I am not an expert; I just happen to coordinate online learning & support faculty at an institution that has stumbled into hybrid delivery & has been doing it for a long time. Not so much a presentation as a conversation. Feel free to jump in with questions, comments as we go along. If we get too far behind I may move things along. But it’s mostly about your interests rather than an attempt to shove yet more information your way.
I’d really like to get a picture of where you are with blended or hybrid approaches. [Maybe] go around the circle: Your name, your institution, what you do, were you an A, B, C or D? (or rather not say) I know a lot of colleges are starting to work with hybrid
So. Some terminology. Does it matter? A few years ago when the terminology was just coming out I think there was an attempt to differentiate the 2 terms.
… but not any more. From what I can tell, the terms are used pretty much interchangeably although ‘blended’ is used more in the States while ‘hybrid’ is used more in the rest of the world. Pretty good consensus on what the terms mean, though. : for the most part it’s used to refer to a blend/hybrid of ONLINE & F2F rather than other sorts of blending.
I don’t mean to belabour this but if you are trying to find information about the topic, I just want you to be aware that there’s the TWO terms that you should research. Here’s the way I like to look at it: Hybrid delivery results in a blended course
For your googling pleasure! From Educause ‘7 things’: HyFlex is a course design model that presents the components of hybrid learning in a flexible course structure that gives students the option of attending sessions in the classroom, participating online, or doing both. Students can change their mode of attendance weekly or by topic, according to need or preference. Models like HyFlex, which present multiple paths through course content, may work well for courses where students arrive with varying levels of expertise or background in the subject matter. Courses built on the HyFlex model help to break down the boundary between the virtual classroom and the physical one. By allowing students access to both platforms, the design encourages discussion threads to move from one platform to the other.
Here’s what happened to us. 1. We were WebCT: with very tight restrictions on how many courses & how many students. It was a real process to get yourself an online course space & we counted every single student carefully. When we switched to Moodle, with open licensing, anybody could have an online course & add all their students (past & present if they wanted). 2. And we were pushing the movement so many faculty opted for a moodle course to make their PPT slides available or post student grades in a secure way. 3. Hybrid delivery started off sort of accidently (but with support of management) 4. Avery’s CRIM course, 1 lecture at home, one on campus. Curt’s COMP course: one week here, one week from home. Hybrid delivery but weakly blended. 5. APNP program. UBC does this too for intercultural studies. 6. Gradually we’ve become more astute about which parts work better online, which ones f2f. Hybridization first, true blending later.
Mention the increasing blurriness in what’s traditional, what’s hybrid The first section: one way of classifying hybrid deliveries Mention some examples in A – E & how these correspond to the classifications in 1 – 3. A: like Avery’s CRIM, Curt’s COMP B: like our GEOL course C: is quite common, like the Queen’s example D: the ‘flipped’ classroom; more on this later E: some interesting examples: second year science, aboriginal courses Queen’s:
Here are some good reasons from the literature. But there are a LOT of studies! I have some good links to get you started, available later. But what reasons do YOU have, or why do you think it’s of interest now? (encourage conversation) Some possibilities: interest in hybrid because of demography: the number of students will decline in a few years. more adults coming in. a way to keep students, accommodate working students continuous education... appealing to working professionals Can even the playing field for international students Blended learning provides “differentiated instruction” ; e.g. students may work collaboratively in learning communities online, or access curriculum content and learning activities that would be unavailable or difficult to comprehend outside of the internet. (deGuia) If you provide online options in addition to traditional classroom training, students show increases in learning. Student interaction and satisfaction may also improve in courses that incorporate blended learning. (DeLacey and Leonard, 2002) Blended learning provides options for pacing and attendance. The student has more leeway in when and where he/she chooses to study. If the student must be absent from the traditional class, she/he may view missed materials and keep up with the rest of the class. They can also review content to increase understanding, or work ahead if they learn at a faster pace. (Alvarez, 2005) There tends to be a higher completion rate for students in blended learning environments than for those in strictly e-learning situations. (Flavin, 2001) . When you blend traditional f2f learning with online learning, you provide learners with an exercise in independent learning. Blended learning support the development of lifelong learning skills (Arafatmy, 2011). From IRRODL ( http://www.irrodl.org/index.php/irrodl/article/view/192/274 ) August - 2004 Blended Learning and Sense of Community: A comparative analysis with traditional and fully online graduate courses Alfred P. Rovai and Hope M. Jordan Regent University USA Dziuban and Moskal (2001) reported that blended courses at the University of Central Florida replaced face-to-face class time with online learning so that a three-hour course occupied only one hour of actual face-to-face classroom time. Such courses allowed the weekly operation of multiple classes in a classroom previously occupied by only one course, thus making more efficient use of existing university infrastructure. Moreover, they reported that blended courses, when compared to traditional courses, had equivalent or reduced student withdrawal rates as well as equivalent or superior student success rates. See the link in the list at the end about why Queen’s is doing it (although they don’t really name studies)
More discussion For faculty: more flexibility in where they live, work, commute More flexibility re timing. May support part-time faculty (who must maintain other jobs or contracts) better Allows faculty to ‘dip their toes in the water’ for trying distance delivery. You can grow your ‘blendedness’ in an incremental way For faculty & institution: allows the continuation – or starting up – of a course which wouldn’t have the numbers to survive on a f2f basis alone For the institution: increases the reach of the institution. Increases access to a new or expanded student market. allows greater flexibility in where the instructor lives, where you hire from talk about how adding/substituting an online component has saved some programs (e.g. APNP) at COTR Talk about professor Richard Smith at SFU, made more room by delivering lectures via mobile podcasts for CMNS 253. exemplary example; maybe push the website to all https://wiki.sfu.ca/spring11/cmns253wd100/index.php/Main_Page . He experiments with a wide variety of delivery tools. Has used podcasts instead of traditional lectures. Mentioned that even though he often has over 100 registered in the class, he seldom sees them all at once. They are encouraged to access the course material & activities in a wide variety of ways. This course is not just blended; it’s pureed ;-) And it lets the institution offer the course in a room too small based on registration – in fact, I think that was the original reason the blended approach was encouraged. Queen’s is hoping it will increase both learning & engagement in their high-enrolment lower level courses. Dividing the huge (>1000) into small groups for discussion & debate allows personal issues to surface & help to be recommended. Note that it’s not really f2f + distance; it’s lectures + out-of-lecture small group activities that make up the hybrid.
The lecture format has been the gold standard for centuries. Even though there’s lots of studies to suggest it’s not really a great way to learn. Ed: ‘if I post my lecture notes online, why would anybody come to my class?’ Why indeed??! It’s an important question to ask. Why DO students come to your class? What’s your role? Do you really think, in today’s internet age, that your primary role is to disseminate information??? What about ‘seat time’? How on earth did we come to the conclusion that number of hours spent sitting in a lecture hall equates to learning??? Concern that students don't know how to manage themselves in a hybrid environment (this was also voiced at Queen’s) This is a valid concern! How many work in a rural environment? My opinion: you owe it to all your rural students to help them learn how to learn by distance. Otherwise, how can they explore new vocational avenues? How can they do effective continuing education? Without totally disrupting their families or threatening the fabric of their rural community? opening your space: being a hybrid is opening things up a lot of teachers are insecure about that (are your students cheating? doing the work?) Negative aspects: according to Jan White, some students in hybrid courses feel like they’re being ‘cheated’ – missing out on half their lectures.
‘ start simple’ – just move your lecture notes/PPT online, add a discussion question or 2. Later, maybe add a quiz Flipped approach: forget the lecture. Move the entire content delivery online & make students responsible for it (e.g. with a quiz). Then move the Q&A, mentoring, worked examples, discussion etc. to the classroom. Note that designing a blended course seems to work best if you design for an online course, & then strategically move some aspects for f2f delivery (rather than other way around). So it would be best if you had some in-house or in-system expertise in distance delivery models. Whether a course should be proposed as a face-to-face interaction, an online course or a blended course depends on the analysis of the competencies at stake , the nature and location of the audience , and the resources available . Depending on the cross-analysis of these 3 parameters , the course designer will opt for one of the 3 options. In his course scenario he/she will then have to decide which parts are online, which parts are offline. A basic example of this is a course of English as a second language where the instructor reaches the conclusion that all audio-based activities (listening comprehension, oral expression) will take place in the classroom where all text-based activities will take place online (reading comprehension, essay writing). Maybe talk briefly about the ‘flipped’ classroom; e.g. see the 7 things article (2012) at http://net.educause.edu/ir/library/pdf/ELI7081.pdf . Generally refers to pre-recorded lectures (studied at home) followed by in-class homework, activities etc. The Blended Learning Toolkit has readings from scholarly works pertaining to blended learning, document templates, and practical step-by-step “how-to” guides & it’s OER!
Same support issues (perhaps on lesser level) as for online/distance students Make sure the technology is not going to be an issue. Maybe schedule a f2f how-to session. Make sure students know who to call if they have technical problems. There’s no substitute for BEING THERE in the online portion of the classroom! Make sure work assigned in the online portion is WORTH something Monitor the discussions the ‘right’ amount Use this as an opportunity to help your students learn to be more self-directed, exercise their motivation, manage their time, take responsibility for learning etc. – all skills they will need if they decide to take a fully-online course Put the ‘blended’ into ‘blended course’, i.e. These snippets are drawn from this website http://www4.uwm.edu/ltc/hybrid/faculty_resources/questions.cfm Hybrid teaching is not just a matter of transferring a portion of your traditional course to the Web. Instead it involves developing challenging and engaging online learning activities that complement your face-to-face activities. … How will the face-to-face and time out of class components be integrated into a single course? In other words, how will the work done in each component feed back into and support the other? There is a tendency for faculty to require students to do more work in a hybrid course than they normally would complete in a purely traditional course. What are you going to do to ensure that you have not created a course and one-half? How will you evaluate the student workload as compared to a traditional class?
Maybe talk more about flipping if there’s interest
T.E.L.L.: Blended/Hybrid Learning: A new breed of animal???
Blended & hybrid learning: a new breed of animal???
Survey 1: who is doing what withhybridization?C.I have (or am currently) teaching a hybrid or blendedcourseD.I am experimenting with hybrid/blended approachesE.I am actively planning to offer somethinghybrid/blended within the next year or soF.I barely know what a hybrid course is!
What’s a hybrid course? Ablended course? What’s thedifference? Does it matter?
Some definitions:(from Wikipedia)Blended learning in educational research refers to a mixing ofdifferent learning environments. It combines traditional face-to-face classroommethods with more modern computer-mediated activities.Hybrid courses blend face-to-face interaction such as in-class discussions, active groupwork, and live lectures with typically web-based educational technologies such asonline course cartridges, assignments, discussion boards, and other web-assistedlearning tools.Important to note is that the term hybrid is not used often in the U.S., where the morecommon term for this kind of education is Blended learning.(From IRRODL)Blended [hybrid] learning is a hybrid of classroom and online learning that includessome of the conveniences of online courses without the complete loss of face-to-facecontact. (from Rovai, A.P. & Jordan, H. (2004). Blended learning and a sense ofcommunity: A comparative analysis with traditional and fully online graduateprograms. IRRODL 5 (2).
A popularity contest indicates“hybrid course” is the more-used:If you google the 2 terms, you’llfind that “hybrid course” gets~406,000; “blended course” gets~225,000.
Yet another search term: hyflex• Instead of face-to-face OR online, hyflex is face-to- face AND online• Key principle is flexibility for the student• They can attend sessions in the classroom, participate online, or both.• Essentially provides multiple pathways through the course content• Works well for courses where students arrive with varying levels of expertise or background in the subject matter.
Hybridization: how does it happen?College of the Rockies’ case study 1. In the beginning… moodlization 2. Small steps: Class resources & gradebook 3. Steps of convenience: snow days, sick days 4. Bigger steps: hybridizing the week, the month 5. Giant steps: hybridizing the semester/program 6. Iterative steps: bringing quality back in
Hybridization: how many different ways can youslice it?1. online and face-to-face learning activities2. online and face-to-face students3. online and face-to-face instructors.e.g.F. alternate classroom & distanceG. Have one group in classroom, one group remoteH. Lectures in classroom, study & discussion by distanceI. Study & discussion in class, lectures by distanceJ. Team teaching: lectures by distance, labs in classSurvey 2: which example (A – E) is ofmost interest to you?
So why do hybrid? Studies abound…•Provides “differentiated instruction”•options in learning environments result in learninggains.•options for pacing and attendance•Increases course completion rate•Develops independent learning, lifelong learningskills•A blended approach results in better performancefor students than either online alone or face-to-facealone
Hybrid delivery:What’s in it for faculty?For the institution?
So why not do hybrid?What do people worry about?
Hybridization: How do you do it?•The “Start Simple” or “convenience” approach: lectures&/or study activities &/or discussion•The “strategic” approach: think about thecompetencies/learning outcomes•An obvious example: Teaching English as a Second Language•More radical approaches: Flipping the lecture vs. studyapproach•Choose LMS tools to make this work•Assessment of learning•Have a look at the Blended Learning Toolkit (http://blended.online.ucf.edu/blendkit-course/)
Survey 3: do you want to try it?For what purpose would you like to try a hybridcourse?D.For more flexibility about where & when I workE.To gain some experience with online deliveryF.To develop some learning outcomes that mightwork better using online toolsG.My Dean/Department Head/institution ispromoting the ideaH.I don’t really want to try it for the foreseeablefuture
How do we support our students in ahybrid learning environment?
New initiatives•Mobile learning, situated learning•Online & remote science•iPads•flipping•What else?
References & Resources3.Rovai, A.P. & Jordan, H. (2004). Blended learning & a sense ofcommunity: A comparative analysis with traditional & fullyonline graduate programs. IRRODL 5(2).http://www.irrodl.org/index.php/irrodl/article/view/192/2744.7 things you should know about the Hyflex course model(2010) Educause: http://net.educause.edu/ir/library/pdf/ELI7066.pdf5.Studies about hybrid/blended delivery: cant go wrong withEducauses 146 resources for blended learning http://www.educause.edu/Resources/Browse/HybridorBlendedLearning/3336.Queen’s U is doing it in a big way: http://www.thewhig.com/ArticleDisplay.aspx?e=3497869
Even more References & Resources2.How-to: the Blended Learning Toolkit. Lots of support for thehow, when, where, model courses. Check out the facultydevelopment section. Also view the extensive referencesunder the Research tab. http://blended.online.ucf.edu/3.Similarly, you can see blended learning case studies, facultyself-assessment, learn how to blend: from Simmons College:http://at.simmons.edu/blendedlearning/4.Richard Smith’s CMNS 253 course wiki:https://wiki.sfu.ca/spring11/cmns253wd100/index.php/Main_Page5.7 things to know about flipped classrooms:http://net.educause.edu/ir/library/pdf/ELI7081.pdf