Kill-a-watt and Kilowatts:Energy Efficiency, Solar, and Sustainability Alex Chase, Energy Solutions Tomakin Archambault, SunEdison March 30, 2011 Bellarmine Sustainability Teach-In
Who We Are Alex Tomakin Undergrad: Environmental Engineering, Northwestern University Grad: Civil and Environmental Engineering (Energy focus), Stanford University Met Tomakin at Rocky Mountain Institute Currently work at Energy Solutions Undergrad: Mechanical Engineering, University of Denver Grad: Civil and Environmental Engineering (Energy focus), Stanford University Met Alex at Rocky Mountain Institute Currently work at SunEdison 2
How do we know Mr. McCullough? 3
300 Years of FOSSIL FUELS in 300 Seconds http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=cJ-J91SwP8w From the Post Carbon Institute 4
April 2010:Upper Big Branch Coal Mine Explosion, West Virginia 5 The entrance to the Upper Big Branch Coal Mine in West Virginia right after 25 workers were killed in an explosion on April 5, 2011. The worst mine accident in the United States in more than two decades.
April 2010: Deepwater Horizon Oil Spill, Gulf of Mexico Fire boats battled a fire at the offshore oil rig Deepwater Horizon on April 21, 2010 in the Gulf of Mexico off the coast of Louisiana. For more than 80 days, millions of gallons of oil spewed into the gulf, raising concerns about long-term environmental damage. 6
March 2011:Japanese Nuclear Plant Partial Meltdown Emergency workers prepare to treat workers exposed to radiation. A Tokyo Power and Electric Company photograph showing extensive damage to the buildings housing reactor No. 3, left, and reactor No. 4 at the Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Plant. 7
March 2011:Libyan Oil Refinery Burning 8 A cloud of black smoke from a burning oil storage facility in the refinery at RasLanuf in Libya stretched over 50 miles west.
Any Solutions? 9 Energy Efficiency and Renewables = The Twin Pillars of Sustainability
Electric vehicles can help us shift from dirty to cleaner fuel sources 10 In June of 2010, Tesla (TSLA) held an IPO for a company focused on high-end electric cars By the end of 2011, over 9 models of electric car will be available to the mass market
Wind energy can lower our dependence on coal, natural gas, and nuclear power 11 45GW expected installation in 2011 according to Bloomberg New Energy Finance
Solar is a cleaner and safer power source 12 2010 was best year ever for solar PV installations, maintaining 40% CAGR
Energy Efficiency is biggest, fastest, and cheapest, strategy to reduce global warming pollution 13 “Available untapped efficiency can save half U.S. oil and gas, and three-fourths of electricity, at one-sixth today’s average cost of buying them” –Amory Lovins
Pop Quiz What percent of total U.S. energy consumption comes from solar and wind? A) 0.8% B) 1.8% C) 3.8% D) 18% A, 0.8% 14
Pop Quiz What percent of total U.S. energy consumption comes from dirty fossil fuels? A) 3% B) 8% C) 38% D) 83% D, 83% 15
Where are we at today? 16
The Challenge Today Fossil Fuels & Nuclear = 92% Renewables = 8% Future??? Fossil Fuels & Nuclear = 8% Renewables = 92% How do we get there? YOU! 17
What do you want energy for? Who wants to have their own oil drums? Who wants a sack of coal? Who wants nuclear fuel pellets? 18
What do you want energy for? Who likes to check their facebook account? Who likes to listen to their iPod? Who likes hot showers? 19
What do we want energy for? We want the servicesthat energy provides: Facebook iPods Hot showers Mobility Warmth or coolth Cooking Light Etc…. 20
So, how can we can get the same service but use less energy to get it? ENERGY EFFICIENCY 21
What’s the difference between energy efficiency and energy conservation? Energy Conservation Energy conservation is turning down the thermostat in the winter (Less service & Less energy) Energy Efficiency 22 Energy efficiency is using a more efficient furnace (Same service & Less energy)
What’s the difference between energy efficiency and energy conservation? Energy Conservation Energy conservation is saving energy by watching less TV (Less service & Less energy) Energy Efficiency 23 Energy efficiency is saving energy by watching a program on an efficient TV (Same service & Less energy)
Supply and Demand 24 55% wasted
TV Example (new LED backlights) 25
TV Example (new plasmas) 26
TVs: what is driving innovation? ENERGY STAR Consumer demand Codes & Standards Incentive Programs 27
Set-Top Box Example 28
Supply and Demand 29 8% renewables
Electricity Energy Losses 30 Saving energy on demand side has a multiplier effect on the supply side
What is Solar Energy (two types) 31 PV = Photovoltaics = Electricity = Facebook Solar thermal = heat from the sun = hot showers
People, riends, & Energy Demand 32 Quadrillion BTU Population growth is highest in developing countries. Growth in energy consumption in Non-OECD countries will experience highest growth People like to Friend.
Africa: an example of the clean energy opportunity 33 169 147 253 201 232 203 217 233 149 171 156 119 121 111 201 201 124 143 129 191 180 183 143 132 176 223 227 182 189 205 220 223 35 35 30 30 30 5 15 30 30 0 20 40 35 35 35 39 35 30 40 35 45 30 35 35 30 25 30 30 25 20 25 30 The Challenge: 1 Billion people Lowest rate of electrification of any continent (less than 40% with access)—home to 1/3 of all people without access, worldwide Aging energy infrastructure The Opportunity: Some of the best solar irradiance in the world Clean slate Leap-frogging? Egypt, Tunisia, Morocco, South Africa, Saudi Arabia, Turkey, and UAE SunEdison is in active dialogue regarding solar programs in all of the early regional entrants 52 52 40 39 42 62 46 50 60 38 47 48 41 25 -32 -38 -28 19 26 33 41 32 -1 28 22 47 -34 -35 13 35 1 37 13 0 4 9 13 5 6 20 11 23 19 16 29 55 116 145 153 -99 -80 -117 -74 -111 36 77 114 -122 -58 18 77 140 104 56 OSLO BERLIN LONDON MADRID LISSON ROME KRAKOW GENEVA AMSTERDAM ATHENS BUDAPEST VIENNA ISTANBUL ABU DHABI PERTH MELBOURNE BRISBANE MEXICO CITY MIAMI LOS ANGELES NEW YORK SEATTLE TUSCON BUENOS AIRES CAPE TOWN NAIROBI BANGALORE DEL HI TOKYO SINGAPORE HONG KONG MOSCOW Solar is ubiquitous.
Solar is expensive……but how valuable is the service? 34 Using the sun to keep cool. A mobile medicine delivery vehicle camel keeps medicine cool with PV. PV provides services to a rural village.
Case Study: PV at ScaleRovigo: 70 MW in Italy = 16,500 homes 35
Solar’s Challenges Expensive declining cost curves Doesn’t generate all day coupling with storage, controls, and electric vehicles 36