T he strength of Ainsworth's research is that more than one researcher had been involved in the process of verifying the findings as relates to a child's attachment to a parent. One of the weaknesses is that Ainsworth does not uncover enough evidence to debunk the other researchers findings. Although Ainsworth does cover attachment beyond the infancy stage, what she fails to do is state firm , verifiable means of attachments due to drafting up her own assertions.
Given that this study indicates a sample size and incorporates one of the authors own previous research, where the study falters is because of some cases missing data. Some cases failed to render data for analysis based on the Strange Situation Procedure.
This study has far too many in-text citations, leaving me to wonder if the authors relied on any analysis of the research they referenced. It does not appear by this case that any observation of the findings was conducted. The study does clearly delineate the measures that were used to formulate the data, having used four measures which include attachment to parents, teacher-academic worries about the middle school transition, anxiety and depression.
A clear weakness of this study is it failed to determine links between parental conflict and attachment disorganization. As far as the sampling process of this study is concerned, African American mothers were used as a primary resource in the study so they were the vehicle but what skews this study is that there is no indication that any African American males were actively included.
The focus is primarily on secure attachment and attachment theory which provides a concentrated study rather than seeming to be all over the place in terms of general ideas and in-depth concepts.
The clear weakness of this study is that it lacks when it comes to challenging other findings but since the study does present quantitative data, there are statistics that help verify findings. The clearest strength of the study is that multiple methods are identified in the study and there is diversity as far as the participants are concerned.
Lit Review Ppt Psy492
Parental attachment: The Basis For A Happy Child Nnamaka Ugezene Argosy University
Attachment Beyond Infancy <ul><li>Bowlby (1982) suggested that between a child's third and fourth birthdays, they become capable of “goal-corrected partnership (Ainsworth, 1989). </li></ul><ul><li>Bowlby also suggested that this phase of development was triggered by specific cognitive advances (Ainsworth, 1989). </li></ul>
Attachment Deviation <ul><li>Belsky (1996) found that the more indicators of risk characterized a father and a family, the more likely sons were to develop insecure attachments to their fathers (Belsky & Fearon, 2002). </li></ul>
Attachment security <ul><li>Papini and Roggman (1992) suggested that the security of attachment to parents could provide an important emotional resource against the emotional distress and anxious thoughts associated with the middle school transition (Duchesne, Ratelle, Poitras & Drouin, 2009) </li></ul>
Attachment Factors <ul><li>Belsky (1981, 1984, 1996) maintains that marital quality is one of several significant distal factors that functions to support the quality of infant-parent relationships (Finger, Hans, Bernstein & Cox, 2009). </li></ul>
Secure attachment <ul><li>According to Ainsworth (1963) attachment provides a secure base from which the child can explore (Flaherty & Sadler, 2011). </li></ul><ul><li>According to Karen (1990) secure attachment relationship evolves from a mother’s ability to be reﬂective, responsive, and sensitive to her infant’s needs and results in the infant’s development of trust, conﬁdence, and resilience in later life (Flaherty & Sadler, 2011). </li></ul>
Tenets of attachment theory <ul><li>According to Ainsworth (1989) and Bowlby (1982) one key tenet of attachment theory is that the quality of care children experience affects their likelihood of developing a secure attachment in which the child can rely on the caregiver in times of need (Kerns, Brumariu & Seibert, 2011). </li></ul><ul><li>According to Bowlby (1982) the second key tenet is that the formation of a secure relationship with a caregiver enhances a child's healthy social and emotional adjustment (Kerns, Brumariu & Seibert, 2011). </li></ul>
References <ul><li>Ainsworth, M. D. S. (1989). Attachments beyond infancy. American Psychologist , </li></ul><ul><li>44 (4) , 709- 716. </li></ul><ul><li>Ainsworth, M. D. S. (1963). The development of infant-mother interaction among the Ganda. In B. M. Foss (Ed.), Determinants of infant behavior (pp. 67-112). New York, NY: Wiley </li></ul><ul><li>Belsky, J. (1981). Early human experience: A family perspective. Developmental Psychology , 17 (1), 3–23. </li></ul><ul><li>Belsky, J., & Fearon, R. M. P. (2002). Infant-mother attachment security, contextual risk, and early development: A moderational analysis. Development & Psychopathology , 14 (2), 293-310. </li></ul><ul><li>Belsky, J. 1996. Parent, infant, and social-contextual antecedents of father–son attachment security. Child Development , 32 , 905–913. </li></ul>
References (continued) <ul><li>Belsky, J. 1984. The determinants of parenting: A process model. Child Development , 55 , 83–96. </li></ul><ul><li>Bowlby, J. (1982). Attachment and loss: Vol. 1. Attachment (2 nd ed.) New York: Basic Books. </li></ul><ul><li>Duchesne, S., Ratelle, C.F. & Poitras, S.C. & Drouin, E. (2009 ). Early adolescent attachment to parents, emotional problems, and teacher-academic worries about middle school transition. The Journal of Early Adolescence , 29 , 743-766. doi: 10.1177/0272431608325502 </li></ul><ul><li>Finger, B., Hans, S.L., Bernstein, V.J. & Cox, S.M. (2009). Parent relationship quality and infant-mother attachment. Attachment & Development , 11 , 285-306. doi: 10.1080/14616730902814960 </li></ul><ul><li>Flaherty, S.C. & Sadler, L.S. (2011). A review of attachment theory in the context of adolescent parenting. Journal of Pediatric Health Care , 25 , 114-121. doi: 10.1016/j.pedhc.2010.02.005 </li></ul>
References (continued) <ul><li>Karen, R. (1990). Becoming attached. Atlantic Monthly , 35–70. </li></ul><ul><li>Kerns, K.A., Brumariu, L.E., & Seibert, A. (2011). Multi-method assessment of mother-child attachment: Links to parenting and child depressive symptoms in middle childhood. Attachment & Development , 13 , 315-333. doi: 10.1080/14616734.2011.584398 </li></ul><ul><li>Papini, D. R., & Roggman, L. A. (1992). Adolescent perceived attachment to parents in relation to competence, depression, and anxiety: A longitudinal study. Journal of Early Adolescence , 12 , 420-440 </li></ul>