Section 3-Essential QuestionWhy did conflict arise in NorthAmerica between France and GreatBritain?
The French and the British were rivals all over the world.They competed for wealth and resources, trying to form colonies and claim land all over the world. This rivalry led to British and French colonists in America disliking each other. Both countries began to eye the Ohio River Valley, which the French had claimed as their territory.
The French began to attack and drive out British who came into the Ohio River Valley. In the Northeast, the French began to raid villages in New York and Maine.The British, angered by the raids, took the French fort of Louisbourg in Canada, but were forced to return it to maintain peace.
The French and British both knew that the help and friendship of Native American tribes was going to be very valuable to controlling North America. The French had the advantage with Native Americans.The French got along much better with the Native Americans because they were not after land, only fur. They intermarried and held similar lifestyles.
The Iroquois Confederacy was the most powerful group ofNative Americans in the East. 5 groups had made up the Iroquois: The Mohawk, the Seneca, the Cayuga, the Onondaga, and the Oneida.The Tuscarora also joined the Iroquois later on. The Iroquois were able to work around the British and the French and remain independent for a long timebefore finally being forced into allying with the British.
Settlers from Virginia decided to begin to settle the Ohio Valley, which was controlled by the French.A young George Washington was sent by Virginia to demand that the French in the area that the Virginians wanted to settle leave immediately. The French did not comply. Washington was sent again a year later, this time as a Lieutenant Colonel.
Washington led a group of militia back to the Ohio River Valley.He had 150 men, and was told to build a fort where the Allegheny and the Monongahela Rivers met.When he arrived, he discovered that the French were building their own fort in that spot. It was named Ft. Duquesne. Washington was forced to build a small fort nearby, which he named Ft. Necessity.
Washington and his men were severely outnumbered. Washington attacked the French and he and his men were quickly forced to surrender.Washington’s report made him a hero. People were proud that he stood up to the French, even though he was defeated.
While Washington was in the Ohio River Valley, representatives of many of the colonies met in Albany, New York.These representatives were discussing howthey would defend themselves if the French attacked them as well. The result of the meeting was the agreement of the Albany Plan of Union, proposed by Benjamin Franklin. The Albany plan would unite the coloniesinto one government. None of the colonial assemblies approved the plan.
Section 4-Essential QuestionHow did the outcome of the Frenchand Indian War determine whocontrolled North America?
While Washington attempted to attack the French, and while the Albany Plan was beingdiscussed, the French were busy building forts in the Ohio River Valley. The French’s Native Americanallies spread out throughout theregion, allowing them to have apresence from the St. Lawrence River to New Orleans. These alliances and forts were enough to push the British colonies to war.The French and Indian War had begun.
The British colonies fought the French alone in 1753 The British government did little to help. In 1754 however the British government sent help in the form of troops (redcoats).General Edward Braddock was sent to the British colonies with the mission of driving the French out of the Ohio River valley. The British government was nervous about the forts that were being constructed in the Ohio River valley.
Braddock and his army of 1,400 redcoats began to march back to Ft. Duquesne in 1755. A smaller force of colonial bluecoat militia also went with the British troops. George Washington went along and was an assistant to General Braddock.
Washington realized that the British style offighting was not compatible with fighting in the American frontier.The British marched and fought in straight lines. Their red coats made them stand out in thewoods and frontier that they marched through. On July 9, 1755, the French and their Native American allies ambushed the British while they marched.The French and Native Americans attacked from the safety of the forests on either side of the paths the British marched on. Almost 1,000 British and colonials were killed, including Braddock. Washington led back the defeated British/colonial force.
The fighting in NorthAmerica led the mothercountries of France and Great Britain to go to war. The Seven Years’ War was fought between the two. Prussia, now present- day Germany, joinedthe British to help fight the French. This was a globalconflict. It was fought in Europe, theCaribbean, India, and North America.
Early in the Frenchand Indian War, theBritish were beaten back.British colonists were being raided by the French and Native Americans.Fort Oswego on Lake Ontario and Fort William Henry on Lake George were captured by the French.
William Pitt became the prime minister of Great Britain during the war.Pitt decided the British government would pay for the war effort.Pitt sent Jeffrey Amherst and James Wolfe, both British generals, to America to continue the war effort.The French were defeated at their fort at Louisbourg in 1758. Fort Frontenac on Lake Ontario and Fort Duquesne both were captured by the British. Fort Duquesne was renamed Fort Pitt in honor of William Pitt.
Quebec, in present-day Canada, was the capital of New France.It sat on a cliff over the St. Lawrence River. Because of this it was seen as almost impenetrable.British troops led by James Wolfe were able to find a back road into Quebec that was not guarded well. The British snuck up this path to Quebec and defeated the French army in front of Quebec on what is known as the Plains of Abraham. Both Wolfe and the French general Montcalm were killed during the battle.
General Amherst would capture Montreal soon after Quebec fell.These defeats forced France to begin to consider peace. In 1763, the Treaty of Paris ended the French and Indian War. The Treaty gave Canada and the Ohio River Valley to Great Britain. The British also received Florida fromSpain, who had tried to help the French.Spain got Louisiana, New Orleans, andthe land west of the Mississippi River. This treaty eliminated the French as a power in North America.
Effects of the French and Indian War
The British treated the Native Americans inthe Ohio River valley worse than the French had when they controlled the area. The British pushed Native Americans offtheir land and did not give them money to use it. Pontiac, leader of the Ottawa tribe (near present-day Detroit), tried to unite the Native Americans to fight the British. The Native Americans led by Pontiac captured Detroit in 1763. Many settlersthat came into contact with Pontiac and his followers were killed. Pontiac was defeated in 1765 and waspardoned by the British. He was forced to sign a peace treaty.
To keep the Native Americans and British colonists from butting heads, the British government decided tolimit how far west settlers could go. The Proclamation of 1763 made the Appalachian Mountains the western border of the British colonies. Some people already had bought land further west than this line. Thesespeculators were angry that the British did nothing to protect their claims to the land they bought.