Water

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“There is enough for everyone’s need, but not enough for anyone’s greed”

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Water

  1. 1. “There is enough for everyone’s need, but not enough for anyone’s greed” The father of our nation, M.K. GANDHI, perhaps had foreseen the status of our today’s world decades before, mirroring our present world in this beautiful quote of his. The world is too busy now, so busy that it has forgotten about tomorrow. Especially our gen-x is too busy to set up their own future, but little do we think if this world has a future or not? History tells of great civilizations blooming around the Euphrates, the Tigris or the Indus. In fact, rivers have not only caused humans to settle, but have also named many of the great settlements. Water, with its simple rate of flow and its volubility becomes the ideal metaphor for the activity and fluidity of human thought and action. In other words, water is nothing short of magic. Any living solid, is essentially composed of this liquid, that perhaps has been specifically designed to suit every errand that the pangs of life set us to. It so happens that with the magic of a liquid such as water, which cleanses as well as dissolves, purifies as well as dirties, quenches thirst as well as intensifies it, it is most easily found in all the wrong places. The pristine nature of water is the essence of life, its cradle and its only originator. Today water is irreplaceable in any industry, household or domestic scenario. From the first alga to the mighty blue whale, water is not only the propagator of life, but sometimes its only
  2. 2. medium. With time, it is a misfortune that water becomes friendly with so many things that simply make it ill for itself, for nature and obviously for humans. Its purification and diagnosis becomes crucial not only for the essentials of human life, but also for the ecosphere around. Water is a chemical substance with the chemical formula H2O. Connected by covalent bonds. Chemical interaction bonds are of three types-Ionic (the business bond, where one atom gives the other takes for the sake of stability), Covalent (the friendship bond, they share!) and the dative bond (the donor bond, one gives just because he has extra).Yes, water is formed when two friends (hydrogen and oxygen) join hands and share electrons, hence by stabilizing both. Pretty much the way schools collaborate with each other, sharing knowledge and ideas, nourishing new bonds of friendship and benefiting both. Kudos to ISA!!! Water is a liquid at ambient conditions, but it often co-exists on Earth with its solid state, ice, and gaseous state (water vapor or steam). Water also exists in a liquid crystal state near hydrophilic surfaces. Under nomenclature used to name chemical compounds, dihydrogen monoxide is the scientific name for water, though it is almost never used.Water covers 70.9% of the Earths surface and is vital for all known forms of life. On Earth,96.5% of the planets water is found in oceans, 1.7% in groundwater, 1.7% in glaciers and theice caps of Antarctica and Greenland, a small fraction in other large water bodies, and0.001% in the air as vapour, clouds(formed of solid and liquid water particles suspended inair), and precipitation. Only 2.5% of the Earths water is freshwater, and 98.8% of that wateris in ice and groundwater. Less than 0.3% of all freshwater is in rivers, lakes, and theatmosphere, and an even smaller amount of the Earths freshwater (0.003%) is containedwithin biological bodies and manufactured products.
  3. 3. 1. PHYSICAL AND CHEMICAL PROPERTIES: The liquid wonder, the fluid phenomenon has been helping life to survive for agestogether. Add to that the wonder properties given below and we know that we are dealingwith a celebrity! A celebrity of the bygone ages: a God and hero in the Vedas and integralpart in each of the cultures of our „tiny‟ huge world. The difference though, is that this celebis a celeb whose presence is not celebrated but taken for granted. And on the same road ofidea, wasted! So, let‟s get the value of this wonder liquid right into our heads, and makehim........... A CELEB AGAIN!!!The major chemical and physical properties of water are: Water is a liquid at standard temperature and pressure. It is tasteless and odorless. The intrinsic colour of water and ice is a very slight blue hue, although both appear colorless in small quantities. Water vapour is essentially invisible as a gas. Water is transparent in the visible electromagnetic spectrum. Thus aquatic plants can live in water because sunlight can reach them. Infrared light is strongly absorbed by the hydrogen-oxygen or OH bonds. Water is a good solvent and is often referred to as the universal solvent. Substances that dissolve in water, e.g., salts, sugars, acids, alkalis, and some gases – especially oxygen, carbon dioxide (carbonation) are known as hydrophilic (water-loving) substances, while those that do not mix well with water (e.g., fats and oils), are known as hydrophobic (water-fearing) substances. At 4181.3 J/ (kg·K), water has a high specific heat capacity, as well as a high heat of vaporization (40.65 kJ·mol−1), both of which are a result of the extensive hydrogen bonding between its molecules. Its density is 1,000 kg/m3 (62.428 lb/cu ft or 8.3454 lb/US gal) liquid (at 4 °C; ice has a density of 917 kg/m3).2. TASTE AND ODOURWater can dissolve many different substances, giving it varying tastes and odours. Humansand other animals have developed senses that enable them to evaluate the potability of waterby avoiding water that is too salty or putrid. The taste of spring water and mineral water,
  4. 4. often advertised in marketing of consumer products, derives from the minerals dissolved init. However, pure H2O is tasteless and odorless.3. DISTRIBUTION IN NATURE  IN THE UNIVERSE: Much of the universes water is produced as a byproduct of star formation. When starsare born, their birth is accompanied by a strong outward wind of gas and dust. When thisoutflow of material eventually impacts the surrounding gas, the shock waves that are created,compress and heat the gas. The water observed is quickly produced in this warm dense gas.According to the researchers, the "discovery shows that water has been prevalent in theuniverse for nearly its entire existence." Water has been detected in interstellar clouds within our galaxy, the Milky Way.Water probably exists in abundance in other galaxies, too, because its components, hydrogenand oxygen, are among the most abundant elements in the universe. Interstellar cloudseventually condense into solar nebulae and solar systems such as ours. Water vapour is present in Atmosphere of Mercury: 3.4%, and large amounts of water in Mercurys exosphere Atmosphere of Venus: 0.002% Earths atmosphere: ~0.40% over full atmosphere, typically 1–4% at surface Atmosphere of Mars: 0.03% Atmosphere of Jupiter: 0.0004% Atmosphere of Saturn – in ices only Enceladus (moon of Saturn): 91% Exoplanets known as HD 189733 b and HD 209458 b.Water ice is present on Earth – mainly as ice sheets polar ice caps on Mars Moon Titan
  5. 5.  ON EARTH: Water covers 71% of the Earths surface; the oceans contain 96.5% of the Earths water. The Antarctic ice sheet, which contains 61% of all fresh water on Earth, is visible at the bottom. Condensed atmospheric water can be seen as clouds, contributing to the Earths albedo. Earths approximate water volume is 1,338,000,000 km3 .Liquid water is found in bodies of water, such as an ocean, sea. The majority of water on Earth is sea water. Water is also present in the atmosphere in solid, liquid, and vapor states.DISTRIBUTION OF WATER IN EARTH 4. WATER CYCLE
  6. 6. The water cycle (known scientifically as the hydrologic cycle) refers to the continuous exchange of water within the hydrosphere, between the atmosphere, soil water, surface water, groundwater, and plants. WATER CYCLE consisting of following transfer processes: Evaporation from oceans and other water bodies into the air and transpiration from land plants and animals into air. Precipitation, from water vapor condensing from the air and falling to earth or ocean. Runoff from the land usually reaching the sea.5. FRESH WATER STORAGE Some runoff water is trapped for periods of time, for example in lakes. At high altitude and in the far north and south, snow collects in ice caps, snow pack and glaciers. Water also infiltrates the ground and goes into aquifers. This groundwater later flows back to the surface in springs, or more spectacularly in hot springs and geysers. Groundwater is also extracted artificially in wells. This water storage is important, since clean, fresh water is KANDLA essential to human and other land-based life.
  7. 7. SEA WATER Sea water contains about 3.5% salt on average, plus smaller amounts of othersubstances. It freezes at a lower temperature (about −1.9 °C) and its density increases withdecreasing temperature to the freezing point, instead of reaching maximum density at atemperature above freezing. The salinity of water in major seas varies from about 0.7% in theBaltic Sea to 4.0% in the Red Sea.TIDES Tides are the cyclic rising and falling of local sea levels caused by the tidal forces ofthe Moon and the Sun acting on the oceans. Tides cause changes in the depth of the marineand estuarine water bodies and produce oscillating currents known as tidal streams. Thechanging tide produced at a given location is the result of the changing positions of the Moonand Sun relative to the Earth coupled with the effects of Earth rotation and the localbathymetry.
  8. 8. 6. EFFECT ON LIFE From a biological standpoint, water has many distinct properties that are critical for theproliferation of life that set it apart from other substances. It carries out this role by allowingorganic compounds to react in ways that ultimately allow replication.  MANKIND: From a biological standpoint, water has many distinct properties that are critical for the proliferation of life that set it apart from other substances. It carries out this role by allowing organic compounds to react in ways that ultimately allow replication. Water is vital both as a solvent in which many of the bodys solutes dissolve and as an essential part of many metabolic processes within the body. Water is also central to acid-base neutrality and enzyme function  PLANTS: Water is fundamental to photosynthesis and respiration. Photosynthetic cells use the suns energy to split off waters hydrogen from oxygen
  9. 9.  AQUATIC LIFE FORMS: Earth surface waters are filled with life. The earliest life forms appeared in water; nearly all fish live exclusively in water, and there are many types of marine mammals, such as dolphins and whales. Some kinds of animals, such as amphibians, spend portions of their lives in water and portions on land7. EFFECT ON HUMAN CIVILISATION Civilization has historically flourished around rivers and major waterways; Mesopotamia,the so-called cradle of civilization, was situated between the major rivers Tigris andEuphrates; the ancient society of the Egyptians depended entirely upon the Nile. Largemetropolises like London, Montreal, Paris, New York City owe their success in part to theireasy accessibility via water and the resultant expansion of trade. Islands with safe waterports, like Singapore, have flourished for the same reason. In places such as North Africa andthe Middle East, where water is scarcer, access to clean drinking water was and is a majorfactor in human development.
  10. 10.  HEALTH AND POLLUTION: Water fit for human consumption is called drinking water or potable water. Water that is not potable may be made potable by filtration or distillation, or by a range of other methods. Water that is not fit for drinking but is not harmful for humans when used for swimming or bathing is called by various names other than potable or drinking water, and is sometimes called Water sampling for lab analysis safe water or "safe for bathing". WATER POLLUTIONMETHODS TO MAKE WATER PORTABLE: 1. Chlorine is a skin and mucous membrane irritant that is used to make water safe for bathing or drinking. Its use is highly technical and is usually monitored by government regulations. Water for bathing may be maintained in satisfactory microbiological condition using chemical disinfectants such as chlorine or ozone or by the use of ultraviolet light.
  11. 11. 2. In the USA, non-potable forms of wastewater generated by humans may be referred to as greywater, which is treatable and thus easily able to be made potable again, and blackwater, which generally contains sewage and other forms of waste which require further treatment in order to be made reusable. ARSENIC POLLUTION IN GROUND WATER OF INDIA Arsenic (As) is one of the worst environmental plutanys responsible for the highest risk mortality worldspread because of its toxicity and ingestion by millions of people. Unlike the other chemical contaminants that are restricted to the area of influence around a point source, dangerously high levels of arsenic have been found in many water supplies around the world and quite extensively in the groundwater near deltaic regions of the South Asia countries. Since As enters the groundwater by natural processes without having any point source its prevention at source is difficult. In the absence of any alternative solution people residing in these areas are knowingly or unknowingly drinking water which is contaminated with As.a) INTERNATIONAL STANDARD FOR As IN DRINKING WATER Generally the concentration of arsenic in groundwater is <10 g/l and often below thedetection limit of routine analytical methods. The WHO (1996) guideline value for arsenic indrinking water was reduced from 50 g/l to a provisional value of 10 g/l. Most of thewestern countries adopted this limit in their current drinking water standards. On the otherhand, many affected countries still operate 50 g/l standard due to lack of adequate testingfacilities.b) ARSENIC TOXICITY Human beings can be exposed to arsenic through their diet or from naturalenvironmental sources like contaminated drinking water. Arsenic is highly carcinogenic andits widespread occurrence in groundwater poses a major threat to global public health.
  12. 12. Arsenic in drinking water can cause severe skin diseases like skin cancer; lung, bladder, andkidney cancers, and perhaps other internal tumors; peripheral vascular disease; hypertension;and diabetes. It also seems to have a negative impact on reproductive processes such as infantmortality and weight of newborn babies. The toxicology of arsenic involves mechanisms thatare still not completely understood.The main forms of arsenic found in groundwater used for human consumption and, to alesser extent, in foodstuff are inorganic arsenic (In-As), occurring either as trivalent (As3+) orpentavalent (As5+) compounds. Arsenic toxicity in human healthc) GROUNDWATER-ARSENIC CONTAMINATION IN THE WORLD In contrast to anthropogenic source such as mine excavation, which is a localizedphenomenon, widespread occurrence of arsenic in groundwater is attributed to the geogenicorigin in major parts of the world including 1) United States, 2) Mexico, 3) Chile, 4) Bolivia,5) Argentina, 6) Hungary, 7) Romania, 8) India, 9) Bangladesh, 10) Thailand, 11) Vietnam,12) Taiwan, 13) China and 14) Nepal (Fig. 2). Besides, Canada, South America, Africa,Europe and other Asian countries like Pakistan, Japan, Korea, Cambodia etc., have widerareas of higher concentration of arsenic in their groundwater
  13. 13. Arsenic affected countries in the world.d) GROUNDWATER-ARSENIC CONTAMINATION IN INDIALike in other Asian countries, arsenic contamination is widespread in India, especially in theBengal delta covering the eastern part of West Bengal which extends into the adjacentcountry of Bangladesh. In India, arsenic contamination is reported from the states ofArunachal Pradesh, Assam, Bihar, Chhattisgarh, Jharkhand, Manipur, Nagaland, Tripura,Uttar Pradesh and West Bengal. Indian states with reports of high arsenic in groundwater.
  14. 14. e) GROUNDWATER-ARSENIC CONTAMINATION IN WEST BENGAL The problem in West Bengal is severe as the affected area is vast sometimes extending beyond national boundaries and also millions of people are exposed to the menace of arsenic contamination (>0.01 – 3.7 mg/l with an average of 0.2 mg/l) as groundwater is the prime source of drinking water in rural Bengal. Districts with reports of high arsenic in groundwater in West Bengal. f) REMEDIAL MEASURES The research institutes came up with citing technologies for “As” removal like Coagulation, Lime softening, Ion exchange, Reverse osmosis, Electrodialysis, Nanofiltration etc. Among them activated alumina emerged as most popular and was used n manufacturing small scale “As” filters.
  15. 15.  AGRICULTURE The most important use of water in agriculture is for irrigation, which is a key component to produce enough food. Irrigation takes up to 90% of water withdrawn in some developing countries and significant proportions in more economically developed countries (United States, 30% of freshwater usage is for irrigation).  AS A SCIENTIFIC STANDARDOn 7 April 1795, the gram was defined in France to be equal to "the absolute weight of avolume of pure water equal to a cube of one hundredth of a meter, and to the temperature ofthe melting ice. The Kelvin temperature scale of the SI system is based on the triple point ofwater, defined as exactly 273.16 K or 0.01 °C. The scale is an absolute temperature scalewith the same increment as the Celsius temperature scale, which was originally definedaccording the boiling point (set to 100 °C) and melting point (set to 0 °C) of water.  FOR DRINKING The human body contains from 55% to 78% water, depending on body size. To function properly, the body requires between one and seven liters of water per day to avoid dehydration; the precise amount depends on the level of activity, temperature, humidity, and other factors.
  16. 16.  WASHINGThe propensity of water to form solutions and emulsions is useful in various washingprocesses. Many industrial processes rely on reactions using chemicals dissolved in water,suspension of solids in water slurries or using water to dissolve and extract substances.  TRANSPORTATIONThe use of water for transportation of materials through rivers and canals as well as theinternational shipping lanes is an important part of the world economy.  CHEMICAL USES Water is widely used in chemical reactions as a solvent or reactant and less commonly as a solute or catalyst. It is amphoteric (acidic and basic) and nucleophilict. Also, acceleration of Diels-Alder reactions by water has been observed. Supercritical water has recently been a topic of research.  HEAT EXCHANGEWater and steam are used as heat transfer fluids in diverse heat exchange systems, due to itsavailability and high heat capacity, both as a coolant and for heating. Cool water may even benaturally available from a lake or the sea.  FIRE EXTINCTION Water has a high heat of vaporization and is relatively inert, which makes it a good fire extinguishing fluid
  17. 17.  RECREATION Humans use water for many recreational purposes, as well as for exercising and for sports. Some of these include swimming, waterskiing, boating, surfing and diving. Some keep fish and other life in aquariums or ponds for show, fun, and companionship. Humans also use water for snow sports i.e. skiing, sledding, snowmobiling or snowboarding, which requires the water to be frozen. INDUSTRIAL APPLICATIONS Water is used in power generation. Hydroelectricity is electricity obtained from hydropower. Hydroelectric power comes from water driving a water turbine connected to a generator. Hydroelectricity is a low-cost, non-polluting, renewable energy source.
  18. 18. 7. WATER CONSERVATIONWater conservation refers to reducing the usage of water and recycling of waste water fordifferent purposes such as cleaning, manufacturing, and agricultural irrigation.Goals:The goals of water conservation efforts include as follows: Sustainability. To ensure availability for future generations, the withdrawal of fresh water from an ecosystem should not exceed its natural replacement rate. Energy conservation. Water pumping, delivery, and wastewater treatment facilities consume a significant amount of energy. In some regions of the world over 15% of total electricity consumption is devoted to water management. Habitat conservation. Minimizing human water use helps to preserve fresh water habitats for local wildlife and migrating waterfowl, as well as reducing the need to build new dams and other water diversion infrastructures. Reduce water consumption per capital.
  19. 19.  HOUSEHOLD APPLICATIONSWater-saving technology for the home includes: Low-flow shower heads sometimes called energy-efficient shower heads as they also use less energy, Low-flush toilets and composting toilets. These have a dramatic impact in the developed world, as conventional Western toilets use large volumes of water. Dual flush toilets created by Caroma includes two buttons or handles to flush different levels of water. Dual flush toilets use up to 67% less water than conventional toilets. Saline water (sea water) or rain water can be used for flushing toilets.  COMMERCIAL APPLICATIONSMany water-saving devices (such as low-flush toilets) that are useful in homes can also beuseful for business water saving. Other water-saving technology for businesses includes: Waterless urinals Waterless car washes Infrared or foot-operated taps, which can save water by using short bursts of water for rinsing in a kitchen or bathroom Pressurized waterbrooms, which can be used instead of a hose to clean sidewalks X-ray film processor re-circulation systems
  20. 20.  AGRICULTURAL APPLICATIONS For crop irrigation, optimal water efficiency means minimizing losses due to evaporation. Overhead irrigation, using center-pivot or lateral-moving sprinklers, has the potential for a much more equal and controlled distribution pattern. Drip irrigation is the most expensive and least-used type, but offers the ability to deliver water to plant roots with minimal losses.  MINIMUM WATER NETWORK TARGET AND DESIGNThe cost effective minimum water network is a holistic framework/guide for waterconservation that helps in determining the minimum amount of freshwater and wastewatertarget for an industrial or urban system based on the water management hierarchy i.e. itconsiders all conceivable methods to save water. The technique ensures that the designerdesired payback period is satisfied using Systematic Hierarchical Approach for ResilientProcess Screening (SHARPS) technique.

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