PFLA – Nanaimo, B.C.
June 20, 2013
Codes Carbon and
Construction
Opportunities for Wood in the 21st Century
Represents Over 1200 Manufacturers
Canadian Wood Council
Performance Based Code?	
  
If a builder builds a house for someone, and does
not construct it properly, and the house whi...
Building	
  Code	
  History	
  
London	
  
1666	
  
Building	
  Code	
  History	
  
Chicago	
  	
  
1871	
  
Chicago:	
  corner	
  of	
  	
  
Dearborn	
  and	
  Monroe	
  	
 ...
Building	
  Code	
  History	
  
•  London	
  -­‐	
  1666	
  
•  Chicago	
  -­‐-­‐	
  1871	
  
– Codes	
  started	
  addres...
Building	
  Codes	
  
2008	
  &	
  Beyond	
  
Green?	
  	
  
High	
  Performance?	
  
Prairie	
  Sod	
  House,	
  circa	
  1909	
  
Legisla@on	
  
Legisla@on/Policies	
  
•  IGCC	
  	
  
•  UNEP	
  /SBCI	
  Common	
  Carbon	
  Metric	
  
•  ASHRAE	
  189.1	
  2009	
  
...
Carbon	
  
Courtesy	
  Dr.	
  Jim	
  Bowyer	
  
Gases in the atmosphere that
contribute to elevated atmospheric
temperature and globa...
The Carbon Issue
Courtesy	
  Dr.	
  Jim	
  Bowyer	
  
The Carbon Cycle/
The Carbon Issue
Fossil vs. Atmospheric Carbon
Courtesy	
  Dr.	
  Jim	
  Bowyer	
  
Greenhouse Gases (GHG’s)
•  Carbon Dioxide (CO2)
•  Methane (CH4)
•  Nitrous Oxide (N2O)
•  HFCs
•  CFCs
•  Sulfur hexaflu...
The Heat Trapping Efficiency of Various
Greenhouse Gases is Not Equal
Compound
Heat Trapping
Efficiency Compared
to Carbon...
CO2	
  Concentra@on	
  
peak	
  in	
  2009	
  
390	
  ppm	
  
39%	
  above	
  pre-­‐
industrial	
  
Increase	
  1990-­‐200...
Contributors to Global Warming
Methane
Chlorofluorocarbons
Carbon Dioxide
Nitrous
Oxide
Ozone
CO2e
Courtesy	
  Dr.	
  Jim	...
Materials matter now – not just in 2030, 2050 or beyond
Sequestered Carbon
Sequestered
millions of
years ago
Sequestered,
released, and
re-sequestered
as part of
ongoing carbon
c...
Photosynthesis SUN
(C5 H10 O5)n
CO2
H2O
O2
Sugars
How	
  CO2	
  Sequestra6on	
  Occurs	
  
Why	
  wood?	
  
•  Carbon	
  neutral	
  
End	
  of	
  tree	
  life	
  	
  
Carbon	
  fixa@on	
  	
  
in	
  trees	
  throug...
Why	
  Wood?	
  
• Avoids	
  CO2	
  
• Strong	
  
• Lightweight	
  
• Flexible	
  
• Diverse	
  
• AOrac6ve	
  
• Easy	
  ...
Wood	
  and	
  Forest	
  
Carbon	
  101	
  
•  50%	
  of	
  the	
  dry	
  weight	
  
	
  	
  	
  	
  of	
  wood	
  is	
  c...
Life	
  Cycle	
  Analysis/Assessment	
  
Green	
  design	
  choices	
  are	
  
complex	
  
Understanding	
  the	
  full	
  environmental	
  
impact	
  
Athena	
  Impact	
  Es@mator	
  
Metrics	
  
Environmental Impact Category Impact Indicator
Global warming potential (GWP) Carbon dioxide (CO2) eq.
Acidifi...
Elements	
  of	
  Forest	
  Products	
  
Carbon	
  Footprint	
  
1.  Ecosystem	
  Carbon	
  
2.  Product	
  Carbon	
  Sequ...
LCA	
   	
  Nega@ve	
  Carbon	
  Footprints	
  
Using LCA, we can calculate carbon balances for wood products.
CO2 removal...
Cross	
  Laminated	
  Timber	
  Impacts	
  
Discovery Place - Building 12 (Bunting Coady Architects, 2007)
• 14,000 m2 (15...
Carbon	
  Dioxide	
  Equivalent	
  
GWP of Concrete and Timber Building Design Alternatives
Source: Robertson, A.B. A COMP...
Life	
  cycle	
  assessment	
  shows	
  wood	
  is	
  
a	
  good	
  choice	
  
	
  
Material
Net Carbon Emissions
(kg C/metric ton)
Framing lumber 33
Medium density fiberboard
(virgin fiber)
60
Brick 88
Gla...
A	
  closer	
  look	
  at	
  recycled	
  content	
  
25% recycled
100% recycled
Net Product Life Carbon Emissions
-1000
-800
-600
-400
-200
0
200
400
600
800
CO2:Kg/cubicmeterwoodeq.
includes carbon
sto...
Embodied	
  energy,	
  typical	
  house	
  
Greenhouse	
  gas	
  emissions	
  due	
  to	
  
manufacturing	
  
	
   Carbon Credits
Due to avoided
emissions?
Carbon Storage in Structures
Equals the CO2
generated from
driving a car for 5
years
An average wood
frame home stores ~
3...
Case	
  Study	
  Examples	
  -­‐-­‐	
  Carbon	
  
Six story structure (Five stories of wood over
podium slab). Combined residential/commercial.
•  140 condo units
•  14,000...
Volume of wood used 2,927 m3
Carbon sequestered
and stored (CO2e) 2,124 metric tons
Avoided greenhouse
gases (CO2e) 4,520 ...
ARCHITECTS:	
  Cannon	
  Design	
  	
  
STRUCTURAL	
  ENGINEERS:	
  	
  Fast	
  +	
  Epp	
  Structural	
  Engineers	
  
	
...
ARCHITECTS:	
  Cannon	
  Design	
  	
  
STRUCTURAL	
  ENGINEERS:	
  	
  Fast	
  +	
  Epp	
  Structural	
  Engineers	
  
	
...
  	
  	
   	
  Richmond	
  Olympic	
  Oval,	
  
	
   	
   	
  Richmond,	
  B.C.	
  
Volume of wood used 4,755 m3
Carbon sequestered
and stored (CO2e) 3,771 metric tons
Avoided greenhouse
gases (CO2e) 8,021 ...
~ 8,000+ mt CO2e
sequestered
~ 17,500 mt CO2e
avoided
•  Honeycomb	
  structure	
  
•  Rotated	
  plans	
  	
  
•  Load-­‐bearing	
  walls,	
  floors	
  and	
  cores	
  	
  
•  ...
Exterior	
  cladding	
  	
  Mixture	
  of	
  wood	
  pulp	
  and	
  
cement	
  @le;	
  
• 	
  	
  Includes	
  5,000	
  in...
Stadthaus Building, London
(Murray Grove)
Stadthaus Building, London
(Murray Grove)
Murray	
  Grove	
  Mid-­‐rise	
  
• CO2	
  store	
  saves	
  
300,000	
  kg	
  of	
  
carbon	
  
• Equivalent	
  to	
  210...
Stadthaus Building, London
Volume of wood used 950 m3
Carbon sequestered
and stored (CO2e) 760 metric tons
Avoided greenho...
Forest, Product, Emissions, Displacement & Substitution Carbon by Component
-100
0
100
200
300
400
500
600
700
800
2000
20...
 	
  	
  “In	
  the	
  long-­‐term,	
  a	
  sustainable	
  forest	
  
management	
  strategy	
  aimed	
  at	
  
maintainin...
Environmental	
  Product	
  Declara@ons	
  (EPD)	
  
EPDs	
  are	
  the	
  
next	
  
genera@on	
  of	
  
eco-­‐labels	
  
  Confusing for
customers
  Frustrating for
suppliers.
  May lack transparency
  Difficult to compare
  May be single...
1.  Third-party certifications
–  A “seal of approval”, usually involves a logo.
Examples: Green Seal, EcoLogo, Blue Angel...
69
•  Transparent, credible,
comparable labels allow
purchasers to make
informed selections.
•  Non-judgemental.
•  Reduce...
EPD Example: Egger OSB
• 4-page EPD
EPD Example: Western red cedar
products
• 10-page EPD
•  Voluntary – For now. May become trade barrier.
•  Mandatory in France for high-volume consumer goods
•  Germany require...
Endearing	
  Buildings	
  Endure	
  
•  Horyuji	
  ("Temple	
  of	
  the	
  Flourishing	
  
Law")	
  
•  Burnt	
  in	
  67...
Codes, Carbon and Construction: Opportunities for Wood in the 21st Century
Codes, Carbon and Construction: Opportunities for Wood in the 21st Century
Codes, Carbon and Construction: Opportunities for Wood in the 21st Century
Codes, Carbon and Construction: Opportunities for Wood in the 21st Century
Codes, Carbon and Construction: Opportunities for Wood in the 21st Century
Codes, Carbon and Construction: Opportunities for Wood in the 21st Century
Codes, Carbon and Construction: Opportunities for Wood in the 21st Century
Codes, Carbon and Construction: Opportunities for Wood in the 21st Century
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Codes, Carbon and Construction: Opportunities for Wood in the 21st Century

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Presentation by Peter Moonen—Sustainability Coordinator, Woodworks BC/Canadian Wood Council—to the Private Forest Landowners Association at their 18th annual forestry conference in Nanaimo, BC on June 20th, 2103.

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Codes, Carbon and Construction: Opportunities for Wood in the 21st Century

  1. 1. PFLA – Nanaimo, B.C. June 20, 2013 Codes Carbon and Construction Opportunities for Wood in the 21st Century
  2. 2. Represents Over 1200 Manufacturers Canadian Wood Council
  3. 3. Performance Based Code?   If a builder builds a house for someone, and does not construct it properly, and the house which he built falls in and kills its owner, then that builder shall be put to death. If it kills the son of the owner, the son of that builder shall be put to death.   • Kept builders honest • Probably stifled innovation • Not applicable to their own buildings  
  4. 4. Building  Code  History   London   1666  
  5. 5. Building  Code  History   Chicago     1871   Chicago:  corner  of     Dearborn  and  Monroe     a2er  the  devasta6ng  Great  Fire.  
  6. 6. Building  Code  History   •  London  -­‐  1666   •  Chicago  -­‐-­‐  1871   – Codes  started  addressing   risks  of  one  building  on   another   – Density  driven   – Light,  ven@la@on,  fire   escapes,  water  supply,   sanitary,  drainage,  stairs,   railings   – Health  &  Safety  
  7. 7. Building  Codes   2008  &  Beyond  
  8. 8. Green?     High  Performance?   Prairie  Sod  House,  circa  1909  
  9. 9. Legisla@on  
  10. 10. Legisla@on/Policies   •  IGCC     •  UNEP  /SBCI  Common  Carbon  Metric   •  ASHRAE  189.1  2009   •  European  Resource  Commission  –   German  Material  evalua@on   •  UNECE  Resolu@on  Carbon  Tax   •  Energy  Policies   •  Material  preference  /  Impacts  Policies   –  Quebec  and  B.C.     –  France,  Japan  &  New  Zealand   –  LCA  /  EPD  requirement  in  EU   •  Code  changes  -­‐  Light  Frame  Construc@on     •  Carbon  Footprint  reduc@on   –  London,  U.K.  –  10%  reduc@on   •  Ra@ng  Tool  achievement  
  11. 11. Carbon  
  12. 12. Courtesy  Dr.  Jim  Bowyer   Gases in the atmosphere that contribute to elevated atmospheric temperature and global climate.    
  13. 13. The Carbon Issue Courtesy  Dr.  Jim  Bowyer  
  14. 14. The Carbon Cycle/ The Carbon Issue Fossil vs. Atmospheric Carbon Courtesy  Dr.  Jim  Bowyer  
  15. 15. Greenhouse Gases (GHG’s) •  Carbon Dioxide (CO2) •  Methane (CH4) •  Nitrous Oxide (N2O) •  HFCs •  CFCs •  Sulfur hexafluoride Courtesy  Dr.  Jim  Bowyer  
  16. 16. The Heat Trapping Efficiency of Various Greenhouse Gases is Not Equal Compound Heat Trapping Efficiency Compared to Carbon Dioxide Carbon dioxide (CO2) 1 Methane (CH4) 23X Nitrous oxide (N2O) 296X HFCs 120-12,000X CFCs 5,700-11,900X Sulfur hexafluoride 22,200X Courtesy  Dr.  Jim  Bowyer  
  17. 17. CO2  Concentra@on   peak  in  2009   390  ppm   39%  above  pre-­‐ industrial   Increase  1990-­‐2000   ~3.2  Gt  C/year   2000-­‐2012   4.1  Gt  C/yr   May 10, 2013 400 ppm – first time in 2 Million years!
  18. 18. Contributors to Global Warming Methane Chlorofluorocarbons Carbon Dioxide Nitrous Oxide Ozone CO2e Courtesy  Dr.  Jim  Bowyer  
  19. 19. Materials matter now – not just in 2030, 2050 or beyond
  20. 20. Sequestered Carbon Sequestered millions of years ago Sequestered, released, and re-sequestered as part of ongoing carbon cycle. Fossil Carbon Atmospheric Carbon Courtesy  Dr.  Jim  Bowyer  
  21. 21. Photosynthesis SUN (C5 H10 O5)n CO2 H2O O2 Sugars How  CO2  Sequestra6on  Occurs  
  22. 22. Why  wood?   •  Carbon  neutral   End  of  tree  life     Carbon  fixa@on     in  trees  through   photosynthesis   Carbon  in  soil   and  biomass   Atmospheric  carbon   Atmospheric  carbon   Sunlight   H2O   O2   Sink  
  23. 23. Why  Wood?   • Avoids  CO2   • Strong   • Lightweight   • Flexible   • Diverse   • AOrac6ve   • Easy  to  Use   • Available   • Inexpensive   • Versa6le   • Carbon  Sink   • Renewable   • Recyclable   • Reusable   • Organic   • Cleans  Air   • Cleans  Water   • Provides  O2   • Biodegradable   • Habitat  Source   If  Not  Wood,  what?  
  24. 24. Wood  and  Forest   Carbon  101   •  50%  of  the  dry  weight          of  wood  is  carbon.   •  1  m3  of  Douglas  Fir   contains  0.225  tons  of   carbon   •  If  burned  releases  ~  1   ton  of  CO2   •  C  x  3.7  =  CO2   •  C  in  1  m3  of  Douglas  Fir   =  emissions  from  ~325   litres  of  gasoline.  
  25. 25. Life  Cycle  Analysis/Assessment  
  26. 26. Green  design  choices  are   complex  
  27. 27. Understanding  the  full  environmental   impact  
  28. 28. Athena  Impact  Es@mator  
  29. 29. Metrics   Environmental Impact Category Impact Indicator Global warming potential (GWP) Carbon dioxide (CO2) eq. Acidification potential Hydrogen ion [H+] eq. Eutrophication potential Nitrogen (N) eq. Fossil fuel depletion Surplus gigajoules (GJ) Water intake Litres (L) Criteria air pollutants Disability-adjusted-life-years (DALYs) Ecological toxicity 2,4-dichlorophenoxy-acetic acid (2,4-D) eq. Human health; non-carcinogenic Toluene (C7H8) eq. Human health; carcinogenic Benzene (C6H6) eq. Ozone depletion Chlorofluorocarbon-11 (CFC-11) eq. Smog formation potential Nitrogen oxides (NOx) eq. Energy Accounting Indicator Embodied energy; renewable & non-renewable Terajoules (TJ) Embodied energy; feedstock & process Terajoules (TJ) Source: Robertson, A.B. A COMPARATIVE LIFE CYCLE ASSESSMENT OF MID-RISE OFFICE BUILDING CONSTRUCTION ALTERNATIVES: LAMINATED TIMBER OR REINFORCED CONCRETE
  30. 30. Elements  of  Forest  Products   Carbon  Footprint   1.  Ecosystem  Carbon   2.  Product  Carbon  Sequestra@on   3.  Manufacturing  Plant  GHGs   4.  Wood  Produc@on  GHG   5.  GHG  associated  with  producing  other  raw   materials/fuels   6.  GHG  associated  with  purchased  energy   7.  Transporta@on  GHG   8.  Product  Use  GHG   9.  End  of  Life  GHG   10. Avoided  Emissions  
  31. 31. LCA    Nega@ve  Carbon  Footprints   Using LCA, we can calculate carbon balances for wood products. CO2 removal The C is used to make wood The C balance here is negative C is transferred to products CO2 emissions due to harvesting, manufacturing, transportation Net C is negative: more C is in the product than was emitted to atmosphere in making the product - - +
  32. 32. Cross  Laminated  Timber  Impacts   Discovery Place - Building 12 (Bunting Coady Architects, 2007) • 14,000 m2 (153,207 ft2), • five-storey, • concrete-framed structure, • Proposed for Burnaby, B.C.
  33. 33. Carbon  Dioxide  Equivalent   GWP of Concrete and Timber Building Design Alternatives Source: Robertson, A.B. A COMPARATIVE LIFE CYCLE ASSESSMENT OF MID-RISE OFFICE BUILDING CONSTRUCTION ALTERNATIVES: LAMINATED TIMBER OR REINFORCED CONCRETE
  34. 34. Life  cycle  assessment  shows  wood  is   a  good  choice    
  35. 35. Material Net Carbon Emissions (kg C/metric ton) Framing lumber 33 Medium density fiberboard (virgin fiber) 60 Brick 88 Glass 154 Recycled steel (100% from scrap) 220 Concrete 265 Concrete block 291 Recycled aluminum (100% recycled content) 309 Steel (virgin) 694 Plastic 2,502 Aluminum (virgin) 4,532 1/ Values are based on life cycle assessment and include gathering and processing of raw materials, primary and secondary processing, and transportation. 2/ Source: USEPA (2006). Net Carbon Emissions in Producing a Tonne1,2 of:
  36. 36. A  closer  look  at  recycled  content   25% recycled 100% recycled
  37. 37. Net Product Life Carbon Emissions -1000 -800 -600 -400 -200 0 200 400 600 800 CO2:Kg/cubicmeterwoodeq. includes carbon stored in product no product carbon to store KD Lumber Plywood OSB Concrete floor area eq.
  38. 38. Embodied  energy,  typical  house  
  39. 39. Greenhouse  gas  emissions  due  to   manufacturing     Carbon Credits Due to avoided emissions?
  40. 40. Carbon Storage in Structures Equals the CO2 generated from driving a car for 5 years An average wood frame home stores ~ 30 tonnes of carbon =
  41. 41. Case  Study  Examples  -­‐-­‐  Carbon  
  42. 42. Six story structure (Five stories of wood over podium slab). Combined residential/commercial. •  140 condo units •  14,000 ft2 street level commercial •  20,000 ft2 library •  Underground parking
  43. 43. Volume of wood used 2,927 m3 Carbon sequestered and stored (CO2e) 2,124 metric tons Avoided greenhouse gases (CO2e) 4,520 metric tons Total potential carbon benefit (CO2e) 6,645 metric tons
  44. 44. ARCHITECTS:  Cannon  Design     STRUCTURAL  ENGINEERS:    Fast  +  Epp  Structural  Engineers          Richmond  Olympic  Oval,        Richmond,  B.C.  
  45. 45. ARCHITECTS:  Cannon  Design     STRUCTURAL  ENGINEERS:    Fast  +  Epp  Structural  Engineers                    Richmond  Olympic  Oval,        Richmond,  B.C.  
  46. 46.        Richmond  Olympic  Oval,        Richmond,  B.C.  
  47. 47. Volume of wood used 4,755 m3 Carbon sequestered and stored (CO2e) 3,771 metric tons Avoided greenhouse gases (CO2e) 8,021 metric tons Total potential carbon benefit (CO2e) 11,792 metric tons
  48. 48. ~ 8,000+ mt CO2e sequestered ~ 17,500 mt CO2e avoided
  49. 49. •  Honeycomb  structure   •  Rotated  plans     •  Load-­‐bearing  walls,  floors  and  cores     •  Tallest  @mber  building  in  the  world   •  Uses  a  plaiorm  configura@on,  each   floor  set  on  the  walls  underneath  with   joints  secured  by  screws  and  angle   plates.   •  The  ground  floor  is  made  from  cast   concrete  with  a  short  pile  founda@on.   •  Public/  private  partnership   –  19  private  apartments,     –  10  social  housing  units,  and     –  a  residents  office.   Stadthaus Building, London (Murray Grove)
  50. 50. Exterior  cladding    Mixture  of  wood  pulp  and   cement  @le;   •     Includes  5,000  individual  panels  in  a  design  to  mimic   the  shadows  on  the  site,     •     Creates  texture  without  the  use  of  brick.   Stadthaus Building, London (Murray Grove)
  51. 51. Stadthaus Building, London (Murray Grove)
  52. 52. Stadthaus Building, London (Murray Grove)
  53. 53. Murray  Grove  Mid-­‐rise   • CO2  store  saves   300,000  kg  of   carbon   • Equivalent  to  210   years  of  10%   reduc@on   • (London  code)   • 9  stories  9  wks   •   Overall  time  saving  of   22  weeks   Total  construc6on  waste?        –  1/2  wheel  barrow  load  /wk  
  54. 54. Stadthaus Building, London Volume of wood used 950 m3 Carbon sequestered and stored (CO2e) 760 metric tons Avoided greenhouse gases (CO2e) 320 metric tons Total potential carbon benefit (CO2e) 1,080 metric tons
  55. 55. Forest, Product, Emissions, Displacement & Substitution Carbon by Component -100 0 100 200 300 400 500 600 700 800 2000 2005 2010 2015 2020 2025 2030 2035 2040 2045 2050 2055 2060 2065 2070 2075 2080 2085 2090 2095 2100 2105 2110 2115 2120 2125 2130 2135 2140 2145 2150 2155 2160 2165 Year MetricTonsPerHectare Stem Root Crown Litter Dead Chips Lumber HarvEmis ManufEmis Displacement Substitution Forest with Products with Substitution Forest, Product and Substitution Pools (concrete frame vs wood)
  56. 56.      “In  the  long-­‐term,  a  sustainable  forest   management  strategy  aimed  at   maintaining  or  increasing  forest  carbon   stocks,  while  producing  an  annual   sustained  yield  of  Gmber,  will  generate  the   largest  sustained  miGgaGon  benefit”.              IPCC  4th  Assessment    Report,  November,  2007,  (Nabuurs   et  al.)   From  the  Co-­‐Recipients  of  the  2007  Nobel  Peace  Prize…  
  57. 57. Environmental  Product  Declara@ons  (EPD)  
  58. 58. EPDs  are  the   next   genera@on  of   eco-­‐labels  
  59. 59.   Confusing for customers   Frustrating for suppliers.   May lack transparency   Difficult to compare   May be single attribute   Rarely based on LCA
  60. 60. 1.  Third-party certifications –  A “seal of approval”, usually involves a logo. Examples: Green Seal, EcoLogo, Blue Angel, Energy Star, FSC. 2.  Self-declarations –  E.g. “100% recycled”; “biodegradable;” “compostable”. 3.  Environmental product declarations –  Not a certification; a simple statement of footprint facts.
  61. 61. 69 •  Transparent, credible, comparable labels allow purchasers to make informed selections. •  Non-judgemental. •  Reduce “greenwash” in the market place. Environmental Product Declarations, or EPDs, are an environmental version of a food label. EPDs are based on LCA data, are 3rd-party verified, address multiple criteria and are put together following international protocols.
  62. 62. EPD Example: Egger OSB • 4-page EPD
  63. 63. EPD Example: Western red cedar products • 10-page EPD
  64. 64. •  Voluntary – For now. May become trade barrier. •  Mandatory in France for high-volume consumer goods •  Germany requires impact evaluation for buildings •  Japan and Taiwan moving in that direction. •  Sweden, Italy, UK, Japan, Korea, China and Australia already have most or all components of an EPD infrastructure in place. •  Hundreds (thousands?) of EPDs worldwide have been produced. •  US is partly there with a national database and discussion about national standards. •  Environmental preferential purchasing (EPP) policies (popular in Europe and the US) would likely adopt an EPD basis when ready.
  65. 65. Endearing  Buildings  Endure   •  Horyuji  ("Temple  of  the  Flourishing   Law")   •  Burnt  in  670  and  rebuilt-­‐  1300+  yrs.  old   •  32.5m-­‐tall  Five-­‐Story  Pagoda  (Goju-­‐no-­‐ to)  -­‐  the  oldest  five-­‐storied  pagoda  in   Japan   •  Buddhist  temple  built  on  the  ruins  of  a   building  of  607;     •  Work  of  Buddhist  carpenters  from  the   Korean  kingdom  of  Paekche  

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