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Diana Allen, SFU - Water Science Research: Challenges and Success Stories in Knowledge Translation
 

Diana Allen, SFU - Water Science Research: Challenges and Success Stories in Knowledge Translation

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    Diana Allen, SFU - Water Science Research: Challenges and Success Stories in Knowledge Translation Diana Allen, SFU - Water Science Research: Challenges and Success Stories in Knowledge Translation Presentation Transcript

    • Water Science Research: Challenges and Success Stories in Knowledge Translation
      Diana M. Allen
      Department of Earth Sciences
      Simon Fraser University
      Department of
      Earth Sciences
    • The Growing Demand on Water
      Groundwater is becoming an attractive resource to meet the growing water needs in many regions of BC
      As the demand for groundwater increases, it will become increasingly important to consider:
      the threats to this resource in terms of sustainability and vulnerability to contamination
      Conflict between water users, including ecosystems
      Potential impacts of climate change
      As water scientists, we need to communicate these risks to decision makers more effectively than we have done in the past.
    • Overview
      Examples of case studies throughout BC that aimed to further our understanding of groundwater systems
      Grand Forks
      The Gulf Islands
      Okanagan Basin
      Demonstrate the importance of groundwater data
      Highlight the successes and challenges in knowledge translation
      Low flows, groundwater and climate change
    • Groundwater (Well) Data
      Observation wells provide groundwater level time series data that can be used to understand groundwater processes.
      Well records provide lithological information taken at the time of drilling.
      These two forms of well data are invaluable for characterizing and modelling aquifers.
    • Okanagan Basin
      Gulf Islands
      Grand Forks
    • Grand Forks
      Scibek and Allen, 2006; WRR
      Scibek et al., 2007; JH
    • Grand Forks Aquifer
      N
      E
      S
      W
      Granby River
      Grand Forks city
      Washington
      State
      BC
      Kettle River
    • Groundwater Wells
      (BC database)
      Standardized lithology
      Boreholes with lithology information
    • Aquifer Vulnerability Map
      Wei et al. 2010 BC MoE
    • Potential well yield
      Assumptions:
      Homogeneous K, Ss
      Fully penetrating, 100% efficient wells
      70% safe available drawdown
      Recharge within 100 days of pumping
      Jacob’s equation applicable
      Wei et al. 2010 BC MoE
    • well database
    • Cross-section layout (selection of boreholes)
    • Cross-section interpretation
    • Bedrock surface
      model (bottom of
      valley sediment fill)
    • Deep sand
    • Clay / Till
    • Silt / silty sand
    • Sand (“aquifer”)
    • Gravel (“aquifer”)
    • Aquifer Geologic Model
      Wei et al. 2010 BC MoE
    • Overall Modeling Approach
      aquifer geological model
      Climate model
      downscaling
      river discharge
      precipitation and temperature
      numerical model
      river flow models
      recharge model (spatially distributed)
      scenario simulations
      Scibek and Allen 2006
      Scibek et al. 2007
    • Groundwater level (sand unit) –non-pumping scenario
      Wei et al. 2010 BC MoE
    • Groundwater level (sand unit) –pumping scenario
      Zone 3
      Zone 4
      Zone 1
      Zone 2
      Wei et al. 2010 BC MoE
    • Inflow
      Outflow
      Water Budget Information
      Wei et al. 2010 BC MoE
    • Modeled Capture Zones for Major Community Wells
      Wei et al. 2010 BC MoE
    • Climate Change Impacts
      Spatially-varying recharge highlights areas where climate change impacts may be more significant
      Scibek and Allen, 2006; WRR
    • earlier peak flow
      longer low flow
      higher flow in winter
      (more snowmelt / rain)
      lower baseflow
    • 2040-2069
      2010-2039
      May 11
      June 29
      Difference in water levels between historical
      and future climate scenarios
      Aug 29
      Scibek et al. 2007
      Scibek and Allen 2006
      Nov 1
    • Knowledge Translation
      The various maps that characterize the Grand Forks aquifer are situated on the BC Water Resources Atlas.
      Well capture zones were intended for use in a Wellhead Protection Plan, but as yet, this plan has not been developed by the community.
      Climate change impacts results have remained largely in the academic literature.
    • Okanagan Basin
      Gulf Islands
      Grand Forks
    • Gulf Islands
      Gabriola
      Vancouver
      Galiano
      Saltspring
      Mayne
      Saturna
      BC
      Pender
      WA
      Victoria
    • Interbedded Sandstones /
      Mudstones
      Sandstones
      Fault / Fracture Zones
    • Our Conceptual Understanding of the Geological Framework
      Allen et al. 2002
      Mackie MSc thesis 2002
      Surrette and Allen 2008 GSA Bull
      Surrette et al. 2008 HJ
      Figure courtesy of Geological Survey of Canada
    • Does groundwater come from Mount Baker?
    • The aquifers are recharged by precipitation on an annual basis; most recharge occurs in the late fall and winter months.
      Significant variability
      Longer term cycles are evident in the historic record
      Trends in groundwater level must be examined keeping in mind these variations.
    • Allen and Suchy 2001 CJES
      Allen 2004, GW
      Saturna Data
    • 1000 years of submergence approx. 12,000 years ago
      6000 years before today
      Today
      Liteanu and Allen 2008
    • Vulnerability Mapping with GSC
      Vulnerability Mapping for southern GI was done to identify potential recharge zones or zones that might be prone to saltwater intrusion problems
      Denny et al. 2007 HJ
    • DRASTIC-Fm
      DRASTIC-Fm is an acronym for the most important mappable features within the hydrogeologic setting which control aquifer vulnerability. These features are:
      • D - Depth to watertable
      • R- (Net) Recharge
      • A- Aquifer media
      • T - Topography (slope)
      • S- Soil media
      • I - Impact of Vadose Zone Media
      • C- Conductivity (Hydraulic) of Aquifer.
      • Fm- Fractured media
      Figure courtesy of Geological Survey of Canada
    • Input Datasets
      Bedrock Geology
      Soil characteristics
      Digital Elevation Model
      Water Well Database, Faults and Fractures
      Figure courtesy of Geological Survey of Canada
    • Faults and Fractures
      Final fault dataset represents a combination of digital lineament analysis and faults and fractures mapped in the field.
      Lineament analysis performed by combining satellite imagery and a DEM
      Figure courtesy of Geological Survey of Canada
    • Low
      susceptibility
      Aquifer Vulnerability Map
      Denny et al. 2007
    • Figure courtesy of Geological Survey of Canada
    • Knowledge Translation
      Many island residents still believe their groundwater comes from Mount Baker
      Vulnerability maps are being used by the Islands Trust for planning
      Research has provided much of the science understanding for the development of the GI Waterscape Poster
    • Okanagan Basin
      Gulf Islands
      Grand Forks
    • Okanagan Basin
      Kelowna
      Oliver
    • Goals of Okanagan CWN Project
      To contribute to science knowledge about groundwater, particularly groundwater recharge
      To partner with Smart Growth on the Ground in Oliver to ensure that this knowledge was effectively transferred to local decision makers.
      “A Basin Approach to Groundwater Recharge in the Okanagan: Bridging the Gap Between Science and Policy”
    • Oliver: A Focal Point
      Vulnerability mapping
      Groundwater model development
      Climate change impacts
      Partnering with local government and Smart Growth on the Ground (SGOG)
    • DRASTIC
      Example:
      Vulnerability = (5)D + (4)R + (3)A + (2)S + (1)T + (5)I + (3)C
    • Aquifer Vulnerability in Oliver
      Liggett and Allen accepted, EES
    • Groundwater Model
      Toews and Allen 2009, ERL
    • Lions Park (WTN 83010)
      Probability of
      particle origin
      0.9
      0.8
      0.7
      0.6
      0.5
      0.4
      0.3
      0.2
      60 day
      365 day
      382 m
      155 m
      500 m
      500 m
      Toews and Allen 2007, BC MoE
    • Fairview (WTN 21867)
      Probability of
      particle origin
      0.9
      0.8
      0.7
      0.6
      0.5
      0.4
      0.3
      0.2
      60 day
      365 day
      237 m
      96 m
      500 m
      500 m
      Toews and Allen 2007, BC MoE
    • Climate Change
      Absolute change in mean temperature
      Relative change in monthly precipitation
      Relative change in solar radiation
      Changes in growing days (10°C)
      Toews and Allen 2009, JH
    • Recharge modelling results: seasonal
      Annual recharge rates
      22.5 km
      • Minor increase of recharge with future-predicted climate change
      • More potential evapotranspiration earlier in season
      8.6 km
      80 mm/yr
      45
      Toews and Allen 2009, JH
    • Using Groundwater Information in Land Use Planning
      Smart Growth on the Ground took place in the Greater Oliver Area
      Principles of creating tangible, built examples of smart growth
      Facilitators help to establish a vision, principles, priorities, goals and targets for smart growth through a charrette process (May 2006)
      Municipal officials, developers, local residents all took part
      Designs for housing mix, transportation routes, commercial opportunities, trail networks, etc.
      Water scarcity and water quality identified as key priorities to be incorporated into the OCP
    • 2041
      2031
      2021
      2011
      2001
    • Use of Science for Local Decision Making
      Land Use Allocation Model (LUAM) was developed to help identify areas of desirable growth, and the aquifer vulnerability maps were included.
      Well capture zones for use in wellhead protection planning are identified in the new Oliver OCP
      Climate change impacts on groundwater recharge have been assessed although not explicitly incorporated into the LUAM
      Most of the research on groundwater within the Oliver region was not considered during the recent Okanagan Basin Supply and Demand Study.
    • Groundwater, Low Flows and Climate Change
      Interaction between groundwater and surface water
      Trends in late summer streamflow and groundwater levels
    • GW-SW Interactions
      Gaining – groundwater contributes to stream
      • Upwelling water has relatively constant temperature and contains nutrients from underground, but is lower in dissolved oxygen
      B. Losing – surface water contributes to groundwater
      • Downwelling water is high in dissolved oxygen but temperature varies daily and seasonally
      Streams may gain groundwater in some reaches and lose in others, and the patterns can change seasonally.
      From Alley et al., USGS Circular 1186, 1999
    • Recharge Area
      Stream
      Stream
      Recharge Area
      Stream
      Stream
      Conflict Between Water Users
      Gaining Stream
      Losing Stream
      Pumping enhances loss.
      Pumping can reverse direction of water movement.
      Becomes a losing stream.
    • Dominantly Negative Trends in September Groundwater Levels
      Red tones: decreases
      Blue tones: increases
      Moore et al 2008 CCAF
    • More Negative Trends in September Streamflows
      Red tones: decreases
      Blue tones: increases
      Moore et al 2008 CCAF
    • Science Needs on GW-SW Interaction
      • There are some indications that negative trends in late summer groundwater levels may be related to negative trends in summer baseflow
      • Given that groundwater is the main contributor to baseflow it is important to consider linkages between the groundwater system and the surface water system
      • Aquatic habitat protection
      • Avoid user conflict
    • There have been some significant success stories with respect to knowledge translation and uptake in BC.
      But, academic research is largely disseminated in the peer refereed literature and often does not lead to informing policy development.
      Conclusions
    • Acknowledgements
      Students:
      Jacek Scibek (MSc), Mike Toews (MSc), Jessica Liggett (MSc), Dan Mackie (MSc), Megan Surrette (MSc), Laurie Neilson-Welch (PhD), Mary Ann Middleton (PhD)
      Collaborators:
      Geological Survey of Canada (Murray Journeay, Shannon Denny, Sonia Tolwar)
      Environment Canada (Basil Hii, Gwyn Graham, Paul Whitfield, Alex Cannon)
      BC MoE (Mike Wei, Vicki Carmichael, Kevin Ronneseth)