Invasive plant information for forest owners


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This PowerPoint is the presentation Ernie Sellentin of the Coastal Invasive Plant Committee gave at the Private Forest Landowners Association's annual forestry forum, June 21, 2012 in Langford, British Columbia.

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  • Welcome <click>
  • There are 5 topics that will be covered <click>
  • As per slide <click>
  • - High Risk Sites are those most vulnerable/susceptible to invasion and where the ecological, economic and/or social impacts would be the greatest - The driest, most light dominated and potentially soil disturbed BEC zones/subzones rank highest.- The wettest, darkest, and least disturbed are the lowest risk <click>
  • At the local level, direct proximity to the following areas makes a given site importantThese sites listed here apply to any BEC zone <click>
  • As per slide <click>
  • - FRPA requires that a person carrying out a forest practice must carry out measures that are specified in an operation plan to prevent the introduction or spread of prescribed IPs 42 species are listed in the Invasive Plant Regulation but most are not relevant to coastal BC or DSI, but the following are………. In the near future i.e. within the year, the WCA Regulation will be amended to include a whole array of high priority coastal IP species such as these Shortly thereafter, you will likely see the IP Regulation rescinded and replaced by the WCA Regulation, therefore you best become familiar with locally important species <click>
  • Ungulate Winter Ranges are legally established areas that contains habitat necessary to meet the winter habitat requirements of an ungulate species UWR Requirements: a mix of “escape terrain” (rocky outcrops or cliffs) with good visibility from predators slopes 30-60 degrees mature tree canopies to intercept snow accessible / abundant forage south facing slopes with elevations < 1200 m <click>
  • Wildlife Habitat Areas are legally established areas to protect species vulnerable to human impacts Red Legged Frog particularly sensitive to environmental pollution (skin directly absorbs toxic substances) they require a combination of clean water and intact terrestrial habitat to complete their lifecycles Marbled Murrelets nest in coastal old growth forests with larger branches used for nesting platforms red-listed species provincially & protected federally under SARA (Species At Risk Accord) – the main threat is loss of nesting habitat Scouler`s corydalisherbaceous understory plant growing 0.6 - 1.2 m tall only found on SW Vancouver Island along the Nitnat & Klanawa Rivers and west of Cowichan Lake in a Caycuse West WHA, numerous patches totalling ~10,000 plants occur in a 25.3 ha area <click>
  • Here are WHA statistics for South Island Forest DistrictMeasures include: - do not construct roads or recreational trails within WHA - if authorized, employ sediment control measures to the fullest extent practicable - do not harvest within 100 m of WHA - do not use herbicides within the WHA or adjacent to watercourses flowing into WHA - with Scouler’s Corydalis, if a decision is made to harvest, retain 60% of basal area <click>
  • Highly invasive plants like Scotch broom can be spread by recreationists e.g. ATV’s and hikers Here is a south facing UWR, half way up a mountain side, total overtaken by SB, rendering it useless for use by wildlife SB only needs 1” of soil to grow <click>
  • OGMAs are legally established, spatially-defined areas of old-growth forest identified during landscape unit or operational planning Forest licensees are required to maintain OGMAs when preparing FSPs Characterized by large diameter old trees (250 years +) Contain rich communities of plants & animals due to their long period of forest stability Home to rare, threatened & endangered species of plants & animals Used as a baseline for research <click>
  • Wildlife tree patches are areas dedicated for short-term preservation within each cut block If there is no landscape level plan to dictate otherwise, then a minimum of 7% of the total area is set aside as a WTP WTPs contain a range of tree diameters, but favour the upper 10% of the diameter of the pre-harvest stand and include both live & dead trees that show wildlife use Provides structural diversity via wildlife trees for raptors etc. Typically located in constrained/inoperable areas e.g. in creek gullies <click>
  • Riparian zones are areas of vegetation near streams and riversBenefits include: cool water temperatures through shade  providing food resources e.g. leaves, branches, and terrestrial insects to salmon & trout stabilizing banks through root cohesion of an array of grasses, forbs, shrubs and trees  filters sediment & nutrients from upslope sources  provides coarse woody debris to create pools for rearing fish fry and adding in-stream habitat complexity moderates downstream flood peaks through temporary upstream storage of waterBut: Giant hogweed, knotweed, Policeman’s Helmet, Himalayan blackberry and Reed Canary Grass all negatively affect riparian health through monocultures (exclusion of a native plants) and, in some cases, exacerbate sedimentation <click>  
  • At the landscape level, invasive plants pose risk to watersheds in various ways:Erosion / Siltation Knotweeds Giant hogweedWater Stagnation Yellow flag iris Purple, Yellow and Wand loosestrife Fragrant water lily Eurasian water milfoil Parrots feather Yellow floating heart Reed canary grassAccess Management (e.g. to inspect dams) Himalayan blackberryFire hazard Scotch broom Gorse aka “fire on a stick” <click>
  • Native plants have been part of a healthy indigenous diet over 1000’s of years A western diet has led to many health problems e.g. diabetes, heart disease etc. FN’s recognize the need to get back to eating “original foods” Common and Tall Camas (Camassiaquamash and C. leichtlinii) bulbs provided the bulk of the carbohydrates as many coastal FN’s ate a diet rich in protein only - seafood, fish and game. Camas was essential to balancing their diet. Other foods included berries – Salmonberry, Thimbleberry, Huckleberry, Oregon GrapeThese plants are potentially threatened by the increased spread of knotweed <click>
  • Coastal BC has world-class recreation sites and trails for mountain biking as well as hiking Unfortunately there are many unpermitted trails being built on Crown lands , tracking IP s along with them Education & outreach are needed to advise the public about the potential ramifications of such activity Light and soil disturbance are two key ingredients that allow invasive species to get an initial foothold e.g. at trailheads <click>       
  • Growth & yield permanent sample plots provide high quality, long term, baseline data on growth rates, mortality and changes in stand structure from establishment to maturity or rotation age This data is used to develop yield tables for modelling AAC and for forest management planning Also, there are ~ 9500 BEC research plots scattered across the Coast Forest Region providing important information relating to climate change <click>
  • Pacific yew grows singly in old growth understories but not as pure stands Yew contains taxol which is used in chemotherapy treatments against breast, ovarian, lung cancer <click>
  • It is important to recognize that many of our most problematic IPs have arrived via the horticultural industry – just because they are beautiful or novel Butterfly bush is one such plant, thriving & spreading in both very wet (riverbanks) and very dry environments (quarries) If the plant is dumped along an FSR, it can take off and eventually get into habitats required by a species at risk, resulting in extirpation (local loss) or even extinction Here is oxeye daisy moving along an FSR on Texada Island <click>
  • Operating on the basis of prevention is a tenet of IP management <click>
  • Knotweed can explode along roadsides if measures are not taken to quickly dowse a “flaming ember”, sometimes chemical treatments are necessary <click>
  • As per slide <click>
  • If manual or mechanical controls are used or if soil is disturbed during the course of a forest practice, then prompt establishment of dense, competitive vegetation cover is critical for preventing the rapid colonization of high priority invasive plants The re-vegetation (i.e. grass seeding & fertilizing) window post-soil disturbance is largely dictated by the proximity of high priority IPs and erosion control considerations. 2 growing season months is a good general rule but where priority invasive are close, it should be more immediate, where this is not the case, there is less urgency <click>
  • Use ecologically-suited agronomic grass seed in most roadside / post-harvest scenarios where there is no immediate adjacency to a high site and where there are lots of invasives anyhow, BUT: Pick an agronomic grass seed that is ecologically-suited to the BEC zone that you are working in Use a grade of seed that is Common No. 1 Forage Mixture or better Note that Common No. 1 Forage Mixture has less weed seed than Canada No. 1 (this is counter-intuitive)Describing the desired seed choice to a dealer as “Common No. 1” is insufficient, you must specify “Common No. 1 Forage Mixture” in order to limit potential weed seed <click>
  • as per slide <click>
  • as per slide <click>
  • The following invasive, alien plants have been introduced via wildflower mixtures: Baby's Breath -FRPA species Chicory Dames Rocket Dalmatian & Yellow Toadflax – FRPA species Oxeye Daisy - FRPA species Policeman’s Helmet – high priority CIPC species Queen Anne’s Lace St. John’s Wort - FRPA species Teasel - FRPA species Even “native wildflower” seed mixtures have been known to contain nothing but introduced and potentially invasive species Some have been known to hybridize with native rare or endangered species.Place warning signs for unlawful dumping of garden or household waste and its consequences in strategic locations <click>
  • as per slide clean vehicles regularly e.g. university group turned a clean vehicle around in an infested site and then cleaned it and found thousands of seeds (SK) stuck to the undercarriage While BC is nowhere near the level of sophistication of the US western states or Australia (e.g. this unit worth tens of 1000’s of $$), but washing trucks and capturing plant parts is a considered a standard biosecurity practice   <click>
  • as per slide <click>
  • In the UK, knotweed must be disposed of at a licensed landfill and it must be deep buried 2 pieces of legislation required this In some cases, where this is no risk of people moving plant parts shade can be used to avoid the expense of hauling plants to landfill – it depends of the species biology (e.g. shade tolerance, seed type etc.) <click>
  • IAPP is a web-based database that stores information on comprehensive invasive plant data in BC Used as a recording, tracking and management tool Allows for coordinated, information sharing generated by various agencies involved in invasive plant management Minimizes duplicated efforts, facilitates more efficient development of regional or province-wide species management plans 2 main components - Data Entry module and Map Display module Data Entry module enables users to enter, extract, supply and coordinate data for invasive plant management across BC, including site details, IP inventory information, planning of treatment and monitoring activities etc. Access to the Data Entry module is limited to authorized users <click>
  • Map Display module is an interactive system used for examining IAPP’s data spatially and displays the data entered through the Data Entry module Data is stored with the LRDW Can be accessed by anyone with Internet access Information is refreshed everyday at 1 am – real time data ! Each of these dots contains a 2 letter code e.g. JK for Japanese knotweed Not every species here is a priority IP, “pick your battles carefully” as IPs are everywhere <click>
  • as per slide <click>
  • Dixon Pit, Powell River, Winter abrasive stockpile. Large stockpile now depleted, Buddleja throughout the pit and on the perimeter of the stockpile as indicated by the purple stars. Large dead plants of to the side, presumably removed from the stockpile as materials sourced. Japanese knotweed dumped in the pit, mostly stalks but some root material has established.
  • Canoe Creek on the Tofino Highway. Clean gravel with a few Scotch Broom plants well away from the stockpiles. Broom treated in 2011. Access around the stockpile is great, this is the ideal pit layout.
  • Thank you.
  • Invasive plant information for forest owners

    1. 1. Invasive Plant Information for Private Forest Land Owners by Ernie Sellentin, Coastal Invasive Plant Committee, Project Coordinator
    2. 2. Topics1) Background2) Control Methods3) Values To Protect4) Preventative Practices5) Tools to Use
    3. 3. Acknowledgement of the IssueFacts: Invasive alien species are the second most significant threat toglobal biodiversity (behind human population growth and its related activities) Invasive plants have far-reaching impacts, permanently alteringlandscapes and ecosystem functions, and costing the Canadianeconomy a few billion dollars each year~1855 ha of land are invaded each day by invasive plants in the US Once native plant communities are overtaken and replaced byinvasive plants, impacts are often irreversible and restoration canbe extremely difficult and expensive Preventing invasive plant introduction and spread is critical
    4. 4. Assessing Site Risk LevelLandscape Level: Highest Risk CDFmm, CWHxm (drier, more open forests & where most of the people live) Moderate Risk CWH – ds, dm, ms, mm, ws Lowest Risk CWH – wm, vm, wh (closed, wet forests, few people) MH – mm, wh
    5. 5. Assessing Site Risk LevelLocal Level: Parks & protected areas / Ecological reserves Endangered ecosystems e.g. Garry Oak Ecosystems (CDF) Wildlife Habitat Areas (WHAs) / Ungulate Winter Ranges First Nations spiritual use & native plant collection areas(food, medicine etc.) Along banks of wetlands (including marshes, swamps, fens or bogs, lakes, ponds, rivers, streams, or ditch lines) Uncultivated agricultural land – pastures, rangelands etc. Gravel pits
    6. 6. Assessing Species PriorityDepends on the Species: length of time in a given area i.e. how well established it is how geographically dispersed it is whether it is under biological control (i.e. insects, parasites and pathogens that have been introduced to reduce a target plant population below a desired level) potential ecological, economic and/or social impacts
    7. 7. Species of ImportanceCurrent FRPA Species: Near Future Weed Control Act SpeciesGiant Knotweed Bohemian KnotweedGorse Butterfly BushJapanese Knotweed DaphnePurple Loosestrife English HollyScotch Broom English IvyYellow Flag Iris Giant Hogweed Himalayan Blackberry Himalayan Knotweed Policeman’s Helmet (Himalayan Balsam).....
    8. 8. Manual / Mechanical Control
    9. 9. But there are tradeoffs…….
    10. 10. For Some Plants…….
    11. 11. Biological Control Dalmation toadflax, Mecnus janthus
    12. 12. Bio-control in a DecadeYear 1Year 2Year 10
    13. 13. Chemical Control Cut & Insert Stem InjectionFoliar Backpack Spraying
    14. 14. Combining Treatment Methods Examples:1. Manual treatment – then - Backpack foliar spray2. Establish containment line & use bio-control inside it - then - Manual treatments for “escapes” outside the line3. Stem inject down PFZ - then - Mechanical control down to the high water mark of a riparian area – then prompt restoration with native species
    15. 15. Ungulate Winter Ranges Black Tailed Deer Roosevelt Elk Mountain Goat
    16. 16. Wildlife Habitat AreasMarbled Murrelet Scouler`s Corydalis Red Legged Frog
    17. 17. South Island Forest District WHA Statistics
    18. 18. Scotch Broom Needs Only 1” Soil
    19. 19. Old Growth Management Areas
    20. 20. Wildlife Tree Patches
    21. 21. Riparian Zone Health Threats Yellow Flag Iris Policeman’s Helmet
    22. 22. Community Watersheds
    23. 23. First Nations Values
    24. 24. Recreation Trails
    25. 25. Permanent Sample Plots (G&Y, BEC etc.)
    26. 26. Pacific Yew – Cancer Cure
    27. 27. Connecting the Dots Butterfly Bush Along a Forest Service Road
    28. 28. Dowsing Flaming Embers
    29. 29. Dowsing More Flaming Embers
    30. 30. Some Preventative Practices1. Avoid parking, turning around or staging equipment in invasive plant infested areas2. Procure gravel that is weed free (seeds or plant parts)3. Inspect clothing, and vehicle/equipment undercarriages, then clean thoroughly if working in an area infested with high priority IPs (e.g. SK)4. Treat high priority invasive plants on road building and timber harvesting projects before activities commence5. Minimize roadside disturbance & retain desirable vegetation e.g. when ditch cleaning, side cast to spread a thin layer of material to allow native plants to continue to survive (as opposed to smothering them)6. Educate mowing & brushing equipment operators to recognize high priority invasive plants so that they are not spread (e.g. JK reproduces primarily by cuttings, and mowing and ditch cleaning operations can exacerbate spread)7. Place warning signs for unlawful dumping of garden or household waste and its consequences in strategic locations
    31. 31. Prompt Re-vegetation is KeySo what defines “prompt”?!• Concurrent grass seeding & fertilizing after soil disturbance along or in areas not scheduled for reforestation• 2 growing season months is a good general rule but where priority invasive are close by, it should be more immediate, where this is not the case, there is less urgency
    32. 32. Grass Seed Mixtures Agronomic SeedWhere?- Most roadside / post-harvest scenarios- There is no immediate adjacency to a high risk site (there are lots of invasives anyhow)But ensure: - Seed is ecologically-suited to the BEC zone- Use a grade of seed that is Common No. 1 Forage Mixture
    33. 33. Grass Seed Mixtures Agronomic Seed Cont’dSodgrass Dominant Mixtures Forms continuous mat to better resist IP spread Useful around culverts & other erosion prone areas Useful in areas with close proximity to already established IP populationsBunchgrass Dominant Mixtures Allow native plants to fill in amongst the clumps Useful in areas more distant from established IP populations
    34. 34. Grass Seed MixturesNative SeedWhere? - Adjacency to high value ecological areas where retention of local biodiversity is vital e.g. WHARemember: - To select for BEC/altitude/biome - Bunchgrasses allow for better ingress than sodgrasses - Native seed is much more expensive than agronomic
    35. 35. AVOID WILDFLOWER MIXTURES Chicory Cichorium intybus Dames Rocket Hesperis matronalisLOADED with invasive plant seeds !!
    36. 36. Sanitation Measures Never stockpile contaminated soil or plant material within 10 m of a watercourse Clean vehicles/equipment used in infested areas Note: in other jurisdictions cleaning is via expensive, portable units that spray pressure treated water which is captured and run through a settlement tank to remove any soil before passing it through a very fine mesh sieve to remove seeds or plant material . Captured seeds & plant parts are sent to the landfill.
    37. 37. Disposal – The Often Overlooked MeasureRemember - Priority Invasive Plants Typically Possess: very hard, viable, hooked, winged, floating seeds ability to reproduce vegetativelyTherefore: Either treat and dispose of plant in situ or move to a common disposal area e.g. a landfill At landfill – use deep burial, do NOT put IPs (or contaminated soil) in the compost stream
    38. 38. Options Shade
    39. 39. Tools to Learn to Use -IAPP Application Sign up for free, all day IAPP Training here at DSI at end of April / first of May 2011
    40. 40. Tools to Learn to Use –Map Display
    41. 41. Tools to Learn to Use –Report-A-Weed (3 easy steps)1. Enter species location as:• UTM Zone, Easting and Northing or• Longitude (DMS) and Latitude (DMS) or• Use standard map tools to zoom & mark position on map2. Pick species from drop down menu – Enter area (m2) – Give a location description & comments3. Confirm above and press “Enter”
    42. 42. Winterabrasivestockpile JKPowellRiver
    43. 43. Knotweeds Gorse Scotch Broom Spanish Broom Buddleja davidii Spotted Knapweed Meadow Knapweed Tansy Ragwort Common Tansy Canada thistle Bull thistle Dalmatian toadflaxHimalayan blackberry Oxeye daisy St Johns Wort Hawkweeds
    44. 44. Golden Bamboo, Texa da Island, Imperial Limestone Quarry
    45. 45. Thank You “Everyone Can Be Part of the Solution” orinvasivespeciesspecialist@ 250-702-2492