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Abundance and diversity of azotobacter and po4  solubilizing microorganisms in different land use types in western ghats of karnataka
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Abundance and diversity of azotobacter and po4 solubilizing microorganisms in different land use types in western ghats of karnataka

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  • 1. ABUNDANCE AND DIVERSITY OF AZOTOBACTER AND PO4 -SOLUBILIZING MICROORGANISMS IN DIFFERENT LAND USE TYPES IN WESTERN GHATS OF KARNATAKA M. C. Vinutha, A. N. Balakrishna, K. T. Prasanna, N. G. Kumar and Balakrishna Gowda 1. Department of Agricultural Microbiology/ 2. Department of Entomology/ 3. Department of Forestry and Environmental Sciences University of Agricultural Sciences, GKVK Campus, Bangalore-560065, India INTRODUCTION Population of Azotobacter in different land use types during pre and post-monsoon seasons Population (cfu X 103g-1 soil) CD at 0.05 The heterotrophic free-living nitrogen fixers like Land use types Pre-monsoon Post-monsoon Azotobacter, Beijerinckia, Derxia etc. are important due season season to their wide occurrence in soils and rhizosphere of Natural forests 53 (7.14) a 21 (4.23) a 0.87 different crops. In India, there has been some work on Grasslands 13 (3.05) c 3 (1.37) b 0.93 the occurrence of azotobacters in different soils and Acacia plantations 14 (3.27) b 10 (2.35) a 1.36 different crops rhizospheres (Raghuramulu, 2001). Cardamom plantations 35 (5.75) a 12 (2.81) a 0.77 Coffee plantations 29 (5.30) a 18 (2.07) a 0.72 The insoluble inorganic and organic forms of Paddy fields 14 (3.26) b 0.0 (0.70) c 0.91 phosphorus which constitutes a large portion of P in soil F-test * * - is non available to plants. Many fungi and bacteria are Note: The values in the brackets are the transformed values using the square root transformation √ potential solubilizers of bound phosphates in soil. There x + 0.5 Note: NF: Natural forests, GL: Grasslands, ACP: Acacia plantations, CAP: Cardamom plantations, have been several reports on phosphorus solubilizing COP: Coffee plantations, PF: Paddy field, ND: Not detected. microorganisms in different soils (Thomas and Shantaram, 1986). Abundance (cfuX104) of Azotobacter in different land use types in pre and post-monsoon seasons Pre-monsoon season Post-monsoon season MATERIAL AND METHODS Organism Land use types NF GL ACP CAP COP PF NF GL Land use types ACP CAP COP PF Study site: Koothi village, Somvarpet Taluk, Kodagu A.vinelandii 394 91 86 329 272 103 105 11 62 131 125 ND District, Karnataka, India [Nilgiri Biosphere Reserve A.chroococcum 82 12 ND 129 190 12 86 11 ND 26 65 ND Note: NF: Natural forests, GL: Grasslands, ACP: Acacia plantations, CAP: Cardamom plantations, (Western ghats)] COP: Coffee plantations, PF: Paddy field, ND: Not detected Annual rainfall: 2500 to 3500mm Seasons: Pre- and Post-monsoon seasons (February and Population of PO4- solubilizing fungi in different land use types during pre and post-monsoon November) seasons Ecosystems sampled and sampling points: Natural Land use types Population (cfuX103 g-1 soil) CD at 0.05 Pre-monsoon season Post-monsoon season forest (9), Grassland (8), Acacia plantation (6), Coffee Natural forests 20.01 (4.18)a 13.20 (2.08)a 0.560 (16), Cardamom (13) and Paddy (8). Grasslands 2.10 (1.18)c 1.50 (1.20)a 0.596 Abundance of Azotobacter was determined by Dilution Acacia plantations 2.00 (1.45)c 0.30 (0.84)a 0.316 plating technique using N-free Wakman’s medium 77 and Cardamom plantations 1.50 (1.19)d 3.20 (0.70)a 0.366 identified based on morphological, physiological and Coffee plantations 2.70 (1.62)b 2.10 (1.43)a 0.273 Paddy fields 0.06 (1.07)c 0.10 (0.77)b 0.376 cultural techniques. Abundance of P- solubilizers was determined by F-test * * standard plating technique using Sperber’s hydroxy Note: The values in the brackets are the transformed values using the square root transformation √ x + 0.5 apatite medium and identified based on the zone of solubilization around them. Generic differentiation by Population of PO4- solubilizing bacteria in different land use types during pre and post-monsoon morphological, physiological and cultural techniques. seasons Population (cfuX103 g-1 soil) CD at 0.05% Land use types Pre-monsoon season Post-monsoon season Natural forests 9.30 (2.60) a 2.20 (1.37) 0.65 Grasslands 2.00 (1.17) a 2.30 (1.14) 0.58 Acacia plantations 1.30 (1.07) a 1.80 (1.56) 0.563 Cardamom plantations 0.70 (0.95) c 0.80 (0.70) 0.171 Paddy Coffee plantations 1.40 (1.21) a 0.90 (1.01) 0.23 Paddy fields 1.20 (1.15) b 0.06 (0.77) 0.252 Study site F-test at 0.05% * NS Note: The values in the brackets are the transformed values using the sq transformation √ x + 0.5 Coffee CONCLUSION Natural forests harboured higher population of Azotobacter and P- Cardamom solubilizing microorganisms. Natural forest The population of Azotobacter and P-solubilizing microorganisms were higher in the pre-monsoon as compared to post monsoon. 50 m 50 m 6m REFERENCES 3m Acacia plantation Raghuramulu, Y., 2001. Role of biofertilizers in coffee production. 50 m Soil sampling procedure for microbiological analysis Indian coffee, 65: 17-18 ACKNOWLEDGEMENT Sengupta, R. and Sengupta, C., 1992. Isolation of Azotobacter from The authors are grateful to TSBF-CIAT/GEF/UNEP root and rhizosphere soil samples of local grasses and for the financial support to carryout the investigation. detection of their phages from the natural ecosystem. Environ. Ecol., 9:974-978.