Learning how to protect water for environmental and human needs in a variable world John S. Richardson University of Briti...
Once upon a time …
Rivers and log transport – splash dams
 
 
What  are  our  objectives  for water?  Do we know what we want? Richardson JS & Thompson RM. 2009. Setting conservation t...
Policy Science  Testing for effectiveness and efficiency; trials Based on observations not usually collected specifically ...
Policy Science  Testing for effectiveness and efficiency; trials Based on observations not usually collected specifically ...
1.  QUANTITY  (supply) 2.  QUALITY  – temperature, water quality, habitat structure 3.  CONTINUITY  and habitat
1. QUANTITY
 
“ Rivers in some of the world’s most populous regions are losing water, ...” "The distribution of the world's fresh w...
“ Water crisis closes Tofino businesses. Resort town is forced to ration drinking water, turn away visitors” Vancouver Sun...
Carnation Ck Lillooet R Fishtrap  Ck Capilano R Coquihalla R Hydroclimatic regimes: examples
Carnation Creek Capilano Creek Discharge (m 3  s -1 ) Figures courtesy of Dr. Dan Moore, UBC Coastal –  rainfall-dominated
Fishtrap Creek Coquihalla Creek Discharge (m 3  s -1 ) Figures courtesy of Dr. Dan Moore, UBC Interior –  Snowmelt-dominated
Discharge (m 3  s -1 ) Lillooet River Snowmelt and glaciermelt Figures courtesy of Dr. Dan Moore, UBC
Historic streamflow patterns for Capilano River during warm and cool PDO phases Discharge (m 3  s -1 ) Figures courtesy of...
Schindler, DW & WF Donahue. 2006.  An impending water crisis in Canada’s western prairie provinces.  Proceedings of the Na...
photo: Jim Wigington
Carnation Creek, Vancouver Island picture courtesy of Dr. Peter Tschaplinski, BC Ministry of Forests and Range
Change in June-July-August average soil moisture content from 1960-1990 to 2070-2100 from HadCM3 IS92a http://www.metoffic...
Nooksack Dace Photo: Jordan Rosenfeld Richardson JS,  E Taylor, D Schluter, M Pearson & T Hatfield. 2010.  Do riparian zon...
Large predators Large detritivores 0,0 +,0 +,+ 0,+ Controlling for body size to separate size from functional role Both st...
Lecerf A, Richardson JS. Large invertebrates dominate the top-down control over stream ecosystem functioning.  Manuscript ...
Experimental low flows Measures Leaf litter decomposition Benthos Biofilms Drs. Santiago Larrañaga & John Richardson
 
Some consequences of climate change for aquatic systems The minimal water flows, and   not the averages , are the impacts ...
Balancing allocations of water for ...  Power production Irrigation Human consumption Industrial use Recreation Aquatic Ec...
2. QUALITY (temperatures,  chemistry, structure)
photo: Rachael Dudaniec Coastal giant salamander A threatened species sensitive to elevated temperatures and changes in wa...
Cole JJ et al. 2007. Plumbing the global carbon cycle: Integrating inland waters into the terrestrial carbon budget.  Ecos...
Cole JJ et al. 2007. Plumbing the global carbon cycle: Integrating inland waters into the terrestrial carbon budget.  Ecos...
Richardson JS, Hoover TM & Lecerf A. 2009. Coarse particulate organic matter dynamics in small streams: towards linking fu...
Richardson JS, Hoover TM & Lecerf A. 2009. Coarse particulate organic matter dynamics in small streams: towards linking fu...
3. CONTINUITY and habitat
 
Richardson JS, Zhang Y, Marczak LB. 2010.  Resource subsidies across the land-freshwater interface and responses in recipi...
. Wipfli MS, Richardson JS & Naiman RJ. 2007. Ecological linkages between headwaters and downstream ecosystems: transport ...
Metapopulation dynamics Populations connected by dispersal promotes recolonisation and genetic mixing
Metapopulation dynamics Isolated populations may risk local extinction with no chance of new colonists X X X CONNECTION
Vulnerability  of species’ populations in headwaters and springs – and recovery within a catchment  Fagan, WF. 2002.  Conn...
Richardson JS & Moore RD. 2009. Chapter 13 – Stream and riparian ecology.  In  Compendium of Forest Hydrology and Geomorph...
Vertebrate use of freshwater riparian areas Fish eaters (piscivores)  eagle, mergansers, loons, osprey,  kingfisher, mink,...
Microclimate : amphibians Breeding sites : ducks, geese, grebes, swallows, osprey, wrens, amphibians, etc.  Structure : fl...
Vancouver Island, BC
30 m reserve 10 m reserve control clearcut 50% basal area removal
Marczak LB, Sakamaki T, Turvey SL, Deguise I, Wood SLR & Richardson JS.  2010. Are forested buffers an effective conservat...
Western toad
Loss of habitat Loss of connections
Protected Areas and Special Management Zones http://www.for.gov.bc.ca/hfd/pubs/Docs/Mr/Mr112/page24.htm Protection ~14% pr...
Balancing human and ecosystem needs for water
Objectives of riparian management  Maintain natural functions
Objectives for riparian management Fish habitat (large wood, geomorphology) Shade (temperature, algae) Nutrient uptake Sed...
Policy Science  Testing for effectiveness and efficiency; trials Based on observations not usually collected specifically ...
1. Objectives and effectiveness 2. Recovery processes 3. Safety factors  core habitats, extremes, climate change, landscap...
North American Water and Power Alliance (NAWAPA) – Ralph M. Parsons Company, California For additional reading, see  Natur...
What are our objectives for water?  Do we know what we want? Richardson JS & Thompson RM. 2009. Setting conservation targe...
Final Messages Quality  – temperature, chemistry, and structure Continuity  – aquatic species have limited options Quantit...
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John Richardson, UBC - Learning How to Protect Water for Environmental and Human Needs in a Variable World

  1. 1. Learning how to protect water for environmental and human needs in a variable world John S. Richardson University of British Columbia, Vancouver, Canada John.Richardson@ubc.ca http://faculty.forestry.ubc.ca/richardson/
  2. 2. Once upon a time …
  3. 3. Rivers and log transport – splash dams
  4. 6. What are our objectives for water? Do we know what we want? Richardson JS & Thompson RM. 2009. Setting conservation targets for freshwater ecosystems in forested catchments. Pp. 244-263 In: Villard M-A & Jonsson B-G (Eds.) Setting Conservation Targets for Managed Forest Landscapes. Cambridge University Press. Aquatic life – salmonids, etc. – globally most-endangered ecosystem and biodiversity Human consumption – direct Hydrological features – e.g. flood control Agriculture – irrigated crops Agriculture – livestock Industry Power generation – hydroelectric and others Recreation Amenity values
  5. 7. Policy Science Testing for effectiveness and efficiency; trials Based on observations not usually collected specifically for an emerging issue Richardson JS & Thompson RM. 2009. Setting conservation targets for freshwater ecosystems in forested catchments. Pp. 244-263 In: Villard M-A & Jonsson B-G (Eds.) Setting Conservation Targets for Managed Forest Landscapes. Cambridge University Press.
  6. 8. Policy Science Testing for effectiveness and efficiency; trials Based on observations not usually collected specifically for an emerging issue Richardson JS & Thompson RM. 2009. Setting conservation targets for freshwater ecosystems in forested catchments. Pp. 244-263 In: Villard M-A & Jonsson B-G (Eds.) Setting Conservation Targets for Managed Forest Landscapes. Cambridge University Press. Need to react! What is the target? Measureable?
  7. 9. 1. QUANTITY (supply) 2. QUALITY – temperature, water quality, habitat structure 3. CONTINUITY and habitat
  8. 10. 1. QUANTITY
  9. 12. “ Rivers in some of the world’s most populous regions are losing water, ...” "The distribution of the world's fresh water, already an important topic," says Cliff Jacobs of NSF's Division of Atmospheric Sciences, "will occupy front and center stage for years to come in developing adaptation strategies to a changing climate.” Of rivers examined, more than 70% were decreasing (period 1948 to 2004) Including: Yellow River (China), Ganges (India), Niger (west Africa), Colorado (SW USA) Rivers that were increasing were largely northern rivers, increased by glacier melt Appear to be related to climate change (consistent with all predictions, but of course there is no way to test this directly) NSF – National Science Foundation (USA)
  10. 13. “ Water crisis closes Tofino businesses. Resort town is forced to ration drinking water, turn away visitors” Vancouver Sun , 30 August 2006 Headline
  11. 14. Carnation Ck Lillooet R Fishtrap Ck Capilano R Coquihalla R Hydroclimatic regimes: examples
  12. 15. Carnation Creek Capilano Creek Discharge (m 3 s -1 ) Figures courtesy of Dr. Dan Moore, UBC Coastal – rainfall-dominated
  13. 16. Fishtrap Creek Coquihalla Creek Discharge (m 3 s -1 ) Figures courtesy of Dr. Dan Moore, UBC Interior – Snowmelt-dominated
  14. 17. Discharge (m 3 s -1 ) Lillooet River Snowmelt and glaciermelt Figures courtesy of Dr. Dan Moore, UBC
  15. 18. Historic streamflow patterns for Capilano River during warm and cool PDO phases Discharge (m 3 s -1 ) Figures courtesy of Dr. Dan Moore, UBC
  16. 19. Schindler, DW & WF Donahue. 2006. An impending water crisis in Canada’s western prairie provinces. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences 103: 7210-7216. 0 500 1000 km Canada Rocky Mountains Pacific Ocean Prairies
  17. 20. photo: Jim Wigington
  18. 21. Carnation Creek, Vancouver Island picture courtesy of Dr. Peter Tschaplinski, BC Ministry of Forests and Range
  19. 22. Change in June-July-August average soil moisture content from 1960-1990 to 2070-2100 from HadCM3 IS92a http://www.metoffice.gov.uk/climatechange/science/projections/soil_jja.html Units: millimetres -50 -20 -10 -5 +5
  20. 23. Nooksack Dace Photo: Jordan Rosenfeld Richardson JS, E Taylor, D Schluter, M Pearson & T Hatfield. 2010. Do riparian zones qualify as critical habitat for endangered freshwater fishes? Canadian Journal of Fisheries and Aquatic Sciences 67:1197–1204. Photo: Mike Pearson
  21. 24. Large predators Large detritivores 0,0 +,0 +,+ 0,+ Controlling for body size to separate size from functional role Both stonefly (Plecoptera) larvae Species losses – local extinctions
  22. 25. Lecerf A, Richardson JS. Large invertebrates dominate the top-down control over stream ecosystem functioning. Manuscript in review
  23. 26. Experimental low flows Measures Leaf litter decomposition Benthos Biofilms Drs. Santiago Larrañaga & John Richardson
  24. 28. Some consequences of climate change for aquatic systems The minimal water flows, and not the averages , are the impacts that are most difficult to plan for, and the most damaging for aquatic ecosystems More dams and greater extraction – less water in lakes, reservoirs and rivers Warmer water and higher concentrations of contaminants
  25. 29. Balancing allocations of water for ... Power production Irrigation Human consumption Industrial use Recreation Aquatic Ecosystems etc.
  26. 30. 2. QUALITY (temperatures, chemistry, structure)
  27. 31. photo: Rachael Dudaniec Coastal giant salamander A threatened species sensitive to elevated temperatures and changes in water quality – changes can be due to forest harvest, urbanisation, being downwind of greater Vancouver, and global change
  28. 32. Cole JJ et al. 2007. Plumbing the global carbon cycle: Integrating inland waters into the terrestrial carbon budget. Ecosystems 10 : 171-184. Inland waters Inland waters Land Land 0.9 1.9 0.9 0.9 0.23 Ocean Ocean Sediment storage 0.75 CO 2 evasion Values in Pg
  29. 33. Cole JJ et al. 2007. Plumbing the global carbon cycle: Integrating inland waters into the terrestrial carbon budget. Ecosystems 10 : 171-184. Inland water components Streams Lakes Reservoirs Wetlands Rivers Estuaries Ground water Total CO 2 efflux to the atmosphere NA 0.11 0.28 NA 0.21 0.12 0.01 0.75 Storage in sediments 0.23 Export to the ocean 0.9 Global inland water C fluxes. Mid-range estimates of annual global transport of carbon (Pg) through major inland water components
  30. 34. Richardson JS, Hoover TM & Lecerf A. 2009. Coarse particulate organic matter dynamics in small streams: towards linking function to physical structure. Freshwater Biology 54:2116-2126. Modelling to study the roles of flow, retention potential, temperature, and leaf type
  31. 35. Richardson JS, Hoover TM & Lecerf A. 2009. Coarse particulate organic matter dynamics in small streams: towards linking function to physical structure. Freshwater Biology 54:2116-2126.
  32. 36. 3. CONTINUITY and habitat
  33. 38. Richardson JS, Zhang Y, Marczak LB. 2010. Resource subsidies across the land-freshwater interface and responses in recipient communities. River Research and Applications 26:55-66.
  34. 39. . Wipfli MS, Richardson JS & Naiman RJ. 2007. Ecological linkages between headwaters and downstream ecosystems: transport of organic matter, invertebrates, and wood down headwater channels. J. Am. Water Resources Assoc. 43:72-85. Photo: Mark Wipfli, U of Alaska Subsidies to downstream Demonstration of downstream effects What happens to the productivity and biodiversity of downstream ecosystems when these subsidies from upstream are eliminated or altered? An important ecosystem service Energy, nutrients, structure
  35. 40. Metapopulation dynamics Populations connected by dispersal promotes recolonisation and genetic mixing
  36. 41. Metapopulation dynamics Isolated populations may risk local extinction with no chance of new colonists X X X CONNECTION
  37. 42. Vulnerability of species’ populations in headwaters and springs – and recovery within a catchment Fagan, WF. 2002. Connectivity, fragmentation, and extinction risk in dendritic metapopulations. Ecology 83:3243-3249. X X flow
  38. 43. Richardson JS & Moore RD. 2009. Chapter 13 – Stream and riparian ecology. In Compendium of Forest Hydrology and Geomorphology in British Columbia. R.G. Pike et al. (editors). B.C. Ministry of Forests and Range Research Branch, Victoria, B.C. and FORREX Forest Research Extension Partnership, Kamloops, B.C. Land Management Handbook (TBD). URL: http://www.forrex.org/program/water/PDFs/Compendium/Compendium_Chapter13.pdf
  39. 44. Vertebrate use of freshwater riparian areas Fish eaters (piscivores) eagle, mergansers, loons, osprey, kingfisher, mink, river otter, bears, herons, garter snake, etc. Richardson JS & RJ Danehy. 2007. A synthesis of the ecology of headwater streams and their riparian zones in temperate forests. Forest Science 53:131-147. Invertebrate eaters American dipper, harlequin duck, bats, water shrews, phaleropes, grebes, spotted sandpipers, marsh wrens, amphibians, flycatchers, swallows, etc. © Mike Dunn
  40. 45. Microclimate : amphibians Breeding sites : ducks, geese, grebes, swallows, osprey, wrens, amphibians, etc. Structure : flycatchers, robins and other thrushes, swallows, eagles, shrew mole, etc. Water : Beaver, muskrat, mountain beaver Richardson JS, RJ Naiman, FJ Swanson & DE Hibbs. 2005. Riparian communities associated with Pacific Northwest headwater streams: assemblages, processes, and uniqueness. Journal of the American Water Resources Association 41:935-947. Moore RD, DL Spittlehouse & A Story. 2005. Riparian microclimate and stream temperature response to forest harvesting – a review. Journal of the American Water Resources Association 41: 813-834. Coot nest © Jack Dodge Vertebrate use of freshwater riparian areas
  41. 46. Vancouver Island, BC
  42. 47. 30 m reserve 10 m reserve control clearcut 50% basal area removal
  43. 48. Marczak LB, Sakamaki T, Turvey SL, Deguise I, Wood SLR & Richardson JS. 2010. Are forested buffers an effective conservation strategy for riparian fauna? An assessment using meta-analysis. Ecological Applications 20:126-134. Meta-analysis of 397 studies of riparian zone effects compared to intact forest
  44. 49. Western toad
  45. 50. Loss of habitat Loss of connections
  46. 51. Protected Areas and Special Management Zones http://www.for.gov.bc.ca/hfd/pubs/Docs/Mr/Mr112/page24.htm Protection ~14% protected Herbert MS, McIntyre PB, Doran PJ, Allan JD & Abell R. 2010. Terrestrial reserve networks do not adequately r epresent aquatic ecosystems. Conservation Biology 24:1002-1011.
  47. 52. Balancing human and ecosystem needs for water
  48. 53. Objectives of riparian management Maintain natural functions
  49. 54. Objectives for riparian management Fish habitat (large wood, geomorphology) Shade (temperature, algae) Nutrient uptake Sediment interception Litter input (& invertebrates) Streambank integrity Habitat for vertebrates and other organisms (wildlife in the broadest sense) Corridors for dispersal Aesthetics How much is “enough”?
  50. 55. Policy Science Testing for effectiveness and efficiency; trials Based on observations not usually collected specifically for an emerging issue Richardson JS & Thompson RM. 2009. Setting conservation targets for freshwater ecosystems in forested catchments. Pp. 244-263 In: Villard M-A & Jonsson B-G (Eds.) Setting Conservation Targets for Managed Forest Landscapes. Cambridge University Press. Need science and other information to inform policy, and science to explore how things work and to rigorously test policy
  51. 56. 1. Objectives and effectiveness 2. Recovery processes 3. Safety factors core habitats, extremes, climate change, landscape connections fish, water, sediment, biodiversity, channel stability, ecosystem services, etc., etc. time frame, point of reference, rare species, non-stationary world, etc.
  52. 57. North American Water and Power Alliance (NAWAPA) – Ralph M. Parsons Company, California For additional reading, see Nature – 20 March 2008 Perhaps increased trade in “ virtual water ” instead
  53. 58. What are our objectives for water? Do we know what we want? Richardson JS & Thompson RM. 2009. Setting conservation targets for freshwater ecosystems in forested catchments. Pp. 244-263 In: Villard M-A & Jonsson B-G (Eds.) Setting Conservation Targets for Managed Forest Landscapes. Cambridge University Press. Aquatic life, biodiversity and ecosystems Human consumption – direct Hydrological features – e.g. flood control Agriculture – irrigated crops Agriculture – livestock Industry Power generation – hydroelectric and others Recreation Amenity values
  54. 59. Final Messages Quality – temperature, chemistry, and structure Continuity – aquatic species have limited options Quantity – extremes

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