Section 1-Essential QuestionWhy did the English settle in NorthAmerica?
England (Protestant) and Spain (Catholic) had been having issues with each other since the beginnings of exploration.King Philip II of Spain wanted to have an English monarch who was Catholic. He didn’t believe that Queen Elizabeth of England was truly the Queen. Francis Drake, an English adventurer and sea captain, attacked Spanish ships and ports much like a pirate would. Queen Elizabeth rewarded his service by knighting him (Sir Francis Drake). King Phillip ordered his Armada to attack England. In 1588, the Spanish Armada was virtually destroyed, ending Spain’s time as the most powerful country in Europe.
Sir Walter Raleigh was sent by Queen Elizabeth in 1584 to North America.The first group of people had a rough time surviving on Roanoke Island, off the coast of present- day North Carolina. A few years later, more settlers were sent to Roanoke. Eventually the Roanoke settlers would disappear, never to be heard from again.
Many groups tried to get King James I of England to grant them charters to settle in North America.The Virginia Company was one such group. It was a joint-stock company. Investors bought stock hoping that the company would make money in riches, fishes, and furs. The Virginia Company sent a group of settlers to the Chesapeake Bay area in 1606.
Jamestown was formed by the Virginia Company settlers, and led by Captain John Smith. Smith helped organize and explore, and conduct relations with local Native Americans. Chief Powhatan and Smith were able to negotiate to give the settlers corn.Smith had to leave in 1609, and Jamestown had no real leader. This was called the “starving time.” Settlers also fought with the Indians. The colony began to make money when it decided to start growing tobacco.
Relations with the Native Americanseventually improved. John Rolfe, anEnglish colonist, married Pocahontas, daughter of Chief Powhatan.Anyone who was able to pay their ownway across the Atlantic to Jamestownwas given a headright, or land grant to live and farm on. The House of Burgesses began meeting in 1619. The burgesses wererepresentatives that made laws for the colony.Slavery was allowed by laws in Virginia by 1660. Jamestown became a royal colony in 1624.
Section 2-Essential QuestionWhy did the Separatists and Puritansleave England and settle in NorthAmerica?
The people who began to settle North America after the Jamestown settlers came to practice their religion freely.Some people dissented, or disagreed with the path that the new Anglican Church was taking. Protestants who wanted to reform the Anglican Church were known as Puritans.Other Protestants who wanted to leave and practice their religion on their own were known as Separatists. Separatists were persecuted (harassed) in England. They went to the Netherlands to find religious freedom.
A group of Separatists decided to go to Virginia after making a deal with the Virginia Company. These Separatists were the Pilgrims. Their journey was a pilgrimage, or religious journey.102 passengers boarded a ship called the Mayflower, even though only about a third of them were Pilgrims. They left in 1620. The Pilgrims set up Plymouth colony, in present day Massachusetts.
The Pilgrims planned to go to Virginia… but they ended up in Cape Cod, far north of Virginia. They were forced to make camp for the winter. William Bradford was the leader of the Pilgrims. Before the Pilgrims landed, they created a document known as the Mayflower Compact.The Compact pledged their loyalty to England, set up a civil government, and ensured that all people who signed it would follow the laws that were decided upon.
The Pilgrims suffered and endured hardships during their first winter. Two Native Americans, Squanto and Samoset, helped the Pilgrims during their first winter.The Pilgrims learned how to farm and fish from the Native Americans. They also made peace with the Wampanoag tribe and its leader Massasoit.
In 1625, King Charles I became the King of England. King Charles disliked the Puritans and their desire to change the Anglican Church. Persecution of Puritans led to the formation of the Massachusetts Bay Company.This company was given a charter to settle north of Plymouth Colony, John Winthrop would be the leader.
More than 15,000 Puritans would go to Massachusetts through the 1630’s. This large movement of Puritans was known as the Great Migration.The Massachusetts Bay Colony had a General Court, which would eventually become an elected assembly. Puritans persecuted people with other beliefs, even though they had left England because of persecution.
A group of Puritans grew unhappy with John Winthrop and the Massachusetts Bay Colony.Led by Thomas Hooker, they moved to the Connecticut area and formed the town of Hartford. The Fundamental Orders of Connecticut formed the government. The Fundamental Orders was the first written constitution in America.
Roger Williams also took a group from Massachusetts and moved to the Rhode Island area.Williams believed in toleration of religion as well as good relations with the Native Americans. Williams was banished from Massachusetts in 1635. All people were able to worship in the colony what Williams set up.
Conflicts between colonists and Native Americanswere usually over the settling of Native American land.Connecticut went to war over murders of colonists in 1636. In 1675, Metacom, also known as King Philip, ledthe Wampanoag tribe into war with the settlers of New England.Metacom wanted settlers to stay off his land. His tribe was eventually defeated.
Section 3-Essential QuestionHow did the Middle Coloniesdevelop?
The English were settling the areas in yellow (New England Colonies) and red (Southern Colonies)The Dutch settled the green area (The Middle Colonies) The main Dutch settlement was New Netherlands on the island of Manhattan.People who were able to bring over 50 or more settlers with them to the Dutch colonies were given largeestates. These people who owned andruled the estates were called patroons.
The English wanted to take the lands that the Dutch controlled because of the valuable river and sea trade that existed there. In 1664, an English fleet was sent to try to take the colonies from the Dutch. Peter Stuyvesant, the governor of the Dutch colonies, was not ready to fight the English and surrendered to them to avoid fighting.
King Charles II gave New Netherlands to his brother, the Duke of York. He renamed it New York.New York was a proprietary colony because it was all owned, controlled, and governed by one person. New Amsterdam would be renamed New York City.
The Duke of York gave the southern part of New York to 2 men who named it New Jersey. Jersey is an island in the English Channel.New Jersey promised freedom of religion, trial by jury, and a representative assembly to attract colonists. New Jersey became a place of ethnic and religious diversity.
William Penn was an English Quaker who was given land by the King to settle a debt.Penn decided to take his land in North America to set up a “religious experiment.”The Quakers, or Society of Friends, believed in equality for all, and were pacifists. Penn designed and oversaw the building on Pennsylvania.Penn also believed in paying Native Americans for their land because it was theirs first. The Charter of Liberties in 1701 granted the right to elect representatives to the Pennsylvania legislature to the colonists. Part of Pennsylvania would separate after the English assumed control of it. This would become the colony of Delaware.
Section 4-Essential QuestionHow and why did the SouthernColonies grow?
Some people came to North America not by choice but by force.African rulers traded their prisoners of war as slaves to the Europeans to be used for labor in the colonies. The English sent their prisoners to North America too. Others came as indentured servants, who worked for free for a period of time in exchange for their passage to North America being paid for.
Lord Baltimore was given a piece of land north of Virginia to run a proprietary colony.Baltimore was Catholic, and wanted a place for other English Catholics to be able to live without persecution.Lord Baltimore died before his charter was approved, his son Cecilius took over and named the colony his father was given Maryland.
The Calverts who ran Maryland and the Penns who ran Pennsylvania disputed the border between their two colonies.Charles Mason, an astronomer, and Jeremiah Dixon, a surveyor, were called in to settle the dispute and to establish the border. The border became known as the Mason-Dixon Line.
More and more people were moving to Virginia.As more people came, they moved further and further onto lands that the Native Americans were using or living on. To try to keep peace, Virginia governor William Berkeley asked the Native Americans for land and promised not to take anymore land. Some people like Nathaniel Bacon moved onto that land anyways. Bacon attacked Native American villages to protectthemselves. He was angry that the government was doing nothing to protect them. Bacon also attacked Jamestown and would have assumed control if he had not suddenly died. England sent over troops to restore order after Bacon’s Rebellion.
In 1663, King Charles II created a new colony that he named after himself, Carolina. Carolina is Latin for “Charles’s Land..” John Locke, an English philosopher, wrote a constitution for Carolina. Carolina would be divided in half, into North and South Carolina. North Carolina grew tobacco and sold timber and tar. South Carolina had good farmland and produced deerskin, lumber and beef.Rice and indigo were both grown in the Carolinas. Rice needed lots of slave labor.
Georgia was the last of the 13 original British colonies in North America. James Oglethrope founded Georgia for debtors who needed a fresh start.Georgia was also the closest to the Spanish territory in Florida. They built forts around Savannah to protect themselves. Oglethrope was not liked because of his rules on slaves and rum. Eventually Georgia became a royal colony.
The French founded Quebec in 1608. The French didn’t build large settlements because they were interested in fur.New France became a royal colony in 1663.
Louis Joliet, Jacques Marquette, and Robert La Salle all helped to explore New France.Joliet and Marquette explored the Mississippi River in a canoe.La Salle explored the Mississippi allthe way to the Gulf of Mexico. He claimed the area in the South and named in Louisiana.New Orleans was founded in 1718 at the mouth of the Mississippi.
Farmers in New France were tenant farmers. The French also got along with the Native Americans better. They lived among them due to their desire to trap animals. The French had more respect for Native American culture.Native Americans were not pushed off their lands by the French, and were not forced to change their customs.
The Spanish controlled Mexico, the Caribbean, Central America, and South America. The Spanish also held parts of what is today the American Southwest.The Spanish sent more people and soldiers to what is now New Mexico to protect their interests. When the French claimed Louisiana, the Spanishclaimed the area that is now Texas. They built San Antonio in the early 1700’s. On the west coast they built missions. The Spanish forced Catholicism on the NativeAmericans, and also forced them to work in fields and workshops. These mission settlements became cities like Los Angeles and Monterey.
Anglo-French War, (1689-1697)-Known in Europe as the War of the League of Many wars would be Augsburg AND as the War of the Grand Alliance and in North America as King Williams War. fought between France and England both in Anglo-French War, (1702-1712)-Known in Europe as the War of the Spanish Europe and in North Succession, in North America as Queen Annes War and in India as the First Carnatic War. This conflict also included the Second Abnaki War. The Abnaki America between the Indian tribe allied itself with the French against the English colonists in Northformation of the colonies America. and the American Revolution: Anglo-French War, (1744-1748)-Known in Europe as the War of the Austrian Succession and in North America as King Georges War. Anglo-French War, (1749-1754)-Known in India as the Second Carnatic War. The British East India Company and its Indian allies battled the French East India Company and its Indian allies. Anglo-French War, (1755-1763)-Known in Europe as the Seven Years War and in North America as the French and Indian War. France forever lost possession of Quebec/Canada. In many ways, Englands victory set the stage for the American Revolution. Anglo-French War, (1779-1783)-Also known as the American Revolution. Also involved Spain, the United States and the Netherlands against Britain. Can also be considered as an Anglo-French War, Anglo-Spanish War and a Anglo-Dutch War.