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  1. 1. Theme of our performance "Water pollution"«Pollution of the World ocean» 1
  2. 2. We interviewed. on peoples attitudes to water pollution. So ask the opinion of our teachers Maria Ivanovna : dear guest. may i asked some questions that about pollution water1))-М.И. Do you think what the comply with the person in order to avoid contamination of water ? -I think your questions very important for our society. Now this main problem its very seriously and important for us . it pollution its very important and we must self this problem together 2)-water pollution contributes to the death of the main fish and sea animals ? -I think it was your second question right . Water pollution its very important for only foranimals and for fish in your days .only now that about half fish need our people because we would like to be half only half fish may we eat3))Do you think a person can die from poisoning or pollution of the seas lakes. and rivers? -Right .I think its very important too and that about people and about our school boys must . be very seriously and we main together. now, that clean our water you my use our technologies to clean the water and only we must need only clean water .. -Thank you. М. И.!)) 2
  3. 3. IntroductionNow the problem of pollution of the water environment is very actual sincenow people start to forget all known expression «water is a life». Withoutwater the person cannot live more than three days, but, even understandingall importance of a role of water in his life, it all the same continues to harmto water objects, irrevocably changing their natural mode dumps and a waste.. The water great bulk is concentrated at oceans. Water evaporating from itssurface gives reviver to natural and artificial ecosystems of a land. The moreclose the area to ocean, the more there drops out deposits. The landconstantly returns water to ocean, the water part evaporates, the part gathersthe rivers in which rain and snow waters arrive. The exchange of a moisturebetween ocean and a land demands very much an energy considerablequantity: about 1/3 that the Earth receives from the Sun are spent for it. 3
  4. 4. The water cycle in biosphere beforecivilisation development was equilibrium, theocean received so much water from the rivers,how many spent at its evaporation. If theclimate not Banks the rivers and the waterlevel in lakes did not decrease did not vary.With civilisation development this cycle beganto be broken, as a result Having wateredagricultural crops evaporation from a landhas increased. The rivers of southern areashave shoaled, pollution of oceans andoccurrence has reduced a quantity of water byits surfaces of an oil film, evaporated byocean. All it worsens biosphere water supply.In view of that value which water has forability to live of the person and all live on theEarth, we can assert that water - one of themost precious treasures of our planet 4
  5. 5. Hydrosphere of the Earth Hydrosphere - the water environment which includes superficial and underground waters. A surface water basically is concentrated in the World ocean containing about 91 % of all water on the Earth. A surface of the World ocean (water area) makes 361 million/km square. It approximately in 2,04 times is more than land area - the territory occupying in 149 million/km square. If to distribute water an equal layer it will cover the Earth in the thickness in 3000metres. Water at ocean (94 %) and underground - salty. The quantity of fresh water makes 6 % of total amount of water on the Earth, and its very small share of only 0,36 % is available in readily available places for extraction. 5
  6. 6. Each inhabitant of the Earth on the average consumes 650 m cubic waters in a year (1780 litres a day). However 2,5 litres there are enough for satisfaction of physiological requirements a day, i.e. about 1 m cubic in a year. The water considerable quantity is required to agriculture (69 %) mainly for an irrigation; 23 % of water are consumed by the industry; 6 % are spent in a life. Taking into account requirement of water for the industry and agriculture the water expense in our country from 125 to 350 litres a day on the person (Sankt - Petersburg of 450 litres, and in Moscow of 380 litres).Water - not only a condition of a life of an individual organism. Without it existence of biosphere, a life on the Earth as circulation of substances and energy in biosphere is possible only with water participation would be not possible. During a water cycle from a surface of the World ocean 453 000 cubic m. of water annually evaporate 6
  7. 7. Pollution of the World ocean Annually to the World ocean gets more than 10 million т oil and to 20 % of the World ocean are already covered by an oil film. First of all it is connected by that the oil recovery and gas at oceans and the seas became the major component of an oil and gas complex. In 1993 at ocean it is extracted 850 million oil (almost 30 % of world extraction). In the world it is drilled about 2500 chinks, from them 800 - in the USA, 540 - in Jugo - East Asia, 400 - in the North Sea, 150 - in Persian gulf. This weight of chinks is drilled on depths to 900 metres.Pollution of the World ocean by a sailing charter occurs on two channels: in - the first, sea and river crafts pollute its waste received as a result of operational activity, and, in - the second, emissions in case of failures, toxic cargoes, mostly oil and mineral oil. Power installations of courts (basically diesel engines) constantly pollute atmosphere, whence toxic substances partially or nearly so completely get to waters of the rivers, the seas and oceans. 7
  8. 8. Pollution of the World ocean Oil and mineral oil are the main pollution of water pool. On the tankerstransporting oil and its derivatives, before each next loading capacities (tanks)for removal of the rests before the transported cargo, as a rule, are washed out.Bottling waste water, and with it and the cargo rests are usually dumped for aboard. Besides, after delivery of petrocargoes tankers go to ports of destinationto point of new loading without cargo more often. In this case for maintenanceought deposits and safety of swimming vessel tanks are filled with ballast water.This water becomes soiled the oil rests, and before loading of oil and mineraloil pours out in the sea. From the general turnover of goods of a world marinesea fleet now 49 % will fall on oil and its derivatives. Annually about 6000tankers of the international flotillas transport 3,5 (млрд) oil tons (2000). Inprocess of growth of transportations of petrocargoes and failures the increasingquantity of oil began to get to ocean. According to 1988 in all seas of the worldit has been dumped approximately 20 млрд dust tons. In one only the North Seahas been dumped 98 000 т garbage. 8
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  10. 10. Serious ecological threat for a life in the World ocean and, hence, for the person is represented by a burial place on a sea- bottom of a radioactive waste (Russian Open Society) and dump to the sea of a liquid radioactive waste (ЖРО). The western countries (the USA, Great Britain, France, Germany, Italy, etc.) and the USSR with 1946г. Have started to use actively ocean depths to get rid of the Russian Open Society.Liquid radioactive waste of the USSR merged in the Far East seas with 1966 on 1991 (basically near to the south - east part of Kamchatka and in sea of Japan). Northern fleet annually dumped of 10 000 m in water of cubic such waste. To 2 million sea birds and 100 тыс sea animals, including to 30 тыс seals, annually perish, having swallowed any plastic products or having got confused in scraps of networks and cables. 10
  11. 11. To 2 million sea birds and 100 thousand sea animals, including to 30 thousand seals, annually perish, having swallowed any plastic products or having got confused in scraps of networks and cables. 11
  12. 12. The basic ways of pollution of hydrosphere Pollution by oil and Bacterial and mineral oil Pollution by sewagebiological pollutionMechanical The basic ways of pollution of Pollution by pollution hydrosphere heavy metals Pollution by fuel Pollution by acid rains Radioactive pollution 12
  13. 13. 1. Pollution by oil and mineral oil. Leads to occurrence of oil spillages thatcomplicates photosynthesis processes in water because of the termination ofaccess of solar beams, and also causes destruction of plants and animals. Eachton of oil creates an oil film on the area to 12 km of the square. Restoration ofthe amazed ecosystems occupies 10 - 15 years; 2. Pollution by sewage as a resultof industrial production, mineral and organic fertilizers as a result of anagricultural production, and also коммунально - household drains. Conductsto эвтрофикации reservoirs - to enrichment by their nutrients, leading toexcessive development of seaweed and destruction of other ecosystems ofreservoirs with landlocked water (lakes and ponds), and sometimes to boggingмесности; 3. Pollution by heavy metals. Breaks ability to live of water organisms and the person; 4. Pollution by acid rains. Leads to oxidation of reservoirs and destruction of ecosystems; 13
  14. 14. 5. Bacterial and biological pollution. It is connected with different pathogenicorganisms, mushrooms and seaweed. The world economy dumps of 1500 km whichdemand 50 - 100 - multiple разбавления for giving by it естесвенных propertiesand the further clarification in biosphere in a year of cubic sewage of differentdegree of clearing. Thus waters of agricultural productions are not considered. Theworld river drain (37,5 - 45 thousand in km cubic in a year) is insufficient fornecessary разбавления sewage. Thus, as a result of industrial activity fresh waterhas ceased to be a renewed resource. Lets consider consistently pollution of oceans, the seas, the rivers and lakes, andalso sewage treatment methods. 6. Radioactive pollution. It is connected with dump of a radioactive waste; 7. Thermal pollution. It is caused by dump in reservoirs of the warmed-up waters ТЭС and the atomic power station. Leads to mass development dark blue - green seaweed, to so-called flowering of water, reduction of quantity of oxygen and negatively influences flora and fauna of reservoirs; 8. Mechanical pollution. Raises the maintenance of mechanical impurity; 14
  15. 15. Seaweed concerns biological factors of self-cleaning of a reservoir,(плесневые) and barmy fungi. To self-cleaning of reservoirs from bacteria and viruses can promote andrepresentatives of fauna. Each mollusc filters a day more than 30 l of water Cleanliness of reservoirs is inconceivable without protection of theirvegetation. Only on the basis of a profound knowledge of an ecological conditionof each reservoir, an effective control behind the development, various liveorganisms occupying it, it is possible to reach positive results, to provide atransparency and high biological efficiency of the rivers, lakes and water basins. Adversely processes of self-cleaning of reservoirs are influenced alsoby other factors. Chemical pollution of reservoirs by industrial drains brakesnatural oxidising processes, kills microorganisms. The same concerns anddescent of thermal sewage by thermal power stations. 15
  16. 16. The multiphasic process which sometimes is stretched for long time - self-cleaningfrom oil. Naturally the complex of physical processes of self-cleaning of water from oilconsists of a number of components: evaporations; subsidence of the lumps especiallyoverloaded with deposits and a dust; (слипание) the lumps weighed in thickness ofwater; emergings of the lumps forming a film with inclusions of water and air;decrease in concentration of the weighed and dissolved oil owing to subsidence,emerging and mixing with pure water. Intensity of these processes depends onproperties of a concrete kind of oil (density, viscosity, factor of thermal expansion),presence in water коллоидов, the weighed particles of a plankton etc., temperature ofair and from solar illumination. 16
  17. 17. Protection of the World ocean In 1983 the international Convention onprevention of pollution of the sea environmenthas come into force. In 1984 of the state of theBaltic pool have signed in Helsinki theConvention on protection of the seaenvironment of Baltic sea. It was the firstinternational agreement at regional level. As aresult of the spent work the maintenance ofmineral oil in open waters of Baltic sea hasdecreased in 20 times in comparison with1975. In 1992 ministers 12 - ти the states and therepresentative of the European community hadbeen signed the new Convention on protectionof the environment of Baltic sea. 17