 16,6417 40,7722 0,7618 1,5109 842,2425 87,8829 13 CSP21301 plantation agro fores tiere d hevea 1,47 2,4463 21,6342 26,3771 0,1345 1,0783 1265,3061 94,2769 10 CSP21301 paturage propre 15,14 25,1955 58,246 176,0692 1,5084 2,0326 821,004 33,5167 1 CSP21301 friche jeune 1,2775 2,126 9,985 25,0458 0,3673 1,8167 1299,4129 114,6239 12 CSP21301 NoData 9,895 16,467 28,2909 76,9679 2,7843 1,4755 584,1334 46,2198 0 CSP21301 verger 13,88 23,0987 39,9401 147,7783 2,0243 1,8574 709,6542 37,479 6 CSP21301 plantation d'arbus tes fouragers 14,4225 24,0015 48,2609 149,9418 2,5826 1,9506 695,4412 28,0896 11 CSP21301 paturage avec ligneux arbus tifs 0,08 0,1331 1,6642 1,4145 0,08 1 1500 0 3 Live stock CSP21301 paturage avec arbres dispers es 0,09 0,1498 1,6642 1,997 0,09 1 1333,3333 0 4 CSP21401 paturage propre 18,3575 29,7215 46,9522 182,3039 2,7487 2,3576 722,3206 34,9666 1 CSP21401 NoData 13,63 22,0675 25,9046 102,5662 9,9918 3,3131 556,8599 41,8676 0 CSP21401 verger 6,1725 9,9935 37,2379 91,7996 0,8032 1,7744 976,9137 38,9296 6 CSP21401 plantation d'arbus tes fouragers 13,3275 21,5778 43,7141 142,2327 2,5806 2,2843 750,3283 33,8688 11 CSP21401 friche vielle 8,32 13,4704 17,8094 72,1282 2,2815 1,9632 603,3654 37,1323 13 CSP21401 plantation agro fores tiere d hevea 1,475 2,3881 12,9523 26,7951 0,4939 1,7869 1206,7797 75,6375 10 CSP21401 friche jeune 0,3025 0,4898 4,8571 5,6666 0,1374 1,0484 1289,2562 117,9174 12 Large farms Rich Transamazonian Highway 7 socio eco types Travessão Km 338 S 1
  • Saturniidae and intensification WP3: BIODIVERSITY Farm Richness 25 Number of species per sample 20 Plantes 15 Saturnidae Oiseaux 10 5 0 BMB BPC BPR CAF CSP CTR Landscape windows Landscape Richness Saturation 50 120 Number of species per window Number of species per country Ob Th 40 Drosophiles Fourmis 65.2% 80 30 60 20 31.3% Vers de terre 40 10 20 0 0 > 2500 species identified BMB BPC BPR CAF CSP CTR BRAZIL COLOMBIA Landscape windows Bd indicator from 0.1 to 1.0 measured in 270 points WP4  WP5 : MODELS Productions and soil ecosystem services Covariations Matrix among tables of data • Food and commodities • GISQ and its 5 sub  indicators • Water infiltration /ha FAUN. MORF. FÍS. • Water storage in soil/ha MO QUIM. • C stored in soil and  vegetation Global Indicator Soil Quality 14 fully compatible tables of data SOCIOECO WP6  BRASIL History Production Scio EXCHANGE OF KNOWLEDGES farms Demography systems 0.44 0.42 0.37 0.47 0.42 SOCIOECO LANDSCAPE Structure Composition 0.44 PAYSAGE Echange de 0.28 0 28 0.40 0 40 savoirs 0.38 BIODIV MMA BIODIV BSE 0.35 0.39 0.36 0.30 AGREG GISQ BIOM AERA Modèle statistique Savoir local 0.35 0.33 Scénarios BIOM Co-variations SOIL PAR. 0.38 Indicateurs « participatifs RAICES Indicateurs « scientifiques » 0.32 PRODUC 0.39 (sp indicatrices et autres) Mesure des SE SERVICES 2
  • Messages from AMAZ Eco –Efficiency in AMAZ • SCALES: LANDSCAPE is the best scale to treat Socioeconomics and the function of natural and agro ecosystem Ef = Ep *Qs*Bd • MARKETS : Necessity to develop markets and access to towns EP: Incomes ($) from farm activities/ha/person working • INTENSIFICATION : Systems that are both Productive AND good at producing ES do exist QS: soil quality index GISQ (Velasquez et al., 2006) • PAYMENT FOR ES: Where people get incomes outside Farm activities, pressure on forest is alleviated. Bd: Species richness index 0.1 to 1.0 Eco efficiency in different landscapes in Income : 174 Income : 450 ColombianhaAMAZ sites -1.80.50 10 ha-1.8 UTE - GISQ = 0.90 10ha- 10ha GISQ = UTE Colombia (Caqueta) Bd= Bd= 0.45 Bd=0,32 Bd=0,32 INC: 6600 $ EF = 3,90 EF = 4,00 15 Ha 2.0 persons Income : 2399 GISQ 0.74 8 ha-0.6 UTE ha- 70 Bd=0,44 Bd=0,44 GISQ = 0.40 EF=22,0 INC: 7500 $ Bd = 0,52 60 49 Ha 2.2 2 2 persons EF = 103,1 50 GISQ 0.53 INC: 11200 $ Bd=0,41 Bd=0,41 105 Ha AGROFORESTRY 40 1.8 persons Income : 792 LANDSCAPE EF=9,03 GISQ 0.54 12 ha-1.8 UTE ha- Bd=0,32 Bd=0,32 30 GISQ = 0.40 Bd = 0,41 Income : 530 EF=8,74 20 18 ha-1.8 UTE ha- EF = 6,01 GISQ = 0.5 0.0 Bd = 0,40 AGRO CONVENTIO SYLVO FORESTRY NAL EF = M.P$/ha/person EF = 3,21 PASTORAL Eco efficiency and  Payment for Ecosystem Services Reshaping Lanscape Eco intensification in each element of the landscape In Caqueta: mosaic (bank of options for genetic resources+ISFM) Eco intensification allows ‐ better income per surface unit : +400% per surface : +400% Increase ‘naturality” in used elements (ex. Tree y ( components) ‐ more people employed: +10% ‐ improved production of soil ES: +37% Increase connectivity among natural ecosystems ‐ improved biodiversity : +38% (biodiversity coorridors) Identify the optimum level of fragmentation and contiguity among different land use systems for different ecosystem services 3
  • The next step: to rebuild eco efficient landscapes DIAGNOSTIC Fondo Amazonico SOCEC, Health, Climate Landscape, Biodiversity Commodities Ecosystem Services AMAZ 2030 MARKETS POLITICS LANDSCAPE Commodities + SA MODELS INFORMATION Reconstruction of eco efficient landscapes in TRAINING deforested areas of Amazonia in a context of climate change Payment for ES Certified Value Chain Optimization Participative Indicators LANDSCAPE RECONSTRUCTION Thank you!! THANK YOU!! UMR137 BIOSOL, Bondy; France (M. Grimaldi, D. Mitja, S. Barot, E. Velasquez) ECODIV-Rouen, France (Th.Decaëns) UMR-CNRS 5603, Pau, France. X . Arnaud de Sartre CIRAD-GREEN , Montpellier, France. JF Tourrand + P. Bommel CIRAD-UPR 36 Montréal Canada V Gond 36, Montréal, Canada. V. UR169 IRD, Paris, France. Ph Lena, P. de Robert UR 079 GEODES, Bondy. France. P. Auger UMR 5173 MNHN-CNRS, Paris, France. J M Thiollay UMR 5023 CNRSS. Lyon, France. Sylvain Doledec CIAT(Cali, Colombia) M. Rondon INRA-Avignon, France. B. Hubert . Universidad de la Amazonia, Florencia, (Colombia) B. Ramirez + team Univ Tecnologica de Pereira (Colombia) A. Feijoo + team UFPA-NEAF Belem (Brésil) I. Veiga + team UFPA-LASAT Maraba (Brésil) L. Alves + team Museu Paraense E. Goeldi Belem, Brésil. M. B. Martins + team UFRA, Belem, Brésil. P. Martins, I. Miranda + team Farmers Communities at Pacaja (BR), Maraba (BR) and Florencia (CO). 4