Section 1-Essential QuestionIn what ways did Thomas Jefferson and theRepublicans limit the powers of thegovernment?
The Election of 1800saw incumbentPresident John Adamsrunning against ThomasJeffersonAdams had chosenCharles Pinckney forvice-president, andJefferson had selectedAaron Burr.Both candidates beganto write letters tofamous citizens andnewspapers explainingtheir viewpoints.Neither went aroundthe country tocampaign.
Thomas Jefferson and Aaron Burr tied in 1800 with 73electoral votes.In case of a tie in the presidential election, the Houseof Representatives has the duty of selecting thepresident.The House tried 35 times to vote to break the tie, butcontinued to remain tied themselves.Federalists tried to prevent Jefferson from beingelected by supporting Aaron Burr in the tiebreakervote.Eventually Alexander Hamilton urged federalists tosupport Thomas Jefferson.After Jefferson became president, the Congress passedthe 12th Amendment which called for the presidentand vice-president to be elected on separate ballots.
Thomas Jefferson dressed in normalclothes and walked to hisinauguration.Jefferson called out to bothFederalists and Republicans to createa government that was smaller andthat spent less money.Jefferson thought the federalgovernment should take a backseat tothe states, who he thought wouldprotect freedoms and liberty betterthan the national government.Jefferson supported the laissez-faireapproach, the idea that thegovernment should keep their handsout of things and let the people (andstates) do as they choose.
Thomas Jefferson made Albert Gallatin hisSecretary of the Treasury.Together, they reduced the national debt bycutting down on military spending.Federal taxes like the ones on whiskey wererepealed.Only customs duties (taxes on imports) andselling western lands were methods ofraising money for the government.Finally, Jefferson scaled back the federalgovernment to consist of only a fewhundred people.James Madison became Secretary of State
Toward the end of Adam’s presidency, the Federalist-controlledCongress passed the Judiciary Act of 1801.This act reorganized the federal courts and required morejudges.President Adams appointed hundreds of judges to fill the newpositions before he left office, and made John Marshall the ChiefJustice of the Supreme Court.This shut out Jefferson from picking judges that would agree withhim.Each judge Adams picked had to have his commission deliveredto him. When Jefferson took over, some of the commissions hadnot been delivered.The judges were called “midnight judges” because it took Adamsuntil midnight of his final night in office to appoint all the judges.Jefferson told Secretary of State Madison to stop the deliveries ofthose commissions that had not been sent yet.
One of the judges that didn’t gethis commission was WilliamMarbury.He took his case to the SupremeCourt hoping to be given hiscommission to be a judge.John Marshall, the new SupremeCourt Chief Justice, did not allowMarbury to become a judge.In doing so, Marshall made theSupreme Court much stronger byintroducing the concept ofjudicial review in the court caseof Marbury v. Madison.
Marshall established three ideas when heexpanded the power of the Supreme Court:The Constitution is the supreme law of theland.The Constitution must be followed whenthere is a disagreement between it and anyother law.The Supreme Court can nullify any law itthinks is unconstitutional.All three expanded the power of the federalgovernment, something that Jeffersonwould not have approved of.
Section 2-Essential QuestionHow did the Louisiana Purchase affect thenation’s economy and politics?
In the early 19th Century (1800’s), manyAmericans began to seek a new life in theWest.Pioneers began to go over theAppalachians into the lands of Kentuckyand Tennessee.To the West of the Mississippi River wasthe Louisiana Territory, which was ownedby the Spanish.The Spanish had taken it from the Frenchin the French and Indian War.Pinckney’s Treaty with Spain had allowedthe U.S. and its farmers and pioneers theright to use and trade on the MississippiRiver.
During President Jefferson’s presidency,Spain decided to stop letting Americans usethe Mississippi River.Jefferson discovered that the Spanish weregoing to give Louisiana back to the French.Jefferson worried about the Americansbeing cut off from the Mississippi River, andthat their expansion west would be stopped.Jefferson sent Robert Livingston, theminister (ambassador) to France, to offerNapoleon Bonaparte, emperor of France,$10 million for New Orleans and WestFlorida.Napoleon had plans for an empire in theAmericas and in Europe.
Santo Domingo was an island in the Caribbeancontrolled by the French.Napoleon needed it as a naval base for hisships.Enslaved Africans and other servants on SantoDomingo were inspired by the FrenchRevolution and began to revolt againstplantation owners.Led by Toussaint-Louverture, the rebels tookcontrol of Santo Domingo and renamed it Haiti.Without control of Santo Domingo, Napoleonchanged his mind about an empire in theAmericas.Napoleon was fighting the British back inEurope, and no longer had need of Louisiana.
Robert Livingston and James Monroe, arepresentative for Jefferson in France wereshocked when French foreign minister CharlesTalleyrand said that all of Louisiana was now forsale.Napoleon wanted cash to fight his wars morethan the Louisiana Territory.Monroe and Livingston agreed to a price of $15million for all of Louisiana.Jefferson decided that the treaty-making powersof the president were enough to allow him tofinalize the deal with Napoleon.The Louisiana Purchase doubled the size of theUnited States and would allow farmers andpioneers plenty of land to settle for severaldecades.
The land purchased by Jefferson was virtuallyunexplored.Jefferson asked Congress to provide money foran expedition (exploration mission) into thewestern lands.Jefferson was interested in science and nature,but also was focused on exploring the newlands for future forts and strategic resources.Jefferson was also curious if there was aNorthwest Passage, or a water route thatwould allow Americans to sail to Asia.Meriwether Lewis, Jefferson’s assistant, waschosen to lead the expedition.William Clark, a friend of Lewis’s was chosen tobe co-leader.
Lewis and Clark were botheducated men. They knew howto survey and explore land andrecord their findings.They assembled a crew of menthat were expert sailors,gunsmiths, carpenters, scouts,and cooks.A couple of men who hadFrench and Native Americanancestors served as interpretersfor the expedition.Lewis and Clark set out from St.Louis in 1804.They kept records and madenotes of all findings along theirjourney.
Along the journey, Lewisand Clark met manyNative Americans.One such NativeAmerican was aShoshone womannamed Sacagawea.She served as a guideand interpreter for Lewisand Clark.She helped Lewis andClark to reach the PacificOcean a year and a halfafter they had first setout.
Zebulon Pike ledother expeditionsinto the West in1805 and 1807.Exploring intoColorado, hediscovered GrandPeak, laterrenamed Pike’sPeak.Pike informedAmericans of theGreat Plains andthe RockyMountains afterhis adventureswere made known.
The Federalists opposed buying Louisiana.They were afraid territories and states would formin the new lands that would be loyal to theRepublicans and take away Federalist power.Some Federalists were ready to secede, or leavethe United Sates. These federalists wanted toform a northern confederacy.This movement started in Massachusetts, andexpanded to New York when Federalistssupported Aaron Burr for governor of New York in1804.
Alexander Hamilton had helped Jefferson todefeat Burr for the presidency in 1800.Suspecting that he might help Massachusetts andNew York out of the Union, Hamilton began tospeak out against him.Burr would ultimately lose the election forgovernor in 1804 and held Hamilton responsible.Burr challenged Hamilton to a duel to restore hishonor and pride.Both men were armed with pistols and met inNew Jersey. Hamilton had not planned on firingat Burr.Burr chose to fire at Hamilton, and severelywounded him.Hamilton died the next day.
Traveling on the oceans wasnot the safest thing to do inthe early 19th Century.Storms and pirates presentedproblems for even the ablestcrews.American shipping wasspreading into China, India,and the Mediterranean.When Britain and France wentto war in the late 1700’s,Americans took advantage byfilling in for Europeanmerchants who feared captureor destruction.
Many ships were victims of the Barbary Pirates.The pirates came from the Barbary States ofnorthern Africa.Morocco, Algiers, Tripoli, and Tunis were allBarbary states.These pirates sailed the Mediterranean Sea anddemanded tribute, or protection money, inorder to safely travel through theMediterranean.The ruler of Tripoli tried to raise the amount oftribute that the United States paid to try tomake more money off of American trade.President Jefferson refused to pay more moneyto the pirates, provoking Tripoli to declare waron the United States.
Jefferson sent the brand new U.S.Navy to blockade Tripoli.One of the ships, the Philadelphia,was captured by the pirates.The crew was captured and jailed, butthe captain, Stephen Decatur,managed to burn the Philadelphia toprevent the pirates from using itagainst the U.S.Eventually the fighting ended and thecrew of the Philadelphia wasreturned. It cost the U.S. $60,000 forthe crew to be returned.Americans no longer had to paytribute however after fighting off theBarbary Pirates.
Long time enemies Britain andFrance went to war again in 1803.Wars were being fought againstFrench Ruler Napoleon and hisdreams for a European empire.The U.S. chose to remain neutral,which would allow their merchantsto trade with both countries.They would also enjoy neutralrights, allowing them to sail theoceans without fear of attackbecause they did not choose sides.As France and Britain continuedfighting, both sides began topresent problems for Americanmerchants trading abroad.
The British Navy was always in needof sailors.Being a sailor in the Royal Navy couldbe so bad that some sailors woulddesert their ships.Some of these sailors found theirway to America to sail in Americancrews.British ships began to stop Americanships to see if any of their desertingcrew members were on board.Forcing sailors to serve in the BritishNavy was known as impressment,and had been going on since the U.S.became independent.
The British would wait for American shipsoutside American ports to try and searchthem for deserting crew members.A British warship called the Leopard did thisvery thing to a U.S. ship called theChesapeake.When the Chesapeake’s captain refused to letthe British search the ship, it was fired upon.3 Americans were killed and the Chesapeakewas badly damaged.Americans became nearly as mad at theBritish as they were during the AmericanRevolution.The people wanted war, but Jefferson lookedto find a way to avoid war with Great Britain.
Though short of going to war,the Americans did do things toshow the British they wereupset.The Embargo Act was passed in1807, banning all imports fromand exports to anothercountry.This law destroyed Americantrade and did not stop theBritish from getting Americangoods.The Nonintercourse Acts werepassed instead to ban tradewith Britain, France, and thecolonies of both.
Thomas Jeffersonfollowed the precedentof Washington anddecided not to run for athird term as president.James Madison waschosen to run forpresident by theRepublicans.Charles Pinckney waschosen by theFederalists.Madison carried most ofthe country (minus NewEngland) to win theelection 122-47.
Like many presidents after him, Madison took officewith many issues to deal with.The British and the French were both treatingAmerican ships with no respect.Both seized ships and cargo, selling them for money.In 1810, Congress decided that it would lift theembargo on whichever of the two countries that firstdemonstrated it would allow American ships totravel safely on the oceans.Napoleon decided that France would be the countryto allow the Americans to trade again, butunfortunately they continued to seize ships.Americans felt it was time to fight, but were not sureon whether or not it was France or Britain that wasthe enemy.
More and more settlers were moving to places like Ohio.Lands promised to Native Americans in treaties signedwith the U.S. were in danger of being taken by thesettlers.Some Native Americans looked for help from the Britishas they had in the past.One Shawnee tribe leader, Tecumseh, decided instead toally many Native American tribes in the Northwest.Tecumseh hoped a strong Native American confederationwith the support of the British in Canada would be astrong enough force to deal with the settlers.Tecumseh had a brother who was nicknamed “TheProphet” that spoke to Native Americans and convincedthem to try to return to their ancestors’ ways.
The Prophet founded Prophetstown in present-day Indiana.William Henry Harrison, the governor of the IndianaTerritory was worried about Tecumseh and his growingNative American alliance.He sent a letter warning the Native Americans of what warwith the U.S. would mean.Tecumseh said peace could not continue with the NativeAmericans being continually pushed off of their lands.Harrison attacked Tecumseh as he continued to build hisalliance.They met at Prophetstown which is located near theTippecanoe River.Harrison defeated Tecumseh at the Battle of Tippecanoe,but it forced Tecumseh to turn to the British for help.
A group of young Republicans wanted harsher treatment for Britainbecause of their actions on the seas and the help they gave the NativeAmericans.The War Hawks as they were known were led by Henry Clay ofKentucky and John C. Calhoun of South Carolina.War Hawks wanted a stronger military and more land for the country.The War Hawks wanted to expand the U.S. and snatch up landbelonging to Spain and Britain.The War Hawks had a strong sense of nationalism, or loyalty to theU.S.By the middle of 1812, James Madison finally asked Congress todeclare war on Great Britain for all of the actions taken against the U.S.Unfortunately, at about the same time, Britain began to stop some ofthe policies that were angering the Americans, but news traveled toolate.
The War Hawks believed that the U.S.could quickly defeat the British in a war.They failed to realize however that theU.S. was not ready to fight.There were only 7,000 soldiers in theregular U.S. Army.There were also only between 50,000and 100,000 militia that were not well-trained.Some people supported fighting theBritish while others didn’t.Dubbed by some “Mr. Madison’s War”because they did not agree withfighting the British, the War of 1812began in July of 1812.
Early in the war, the U.S.tried to attack BritishCanada.General William Hull andGeneral William HenryHarrison both attackedCanada.Hull was defeated by theBritish with the help ofTecumseh. Harrisonknew that withoutcontrol of Lake Erie, theAmericans could notattack Canada.
Oliver Hazard Perry was the commander of Americannaval forces on Lake Erie.His squadron fought the British on Lake Erie in 1813,defeating them.He let General Harrison know that he had “met theenemy, and they are ours.”By capturing Lake Erie, the U.S. was able to retakeDetroit and protect themselves from British invasion.The U.S. had some of the best frigates afloat. Theywere the fastest ships of their kind.One of these was the famous U.S.S. Constitution,which had fought the Barbary Pirates.American privateers also captured British ships on theseas, and gave Americans something to cheer about.
Trying to retreatfrom Detroitafter the fightingon Lake Erie, theBritish were cutoff by GeneralWilliam HenryHarrison.In the Battle ofThames, NativeAmerican leaderTecumseh waskilled.Tecumseh’sdeath dealt ahuge blow to theNative Americanalliance.
Andrew Jackson wasan U.S. Army officerwho was sent to fightthe Creek Indians,the latest additionsto Tecumsehs NativeAmerican alliance.He fought the Creeksat the Battle ofHorseshoe Bend inMarch of 1814.The Creeks weremassacred andJackson forced themto surrender theirland.
In August of 1814, the Britishsailed into Chesapeake Bay withthe intention of capturingWashington D.C.They quickly defeated the militiaaround Washington D.C. andmarched into the city.All the government buildingswere destroyed including theCapitol and the president’smansion.A thunderstorm slowed thedestruction, but the low point ofthe war came as Washington D.C.went up in flames.
The British did not stay in WashingtonD.C. after the attack.Instead they moved north toBaltimore, Maryland.Ft. McHenry, which defended theharbor of Baltimore, defended thecity from attack successfully.It was from this harbor that FrancisScott Key watched the attack from theBritish ships against the fort andwould later write a poem called “TheDefense of Ft. McHenry.”Set to music later on, it wouldbecome our national anthem, the StarSpangled Banner.
Lake Champlain saw anotherBritish naval and army forcedefeated by the Americans.Trying to get into New York, theBritish were stopped byAmerican ships on LakeChamplain.The British fled back to Canada,worried they could end upsurrounded.Worried continued invasionsinto the U.S. would be toocostly, the British decided to tryto get the Americans to endthe war peacefully.
In December of 1814, the British and Americans metin Ghent, a city in Belgium.There they agreed to the Treaty of Ghent, which didnothing to change borders, deal with impressment,or handle the rights of American ships on the seas.All it did was end the War of 1812… or did it?Before news of the peace got back to North America,the U.S. and British met at New Orleans.Andrew Jackson barricaded his men on the edges ofthe cities and waited the Redcoats.Hiding and taking cover, the Americans moweddown the British at the Battle of New Orleans.Jackson became a hero because of the battle, whichwould help his political career later in life.
The Federalists who opposed the war looked unpatriotic to the nation and began to lose favorwith the people.Their ideas about strong central government were picked up by the Republican War Hawks.