Young children’s understanding ofpeople, objects, and situations increasesrapidly.During early childhood, theirunderstanding is limited to wherebabies.
Because of their inability to comprehendthe whys and wherefores of moralstandards, young children must learn moralbehavior in specific situations. Children may be told not to do somethingone day, but the next day or even the dayafter that, they may have forgotten whatthey were told not to do.
Morality by Constraint by Piaget:Children obey rules automatically, without usingreason or judgment.Preconventional Morality by Kholberg:In the first stage, children are obedience andpunishment oriented in the sense that they judge gets asright or wrong in terms of the physical consequences ofthese acts.Discipline in Early ChildhoodIts goal is to let children know what behavior isapproved and what is disapproved and to motivate them tobehave in accordance with these standards.
Types of Discipline Used inEarly ChildhoodAuthoritarian DisciplineParents and other caretaker establish rules and informchildren that they are expected to abide by them.Permissive DisciplineChildren would learn from the consequences of their actshow to behave in a socially approved way.Democratic DisciplineEmphasize the rights of a child to know why rules aremade and have to an opportunity to express their opinion.
Interest in ReligionReligion concepts of young children arerealistic in the sense that they interpret what theyhear and see in terms of what they already know.Interest in Human BodyYoung children express their interest in thebody by commenting on the various parts and byasking questioning about them.
Interest in SelfOnce young children begin to play with their peers,interest in self gradually gives way to increased interest in peersand their activities.Interest in SexHowever, because many parents regard sex play andmasturbation as naughty, if not actually wicked, such activitiesare usually carried out in private.Interest in ClothesChildren discover that their clothing attracts attention.
Young children are subjected to indirect methods. They are kept fromhaving opportunities to learn to behave in what those responsible for theirtraining regard as sex-inappropriate behavior. Berstein explained: “sexism starts with kindergarten activities in whichlittle girls are directed to the housekeeping corner, while boys are steeredtoward blocks and trucks...Schools thus provide a shrinking of alternativesinstead of an expansion.
Parent-Child RelationshipBecause young children depend more on their parents forfeelings of security and for happiness than on anyoneelse, for relationships with their parents have a devastating effects.This is especially true when the poor relationship is with the mother,the parent on whom most young children are especially dependent.Sibling RelationshipYoung children learn to evaluate their own behavior as otherdo. Older siblings serve as role models to imitate. Whether the siblingsare older or younger, they contribute emotional security and teachyoung children how to show affection for others.
Relationships with RelativesMany families today live in areas remote from otherfamily members. Young children’s relationships with theirrelatives are often infrequent and brief.Of all relatives, the most frequent contacts arethose between the child and the maternal grandmotherbecause it is she who is the most often called on to help inan emergency, or to look after the young child if the parentsare unable to get or afford a baby-sitter when they want tobe away from home.
Conditions Shaping the Self-Conceptin Early ChildhoodChild-TrainingChild training method used in thehome shaping the young child’s developingconcept of self.AspirationsAspirations parents have for their childrenplay an important role in their developingself-concepts.
Ordinal PositionOrdinal position of children in a family has an effect on theirdeveloping personalities. This influence may be explained in part bythe past that each child in the family learns to play a specific role.Environmental InsecuritiesWhether due to death, divorce, separation,or social mobility, affects young children’s self-concepts unfavorably because theyfeel insecure and different from their peers.
Physical HazardsMortalityDeaths in early childhood are often the result of accidents than of illness, andbecause boys have more accidents than girls, deaths in early childhood are more frequentamong boys than among girls.IllnessYoung children are highly susceptible to all kinds of illness,though respiratory illness is the most common.AccidentsMost young children experience cuts, infections, burns, brokenbones, strained muscles, o similar minor disturbances resulting from accidents.Others have more serious that disable them temporarily or permanently. Aswhat pointed out above, boys have more accidents than girls, and theaccidents tend to be more serious.
UnattractivenessChildren become increasingly unattractive, reaching a low point as theyemerge into late childhood.The less attractive appearances of young children added to their changedbehavior makes them less appealing to their parents and other adults than they werewhen they were babies.Left-HandednessThere are other reasons why being left-handed is regarded as a hazardduring the early childhood years.When young children attempt to learn a skill from aright-handed person, they are likely to become confused about how toimitate the model.Left-handedness can affect children’s educational success and,later, their vocational success or their social adjustments.
Psychological HazardsSpeech HazardsBecause speech is a tool for communication is essential to social belonging,children who, unlike their age-mates, cannot communicate with others will be sociallyhandicapped, and this will lead to feelings of inadequacy and inferiority.Emotional HazardsThe major emotional hazard on early childhood is the dominance of theunpleasant emotions, especially anger. If young children experience too many of theunpleasant and too few of the pleasant ones, it will distort their outlook on life andencourage the development of an unpleasant disposition.Social HazardsSocial development of young children is parental encouragement to spendproportionally too much time with other children andproportionally too little time alone.
Moral HazardsToo much emphasis on punishment for misbehavior and too little emphasis onrewards for good behavior can lead to unfavorable attitude toward those in authority.Family-Relationship HazardsDeterioration in any human relationship is hazardous to good personal andsocial adjustments.Threats to good parent-child relationships in early childhood are workingmothers and step-parents. When mothers work outside the home, the care of the childrenmust be turned over to relatives or paid caretakers or they must be sent to a day-carecenter.Deterioration in relationships with relatives comeswhen relatives are expected to play the roles of surrogateparents.
Children’s happiness depends mainly on howthe different members of their families treat them andon what they believe family member thinks of them.The basic ingredients that make children happyduring childhood seem to be the same ones that helpthem to become happy adults: a secure relationshipwith parents gives the base to confidently explore theworld and develop a sense of mastery and recognition,all important components in the recipe for happiness.However, in the short term, the new toy might provide asmile too!