ConceptsandDefinitionsBridging: the process of transitioning from learning onelanguagetoanother.
• Early-exit transition. The mother tongue or L1 is themediumofinstruction(MO1for2-3years,thenswitchtoL2and/orL3asMO1• Late-exit transition. The mother tongue or L1 is themedium of instruction for 5-6 years or more, thenswitchtoL2and/orL3asanMO1.
• Mother tongue. The language(s) that one haslearnedfirst- - referred to as first language(L1), homelanguageorheritagelanguage.
• Mother-tongue-based multilingualeducationLearner-centered, active basiceducation which starts in the mothertongue and gradually introduces one ormore other languages in a structuralmanner, linked to children’sunderstanding in their first language ormother tongue.
Multilingual educationAdopted in 1999 in UNESCO’sGeneral Conference Resolution 12; theterm refers to the use of at least threelanguages.Ui brad ! Akotuod si Totoy.
Second language (L2)- a second language learned after L1- a second language learned at school forformal educational purposes.
Difference between language anddialectFrom the linguistic point ofview, the distinction betweenlanguage and dialect emphasizesintelligibility.
Benefits of MTBMLE- There is ample research showing thatstudents are quicker to learn to read andwrite and acquire academic skills when firsttaught in their mother tongue or L1.- They learn second language more quickly thanthose initially taught to read in an unfamiliarlanguage.
-MTBMLE programs benefit studentswho do not understand or speakthe official/ school language whenthey begin their education.
Three kinds of development1. Language developmentStudents develop fluency and confidence inunderstanding, speaking, reading, writing,viewing and thinking in their first language andthen transfer those abilities to the official/school language for communication andlifelong learning.
2. Academic developmentStudents achieve the required academiccompetencies in each subject at the end ofthe MTBMLE program.
3. Socio-cultural developmentStudents are proud of their heritage languageand culture and respect the language and culture ofothers. When they complete their education, theyare equipped to contribute actively to thedevelopment of their home, community and to thenation of which they are part.
Components of MTBMLEStrong foundationResearch show that children who starteducation in the language of their hometend to do better in the later years of theireducation ( Thomas and Collier, 1997).
Good bridgeWell-planned transition from learningthrough the mother tongue or L1 to learningthrough other language(s) results in betterlearning outcomes.
K Grade 1 Grade 2 Grade 3 Grade 4 Grade 5 Grade 6Build oralL1 &confidenceContinueoral &literacy inL1 FilipinoContinueoral &literacy inL1Continueoral &literacy inL1Continueoral &literacy inL1 (Filipino)Continueoral &literacy inL1 (Filipino)Continueoral &literacy inL1 (Filipino)Begin L1literacy(readingand writing)Continueoral L2(English)Begin oralL2 EnglishBegin L2literacy 4thquarter(English)Continueoral &literacy L2(English)Continueoral &literacy inL2Continueoral &literacy inL2Continueoral &literacy inL2Continueoral &literacy inL2Use L1 asLO1Use L1 as LO1 in allsubjectsUse L1 asLO1 in allsubjectsIncludingscienceUse Filipino as LO1 in Esp, Ap, Filipino,MAPEH, EPP.Use English (L2) in Math, Science,English (TLE in Grade 6)
Following are some researchstudies relating to MTBMLE, first andsecond language acquisition, andlanguage development.Hi !!! My name isTony.
The most powerful factor in predicting educationalsuccess for minority learners is the amount of formalschooling they received in their L1. only thoselanguage minority students who have 5-6 years ofstrong cognitive and academic development in theirL1 as well as through L2 did well in Grade IIassessment.- Thomas and Collier 2001
Knowledge gained in one language transfers toother languages that we learn.- Cummins, JThe level of development of the children’smother tongue is a strong predictor of their secondlanguage development.- Thomas and Collin, 2001
Children … with a solid foundation in theirmother tongue develop stronger literacyabilities in the school language. Children’sknowledge and skills transfer across languagesfrom the mother tongue… to the schoollanguage.- Cummins, J. 2000
The development of the child’s first language with itsrelated cognitive development is more importantthan the mere length of exposure to the secondlanguage; development of the mother tongue iscritical for cognitive development and as a basis forlearning the second language.- Tucker, G. R., 1990
The first language is the language of learning. It is byfar the easiest way for children to interact with theworld. And when the language of learning and thelanguage of instruction do not match, learningdifficulties are bound to follow.- World Bank, 2006
On the importance of OralLanguage: Oral language is the foundation of learning to readand write. The initial stages, reading builds on an orallanguage. Any reading program designed to buildearly reading skills must offer support for andconnections to an oral vocabulary in a spokenlanguage.- Rashos et al., 2000
Planning a “strong foundation and agood bridge”. What theorists andresearchers sayBuilding a strong foundation in L1.• Knowledge gained in one languagetransfers to other language that we learn.-Cummins
• The most powerful factor in predictingeducational success for minoritylearners is the amount of formalschooling they received in their L1…only those language minority studentswho had 5-6 years of strong cognitiveand academic development in the L1 –as well as through L2 – did well in grade11.–`Thomas and Collier, 2001
Introducing the L2 throughlistening and responding (no speakingat first)• The best (language learning) methods are: those that supply“comprehensible input” in low anxiety situations, containingmessages that students really want to hear. These messages donot force early production in the L2 but allow students toproduce when they are ‘ready’, recognizing that improvementcomes from forcing and correcting production.- Krasher, 1981 & Wilson, 2001