Focus: Why did each side think the Civil War would be won easily?
After the Confederates attacked Ft.Sumter, President Lincoln said that the South was in rebellion. The President asked for 75,000 troops to be raised in the North.States were full of young men eagerto volunteer and Fight in the Union Army. Some states that were still in the Union refused to help Lincoln. Virginia, Arkansas, Tennessee and North Carolina joined theConfederacy in the middle of 1861.The western part of Virginia did not want to secede, and formed West Virginia in 1863.
Another group of states was unsure where their loyalties should lie between the Union (North) and the Confederacy (South). The border states were slave states that remained in the Union. The border states were Delaware, Kentucky, Missouri, and Maryland.Kentucky remained neutral until it was invaded by the Confederacy in 1861, when it decided to join the North.Missouri’s government supported the Confederacy, but many people in the state supported the Union. Union troops were sent to Missouri to keep it supporting the North.President Lincoln declared martial law in Maryland, where supporters of the Confederacy were destroying railroad and telegraph lines. The military was in charge in Maryland and people had fewer rights.
Both sides were confident that they could win the war.Northerners wereexcited that they were fighting to “save the country” or to “preserve the Union.” Southerners comparedthemselves to theFounding Fathers, and the patriotsthat fought in the American Revolution.
The South did have some advantages at the beginning of the Civil War: 1. The South didn’t have to win. -The South only had to remain able to fight. As long as the North didn’t destroy the Confederate Army, the war would have to continue.2. The Confederate Army had better leaders. -Many U.S. Army officers resigned to join the Confederate Army, including Robert E. Lee, Joseph Johnston, and Albert Johnston. 3. The South was fighting on their own land, and defending their homes. -Confederate soldiers would be fighting in areas they grew up in, knowing the terrain and the shortcuts. They would also be fighting to save their homes and families.
The North did had its own advantages at the beginning of the Civil War: 1. The North was the heart of industry.-The North had 110,000 of the 130,000 factories in the U.S. 2. The North used railroads.-The North had twice as much railroad track to move men and supplies. 3. Food was grown in the North.-While the South grew crops, farmland used to grow food was mainly in the North.4. The North had 66% of the people of the United States. -More people = more soldiers. 5. The North had a Navy. -The South had no way to fight the blockade at the beginning of the Civil War.
The North had a battle strategy that involved choking the South to death. Proposed by General-in-Chief Winfield Scott, the Anaconda Plan would use the Union Army to surround and cut off the South. The U.S. Navy would set up a blockade of the Atlantic coast in the South.A blockade wouldn’t allow the South to sell cotton and make money. At the same time, the U.S. Navy wouldassist the Army in securing the Mississippi River, cutting the Confederacy in two.The Union would then divide and conquer the South by cutting it up into smaller pieces.
The South planned a mostly defensive strategy to keep the North fighting.Knowing they didn’t have to conquer the North, the South planned todefend their cities until the North got sick of fighting.A strategy that tries to wear down the enemy until its no longer worth fighting is called a war of attrition.The South also hoped that their trade with European nations like Great Britain would help them to form alliances. This was the same strategy used by the Continental Army during the American Revolution.
Many families were divided during the Civil War.Especially in the border states, families had men fighting on both sides. Families were literally torn apart as each man chose where his loyalties lied. President Lincoln’s wife Mary had 4 brothers… all of them fought for the Confederacy. 75% of the white men ages 18-45 in the South fought for the Confederacy.66% of white men ages 18-45 in the North fought for the Union.
Union General Irvin McDowell wastraining the waves of volunteers that joined the Army in Washington D.C.Pressure from Northern newspaperscovering the war forced the Union totry to attack Virginia and capture the Confederate capital of Richmond sooner than they wanted to. 30,000 Union soldiers met about thesame number of Confederate soldiersat the Bull Run River, near the town of Manassas, Virginia. People in the North didn’t think the war was going to be a big deal and actually followed the Union Army to watch the battle.
The Union Army pushed the Confederates back as the Battle of Bull Run began. As the fighting continued, Confederate General Thomas Jackson rallied his men and kept them from falling back. As his men pointed at him, they noted that he “stood firm like a stone wall.” Stonewall Jackson was born. As the Confederates regrouped, they began to push the Union Army back toward Washington D.C.The Union Army panicked and retreated back toWashington D.C. with all of the people who rode out to watch the fighting. The first round had gone to the Rebels.
Focus: How did the North and South develop and apply new technology?
New technology would make the Civil War more deadly than any previous conflict.These advances in weapons, communication, transportation, naval power, and medicine forced Union and Confederate leaders to reconsider how wars were fought.
Pre Civil War: The 1842 Springfield Smoothbore Musket Introduced in the Civil War: The 1861 Rifled Musket
•Smooth Barrel •Rifled Barrel•3 Rounds/Minute •3 Rounds/Minute•Range of 100 yards •Range of 500 yards •Less Accurate •Increased Accuracy
•10 Rounds/Minute •Rifled Barrel•Range of 1200 yards •30 Rounds/Minute •Range of 1000 yards Amazing Range and Rate of Fire
•Rate of fire increased •Accuracy Increased •Range Increased *These guns are much more lethal than those that came before. *Leads to high casualty battles using outdated tactics.*Revolutionary War and Napoleonic style of fighting now outdated.
• 15,000 miles of telegraph linewere laid for military purposesduring the Civil War• For the first time, the Union Armyorganized men to utilize the newtechnology that was the telegraph.
•The telegraph allowed for drastic changes in battle. INSTANT BETTER SECURITY REPORT RESULTS COMMUNICATION •Orders or dispatches •Results of battles could•Messages, dispatches, a can’t be lost or be sent instantly. nd orders could be intercepted. communicated in a •President Lincoln spent seconds, not hours or •Gen. Lee’s orders were hours in telegraph offices even days. intercepted at Antietam, in Washington listening Order #191 to war reports and •Communication with communications from the observation balloons field. overhead for better planning.
*The Observation Balloon was used by boththe Confederates and the Union in the Civil War for reconnaissance.*First Union military balloon was the Union, launched on August 28, 1861.*Observation balloons could be attached to telegraph lines to communicate instantly with the ground.
• The telegraph allowed for reporters to report back to their offices about the outcome of a battle in no time. •300 reporters followed the battles and the action to report on them •People stayed up to date on the war.•Innovations in printing newspapers allowed for more papers to be printed in less time. William Bullock’s new printing press could print 10,000 newspapers an hour. •Papers printed extra additions as more information would come in.
Prior to the railroad, the quickest way tomove was on water, but it’s really hard to build a river… The railroad allowed for quicker movement of men and materials. 20,000 miles of track were laid in the North compared to only 9,000 in the South.Rail depots become important locations to capture and defend.
The railroad allowed advances in three areas of logistics for Civil War commanders: FASTER SUPPLY QUICKER MOBILIZATION BETTER COORDINATION Supply lines followed Reinforcements could be Made theaters of war railroads, and could be brought in from many bigger because of the created or destroyed miles range a train could deploy troops.Supplies could be moved Troops could bequicker, and could follow maneuvered quicker to Reinforcements could the troops. counter the enemy. arrive quicker.Allowed for faster troop Fought fatigue by not movements because forcing soldiers to march supplies could be every mile. renewed.
Iron, not wood, would be the new material for building ships. Revolution of naval technology and tactics.Former warships made obsolete, and begin to be discounted. The only way to stop an ironclad was with another ironclad. Invention of the rotating turret revolutionized naval tactics.
The USS Monitor and the CSS Virginia, both ironclads, fought each other on March 8, 1862.The Virginia had already destroyed or damaged several wooden U.S. Navy vessels before the Monitor could engage it.The two ships fought each other toa draw, with the Virginia eventually retreating back south. After this battle, all wooden warships in the world were now obsolete. The Union would start using ironclad gunboats to patrol and capture the Mississippi River.
Monitor Virginia Built in 1861 Built in 1856 172 ft. long 275 ft. long 2 Guns 22 Guns Crew of 47 Crew of 320Rotating Turret Battering Ram 320 Tons 987 Tons
Ambulances allowed for quicker patient delivery from battlefield to hospital. Men used to lay on the battlefield for hours or days, until the fighting had ended.The ability to put patients under with anesthesia allowed for more successful and less painful operations.The lethality of the new weapons introduced however made most injuries only curable by the amputation of a limb. Prosthetics were fashioned to replace the lost limb. Reconstructive surgery could also attempt to fix wounds to the face, though it was nowhere as successful as today.
New weapons and technology had made the Civil War more deadly than anything before it. Generals used bayonet charges and long battle lines previous to the Civil War. New rifles and cannons would be able to destroy lines quicker and from further away.Civil War generals now had advanced weapons but outdated tactics (strategy) in which to use them.
After General Irvin McDowell was defeated by the South at the Battle of Bull Run, PresidentLincoln fired him as the leader of the Union forces in the East. President Lincoln appointed General George B. McClellan to take over. McClellan was an excellentorganizer and trainer of soldiers. He was a very cautious commander when it came to fighting the South. President Lincoln grew veryimpatient with McClellan too, as he was hesitant to attack the South.
After pressure from President Lincoln, McClellan finally moved out to attack the Confederatecapital of Richmond. It was hoped this would end the war quickly.After several months of training with no attacks, McClellan’s Army of the Potomac was finallymoved by boat from Washington D.C. to Virginia. Once there McClellan learned that he and his 100,000 soldiers had only a force of 15,000 Confederate soldiers between them and the Confederate capital of Richmond. McClellan landed in Virginia and was fooled by Confederate generals at Yorktown (Where the Revolutionary War ended).McClellan waited a month for reinforcements to his 100,000 men, while the Confederates continued to add troops to Richmond.
McClellan began to marchafter the month wait toward Richmond. McClellan then fought theConfederates at the Battles of Williamsburg, Fair Oaks, and then in a series of battlescalled the Seven Days Battles. No real winner was established, but the Confederates were able tostop the Union from attacking Richmond. Lee and McClellan battled once more at Malvern Hill where Union and The Peninsula Campaign was designed to end the war for theConfederate forces withdrew. Union, but McClellan worked to slow. He was replaced with John Pope as the commander of the Army of the Potomac
Newly appointed leader General Pope took his shot at trying to defeat the Confederate forces in Virginia. Pope took on Generals Stonewall Jackson and JamesLongstreet, who were Robert E. Lee’s best two generals.Thinking he had caught Jackson sneaking into the North, Pope attacked Jackson’s army on the same spot where the 1st Battle of Bull Run occurred.Unfortunate James Longstreet and his 25,000 showed up to even the odds and forced the Union army to retreat again.Pope had been fooled by the Confederates like generals before him.Pope, like McDowell and McClellan before him, had failed to beat the Confederates. Lincoln promptly fired him.
After stopping McClellan and ensuringRichmond was safe, Lee planned to attack the North. McClellan’s men learned of Lee’s plan, which would involve his army being split up.McClellan chose to attack the larger part ofLee’s divided army near Antietam Creek, in Maryland. Lee’s Army was preparing to attack theNorth when McClellan’s forces caught up to him.The Battle of Antietam would soon follow.
Sharpsburg, Maryland was the location of the Battle of Antietam.The Union army attacked the Confederate army all day, resulting in high casualties on both sides.12,000 Union and 14,000 Confederate soldiers were casualties at Antietam, it was the bloodiest day of the Civil War. The Confederate army commanded by Robert E. Lee was torn to pieces and forced to call off their northern invasion.General McClellan, now back in the North, was still too cautious to follow Lee and try to destroy the Army of Northern Virginia. The North claimed a victory because Lee left the battlefield, but really no side was a winner at Antietam.President Lincoln would use the “victory” at Antietam to announce his Emancipation Proclamation.Lee lost 25% of his army at Antietam, and France and Great Britain chose not to help the Confederacy.
General Ulysses S. Grant led the Union forces in the Western theater of the war.Grant was different than generals like McClellan in that he took chances and was much more aggressive. Grant captured Fort Henry and Fort Donelson on the Tennessee and Cumberland Rivers, opening water routes into the Confederacy.As Grant’s army marched toward Corinth, Mississippi, he was attacked by Confederate General Albert Sidney Johnston at the Battle of Shiloh.The Union Army suffered 13,000 casualties and the South almost 13,000. The Confederates had to leave area around Corinth and the Union Armycontrolled western Tennessee and a large portion of the Mississippi River. Admiral David Farragut of the Union Navy attacked New Orleans and captured it, allowed the Union to control most of the Mississippi River. One phase of the Anaconda Plan was complete.
Focus: What were the causes and effects of the Emancipation Proclamation?
Abraham Lincoln was pressured by abolitionists to use the war as a chance to end slavery.Lincoln worried that trying to free the slaves would cause the remaining slave states in the Union (the border states) to join the Confederacy. It was his desire to reunite the Union, not emancipate the slaves.Eventually Lincoln realized that without slaves, the South would be unable to function. Unable to function, the South would have no money to continue the war effort. Lincoln decided to issue a statement to free theslaves, but was advised to wait until the North won a battle to do so. After Antietam, Lincoln had his chance.
On September 22, 1862, Lincoln issued a proclamation that would free the slaves. It would take effect January 1, 1863. The Emancipation Proclamation was set upto free slaves in areas that were still fighting the Union.The border states and southern areas already under northern control were not part of the proclamation.Since the South did not recognize the Union government anymore, the Proclamation freed very few slaves. The Union Army would now be a liberating force as well as a fighting one.
The Union Army would now be usedto help free slaves as well as defeat the South.The Civil War became a battle to end slavery. After the Emancipation Proclamation, the British were no longer interested in helping the South. The British had already outlawed slavery and would not help a government fighting to keep it.African Americans were enthusiasticand began to offer assistance to the Union.
At the beginning of the war, the Union Army did not allow African Americans to join.After the Emancipation Proclamation, many African American men joined the Union Army.Almost 200,000 African Americans joined the Union Army and Navy. Most were free men or men that had been freed by the Proclamation or by the Union Army freeing them as they fought.African Americans were not taken prisoner by the South but instead just killed.African Americans fought in segregated army units that were paid less.One of the most famous was the 54th Massachusetts Infantry.
The African Americans who remained in the South helped the Union by working slower or by refusing to work all together.Many of their masterswere off in the war somanaging plantations was much more difficult.Some even helped byproviding information about Confederatearmies to the Union.
Focus: How were people and politics affected by the Civil War?
Not every person in the North and South supported the actions of their government. Some northerners and southerners were not happy that the war would now be fought over slavery. Some Confederate states like Georgia had disapproved of secession. Areas with lots of slaves supported the war more than areas with fewer slaves.Rich plantation owners would support the Civil War in the South while poorer farmers did not.Some states in the South didn’t like being told what to do by the Confederate government or by other states. Some people in the North didn’t like the Emancipation Proclamation. Other northerners thought the South could legally secede. Democrats in the North who opposed the war were called copperheads.
On both sides of the war, some soldiers deserted (abandoned) the army for personal reasons. Others deserted after being persuaded to by groups encouraging peace.To make sure that these people didn’t leave the army or that others didn’t try to talk people into deserting or not joining the army, Presidents Lincoln and Davis both suspended the right of habeas corpus. Habeas corpus protects against unlawful imprisonment.Those trying to stop or slow down the wareffort could now be thrown in jail without going to court first, or without being told why they were going to jail.
Because so many men deserted the army to go home to takecare of family or farms, both the North and the South instituted a military draft. In the South, men ages 18-35, and eventually 18-50 were eligible to serve in the Confederate Army for 3 years. In the North, men 20-45 were also eligible to serve. In the South, rich men who owned at least 20 slaves could avoid the draft. In the North and South, people could pay a substitute to take their place in the draft. In the North, a person could pay the government $300 to get out of the draft.This led to the war being fought by poor men and freed slaves, angering the lower class enough to cause riots in the North.
Northern factories were constantly making goods for the war effort.While jobs were available, a large portion of the men were off fighting in the war, leading to a shortage of workers.To help pay for the war in the North, Congress passed the first ever income tax in 1861.The North also printed more money. This led to inflation and the prices of goods skyrocketing. The South had fewer goods because of theUnion blockades, making goods more rare and prices higher. Food prices went up in the South because the Union Army marched through and destroyed fields in the South.
Inflation happens anytime that more money is put into circulation.Because each dollar is equal, issuing more means each is worth less.This means it takes more dollars to buy something than it use to. This is why printing more money doesn’t actually create more money, it creates more dollar bills that are each worth less.
Between the North and the South, 400 women disguised themselves as men in order to fight in the war. Some women became spies in the North and South. Other women stepped into mens’ roles to runbusinesses, farms, and plantations for their men who left. Some women worked in the factories or worked for the government.The stereotypical jobs of teacher and nurse were filled by women during the Civil War in greater numbers. Northern women took great strides in the nursing field, with women such as Elizabeth Blackwell, Dorothea Dix, Harriet Tubman, and Clara Barton all working to improve or train nurses.
Focus: How did Lincoln, his Generals, and the Union finally win the Civil War?
After the Battle of Antietam, the warstarted to go poorlyagain for the North. General McClellanhad caused Robert E. Lee to retreat at Antietam, but hechose not to pursue him. This decision got McClellan fired… again. General AmbroseBurnside was chosento replace McClellan.
Like generals before him, Burnside tried tocapture the Confederate capital of Richmond, Virginia. Burnside had 120,000 men who marched toward Richmond. General Robert E. Lee had 75,000Confederate soldiers, which met Burnside at Fredericksburg, Virginia.Burnside attacked Fredericksburg again and again, marching and charging right at it. The Union lost 13,000 soldiers and the Confederates only 5,000.This defeat and failure to capture Richmond got Burnside fired. General Joseph Hooker replaced Burnside.
“Fighting” Joseph Hooker was determined to destroy General Robert E. Lee and his army.In 1863, Hooker marched troops against Richmond like Burnside had done, meeting the Confederates at the town of Chancellorsville, Virginia.Again the Confederates smashed the Union Army, forcing it to retreat. While the battle was won by the Confederates, upon returning back to the Confederate camp, General Thomas “Stonewall”Jackson was accidentally shot and killed by his men.
General Lee saw the victories at Fredericksburg and Chancellorsville as an opportunity to take a chance in attacking the North for a second time. Hoping to make the North stop fighting, Lee invaded into Pennsylvania.General George Meade had replaced General Hooker, who was fired after the Battle of Chancellorsville. Lee sent part of his army into the area around Gettysburg,Pennsylvania to look for shoes, food, and ammunition for the army.Instead they ran into part of the Union Army commanded by Meade. Fighting began and more and more troops showed up to join the fight from both sides.By the next day 85,000 Union and 75,000 Confederate troops faced off at Gettysburg.
Over the course of July 1-3, 1863, Confederate forces attempted to attack the Union lines. On July 3, General Robert E. Lee ordered an attack right in the middle of the Union troops. The attack, led by General George E. Pickett, took the Confederates across an open field a mile long.Union troops destroyed half of the 15,000 men who attacked.Only a few hundred survived what is now known as Pickett’s Charge. As the dust settled at Gettysburg, the Confederacy lost 28,000 troops and the Union lost 23,000.The Union finally had a strong victory over Lee.
President Lincoln had made his way toGettysburg in November of 1863 to pay hisrespects to those who died there earlier in that year. In a ceremony to make part of the battlefield a cemetery for dead soldiers, Lincoln gave his famous Gettysburg Address. Lincoln said that the soldiers who fought could not be allowed to die for noreason, and that the war must be won for them. He pointed out that while soon people wouldn’t remember his speech, peoplewould “never forget what they did here.” His speech is one of the most famous in American history.
As General Meade won at Gettysburg, the Union wasalso winning a major battle in the West at Vicksburg, Mississippi.Vicksburg was vital to the Confederates because it was the last stronghold on the Mississippi River.If it fell to the Union, the entire Mississippi River would be under the control of the Union.General Grant had decided to lay a siege to Vicksburg, and starve out the Confederates.After six weeks of Union cannon fire and no food, the Confederates surrendered. The Union had total control of the Mississippi River.Gettysburg and Vicksburg were a turning point during the Civil War, as the Union prepared for victory.
In 1864, after his successes in the West, General Grant replaced General Meade as the commander of the Union Army.Grant decided that no matter the cost he would finally capture Richmond, the Confederate capital. Grant began fighting Lee in Virginia in 1864. He continued to fight even though he wasn’t getting closer to Richmond.Grant knew that Lee had a harder time replacing his troops than he did. While Grant battled Lee, he sent General William T. Sherman with the task of capturing Atlanta. Sherman was told to destroy anything he felt would help theConfederacy, such as food, farms, weapons, railroads, and fields. The idea of fighting and destroying more than just armies, buttargeting people, resources, and attempting to demoralize them is called total war.
In the middle of 1864, General Sherman reached Atlanta and set it on fire.After making sure Atlanta would no longer be aproblem, Sherman marched hismen from Atlanta to the AtlanticOcean, destroying anything the Confederates used to continue to fight.Sherman’s success helped to get Abraham Lincoln reelected in 1864.After reaching the sea, Shermanmarched to help General Grant end the war.
In April of 1865, Grant and his forces captured Richmond. General Lee soon realized he wassurrounded and agreed to surrender to Grant. The two men met at Appomattox Courthouse, Virginia. Grant told Lee his men mustsurrender their weapons and leave peacefully. The surrender marked the end of the war, and the process of reconstructing the country could begin.
In all, over 260,000 Confederate and360,000 Union troops died during the war. Another 500,000 were wounded. Slavery was now dead in the UnitedStates, but questions about the future of freed slaves remained.The nation was to be reunited, but it would take a long time before the country was truly whole again. It would take another century forAfrican Americans to truly take theirplace as equals in the United States.