MUMMY OVERVIEW• A mummy is a body, human or animal, whose skin and organs have been preserved by either intentional or incidental exposure to chemicals, extreme cold (ice mummies), very low humidity, or lack of air when bodies are submerged in bogs, so that the recovered body will not decay further if kept in cool and dry conditions. Some authorities restrict the use of the term to bodies deliberately embalmed with chemicals, but the use of the word to cover accidentally desiccated bodies goes back at least to the 1730s.• Mummies of humans and other animals have been found all around the world, both as a result of natural preservation through unusual conditions, and as cultural artifacts. Over one million animal mummies have been found in Egypt, many of which are cats. The oldest known naturally mummified human corpse is a severed head dated as 6,000 years old, found in 1936 at the site named Inca Cueva No. 4 in South America.
CASE STUDY-KING TUT 1. Who was king Tut ? 2. Life 3. Tomb & its’ Discovery4. Different ruling policies 5. Death 6. Curse7. Significance of his period 8. Search on progress
Tutankhamun KING TUT THE EGYPTIAN PHARAOH EGYPTIAN PHAROAH Pharaoh of Egypt .Reign ca. 1332–1323 BC,18th DynastyPredecessor Smenkhkare Tutankhamun was an Egyptianpharaoh of the 18th dynasty (ruled ca. 1332 BC – 1323 BC in the conventional chronology), Consort(s) Ankhesenamun during the period of Egyptian history known as the New Kingdom. He is Children Two stillborn daughters popularly referred to as King Tut. His original name, Tutankhaten, means "Living Image of Aten", while Tutankhamun means "Living Image of Amun". In Father Akhenaten hieroglyphs, the name Tutankhamun was typically written Amen-tut-ankh, Mother "The Younger LadY" because of a scribal custom that placed a divine name at the beginning of a Born ca. 1341 BC phrase to show appropriate reverence.He is possibly also the Nibhurrereya of Died ca. 1323 BC (aged 18) the Amarna letters, and likely the 18th dynasty king Rathotis who, according Burial KV62 to Manetho, an ancient historian, had reigned for nine years—a figure that
LIFE• Tutankhamun was the son of Akhenaten (formerly Amenhotep IV) and one of Akhenatens sisters. As a prince he was known as Tutankhaten. He ascended to the throne in 1333 BC, at the age of nine or ten, taking the throne name of Tutankhamun. His wet-nurse was a woman called Maia, known from her tomb at Saqqara• When he became king, he married his half-sister, Ankhesenpaaten, who later changed her name to Ankhesenamun. They had two daughters, both stillborn. Computed tomography studies released in 2011 revealed that one daughter died at 5–6 months of pregnancy and the other at 9 months of pregnancy. No evidence was found in either mummy of congenital anomalies or an apparent cause of death.
DIFFERENT POLICIES Domestic policyIn his third regnal year, Tutankhamun reversed several changes made during hisfathers reign. He ended the worship of the god Aten and restored the god Amun tosupremacy. The ban on the cult of Amun was lifted and traditional privileges wererestored to its priesthood. The capital was moved back to Thebes and the city ofAkhetaten abandoned.This is also when he changed his name to Tutankhamun.As part of his restoration, the king initiated building projects, in particular at Thebesand Karnak, where he dedicated a temple to Amun. Many monuments wereerected, and an inscription on his tomb door declares the king had "spent his life infashioning the images of the gods". The traditional festivals were now celebratedagain, including those related to the Apis Bull, Horemakhet, and Opet. Hisrestoration stela says:The temples of the gods and goddesses ... were in ruins. Their shrines were desertedand overgrown. Their sanctuaries were as non-existent and their courts were usedas roads ... the gods turned their backs upon this land ... If anyone made a prayer toa god for advice he would never respond
TOMB AND ITS DISCOVERY• Tutankhamun was buried in a tomb that was small relative to his status. His death may have occurred unexpectedly, before the completion of a grander royal tomb, so that his mummy was buried in a tomb intended for someone else. This would preserve the observance of the customary seventy days between death and burial. [• Tutankhamun seems to have faded from public consciousness in Ancient Egypt within a short time after his death, and remained virtually unknown until the 1920s. His tomb was robbed at least twice in antiquity, but based on the items taken (including perishable oils and perfumes) and the evidence of restoration of the tomb after the intrusions, it seems clear that these robberies took place within several months at most of the initial burial. Eventually the location of the tomb was lost because it had come to be buried by stone chips from subsequent tombs, either dumped there or washed there by floods. In the years that followed, some huts for workers were built over the tomb entrance, clearly not knowing what lay beneath.
DEATH• There are no surviving records of Tutankhamuns final days. What caused Tutankhamuns death has been the subject of considerable debate. Major studies have been conducted in an effort to establish the cause of death.• Although there is some speculation that Tutankhamun was assassinated, the consensus is that his death was accidental. A CT scan taken in 2005 shows that he had badly broken his leg shortly before his death, and that the leg had become infected. DNA analysis conducted in 2010 showed the presence of malaria in his system. It is believed that these two conditions (malaria and leiomyomata) combined, led to his death.
CURSE• For many years, rumors of a "Curse of the Pharaohs" (probably fueled by newspapers seeking sales at the time of the discovery) persisted, emphasizing the early death of some of those who had first entered the tomb. However, a recent study of journals and death records indicates no statistical difference between the age of death of those who entered the tomb and those on the expedition who did not.
SIGNIFICANCE• As Tutankhamun began his reign at such an early age, his vizier, and eventual successor Ay, was probably making most of the important political decisions during Tutankhamuns reign.• Tutankhamun was one of the few kings worshiped as a god and honored with a cult-like following during his lifetime. A stela discovered at Karnak and dedicated to Amun-Re and Tutankhamun indicates that the king could be appealed to in his deified state for forgiveness and to free the petitioner from an ailment caused by wrongdoing. Temples of his cult were built as far away as in Kaa and Faas in Nubia. The title of the sister of the Viceroy of Kush included a reference to the deified king, indicative of the universality of his cult.
Sunday, November 26. ‘Open second doorway - about 2pm - Advised Engelbach After clearing 9 metres of the descending passage, in about the middle of the afternoon, we came upon a second sealed doorway, which was almost the exact replica of the first. It bore similar seal impressions and had similar traces ofsuccessive reopenings and reclosings in the plastering. The seal impressions were ofTut.ankh.Amen and of the Royal Necropolis, but not in any way so clear as those on the first doorway. . . Feverishly we cleared away the remaining last scraps of rubbish on the floor of the passage before the doorway, until we had only the clean sealed doorway before us.In which, after making preliminary notes, we made a tiny breach in the top left handcorner to see what was beyond. Darkness and the iron testing rod told us that there was empty space. Perhaps another descending staircase, in accordance to the ordinary royal Theban tomb plan? Or may be a chamber? Candles were procured - the all important tell-tale for foul gases when opening an ancient subterranean excavation - I widened the breach and by means of the candle looked in, while Ld. C., Lady E, and Callender with the Reises waited in anxious expectation.