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Would you Please Stop Smiling at your crotch? Predictors of Student Classroom smartphone Use and faculty course smartphone policies
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Would you Please Stop Smiling at your crotch? Predictors of Student Classroom smartphone Use and faculty course smartphone policies

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by Rajiv Jhangiani, KPU

by Rajiv Jhangiani, KPU

Published in Education
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  • 1. Would&You&Please&Stop&Smiling&at&Your&Crotch?& Predictors&of&Student&Classroom&Smartphone&Use&and&Faculty&Course&Smartphone&Policies&& Rajiv&Jhangiani,&Ph.D.& Kwantlen(Polytechnic(University,(Vancouver,(Canada( Introduc=on& Eighty&percent&of&young&Americans&and&half&of&young& Canadians&now&own&smartphones&(Ipsos&Reid,&2012;&Smith,& 2013).&As&this&technology&makes&its&way&into&our&classrooms,& a&natural&quesKon&concerns&its&impact&on&student&behaviour& and&performance.&Should&we&ban&smartphones&in&the& classroom,&legislate&their&use,&or&embrace&them?&Previous& research&suggests&that&smartphones&can&bring&negaKve& consequences&into&the&classroom&including&shoddy&noteN taking,&impaired&recall,&and&poorer&course&performance& (Duncan&et&al.,&2012;&Kuznekoff&&&Titsworth,&2013).&On&the& other&hand,&smartphones&are&associated&with&increases&in& student&achievement,&at&least&when&they&are&used&as& essenKal&tools&in&the&classroom&(e.g.,&using&subjectNspecific& apps;&Norris&et&al.,&2013).&The&present&study&seeks&to&beWer& understand&the&predictors&of&the&classroom&use&of& smartphones&by&students&as&well&as&faculty&course& smartphone&policies.& Method& •  417&undergraduate&students&taking&Arts&&&Sciences& courses&completed&selfNreport&measures&of&their& aZtudes&towards&smartphone&use&in&the&classroom,&their& use&of&smartphones&in&the&classroom,&and&the&Big&5& factors&of&personality&(BFIN44).& •  47&instrucKonal&faculty&completed&selfNreport&measures& of&their&aZtudes&and&experiences&concerning& smartphone&use&in&the&classroom,&the&Big&5&factors&of& personality,&as&well&as&their&classroom&policies.& Results& Students:(55%&of&students&reported&being&distracted&by& other&students&using&smartphones&during&class&and&25%&of& students&reported&that&their&own&smartphones&were&more& distracKng&than&helpful&in&the&classroom.&Smartphone&use& was&posiKvely&predicted&by&extraversion&and&the&belief&that& they&are&helpful&for&learning&and&negaKvely&predicted&by&the& beliefs&that&they&are&distracKng&to&themselves&and&other& students.&ConscienKousness&was&posiKvely&related&to&the& belief&that&smartphones&are&distracKng&to&oneself&whereas& agreeableness&was&posiKvely&related&to&the&belief&that&they& are&distracKng&to&others.&SancKoned&(e.g.,&accessing&the& LMS)&and&unsancKoned&(e.g.,&texKng,&browsing&Facebook,& etc.)&use&of&smartphones&in&the&classroom&correlated& moderately&(0.26N0.38).& & Faculty:(Believing&that&smartphones&are&distracKng&to&other& students&as&well&as&the&instructor,&witnessing&misuse,& agreeableness,&and&not&owning&a&smartphone&all&predicted& more&severe&course&smartphone&policies&(e.g.,&a&ban).& Discussion& Students&appear&to&be&aware&of&the&potenKal&for&distracKon& that&smartphones&carry,&and&their&beliefs&predict&their&use&of& these&devices&in&the&classroom.&Although&personality&factors& play&a&role,&opportunity&can&trump&moKvaKon&as&students& who&bring&out&their&phones&for&a&courseNrelevant&task&begin& to&check&their&email,&text&a&friend,&or&access&Facebook.& Faculty&should&reflect&on&their&personal&teaching&philosophy& when&developing&a&classroom&policy&and&consider:&1)&the& impact&of&students&surrepKKously&using&smartphones&on& their&teaching,&2)&whether&it&is&possible&to&uKlize& smartphones&to&serve&their&pedagogical&goals,&and&3)&the& discussion&and&possible&coNconstrucKon&of&a&course&policy.& Students:&Intercorrela=ons& Faculty:&Intercorrela=ons& Acknowledgements:&This&research&was&supported&by&a&Teaching&&&Learning&grant&from&Capilano& University.&My&thanks&to&Cameron&Foss&and&Belinda&Aikenhead&for&their&assistance&with&the& literature&review&and&poster&preparaKon.& References& Duncan,&D.&K.,&Hoekstra,&A.&R.,&&&Wilcox,&B.&R.&(2012)&Digital&devices,&distracKon,&and&student&performance:&Does&inN class&cell&phone&use&reduce&learning?&Astronomy(Educa>on(Review,(11,&010108N1,&10.3847.& Ipsos&Reid.&(2012).&The(Ipsos(Canadian(inter@c>ve(Reid(report:(2012(fact(guide.&Retrieved&from&hWp://www.ipsos.ca/ common/dl/pdf/Ipsos_InteracKveReidReport_FactGuide_2012.pdf& Kuznekoff,&J.&H.,&&&Titsworth,&S.&(2013).&The&impact&of&mobile&phone&usage&on&student&learning.&Communica>on( Educa>on,(62(3),&233N252.& Norris,&C.&A.,&Soloway,&E.,&Tan,&C.&M.,&&&Looi,&C.&K.&(2013).&Inquiring&pedagogy&and&smartphones:&Enabling&a&change&in& school&culture.&Educa>onal(Technology,(53(4),&33N40.& Smith,&A.&(2013).&Smartphone(ownership(–(2013(update.&PewResearchCenter.&Retrieved&from&hWp:// pewinternet.org/Reports/2013/SmartphoneNOwnershipN2013.aspx& Witnessed& misuse& Distracts& others& Distracts& me& & Banned& use& .47& .35& Own&a& smartphone& N.47& Agreeableness& .27& .48& .27& .48& & Distracts& others& Use& smartphone&&& in&class& Helpful&for& learning& Distracts& me& N.30& .39& .41& N.24& N.29& ConscienN Kousness& .13& AgreeableN ness& .11& ExtraN version&.34& LMS& Tex=ng& Email& Facebook& LMS& N& Tex=ng& 0.34**& N& Email& 0.38**& 0.55**& N& Facebook& 0.26**& 0.49**& 0.53**& N& rajiv.jhangiani@kpu.ca