4. Content Organization <ul><li>In this chapter you will learn about: </li></ul><ul><li>Organizational schemes:  classific...
<ul><li>You have a mass of content that you want your users to be able to find </li></ul>Graphic overview: scheme and stru...
How to Organize so Users Can Find Things? <ul><li>First, group related things, forming the groups  in terms of the way use...
This is an  organizational scheme <ul><li>Now give names to the groups, or have the users do that </li></ul>Chapter 4: Con...
Next: how do the groups relate to each other?  <ul><li>Perhaps in a hierarchy: </li></ul>Chapter 4: Content Organization C...
How do the groups relate to each other, continued <ul><li>Perhaps with hyperlinks: </li></ul>Chapter 4: Content Organizati...
Those are two  organizational structures <ul><li>Remember: </li></ul><ul><li>A  scheme  groups similar things together </l...
4.2 Organizational Schemes <ul><li>Familiar in everyday life: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Phone book </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>...
These are  exact  organizational schemes <ul><li>Alphabetical:  Example: phone book </li></ul><ul><li>Chronological:  Exam...
Not always possible <ul><li>Where can I find sardines packed in water, with no salt added? </li></ul><ul><ul><li>In the ca...
Supermarket is an example of an  ambiguous  organizational scheme <ul><li>“ Ambiguous” describe organizational situations ...
Topical organizational scheme <ul><li>Organizes content by subject </li></ul><ul><li>Examples: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Libra...
Topical organizational scheme:  http://www.worldbank.org/ Chapter 4: Content Organization Copyright © 2004 by Prentice Hall
Task-Oriented Organizational Scheme  <ul><li>Organizes content by what user wants to do. </li></ul>Chapter 4: Content Orga...
Task-oriented organizational scheme  Chapter 4: Content Organization Copyright © 2004 by Prentice Hall Example: Autobytel....
Audience-specific organizational scheme <ul><li>Useful when there are two or more distinct user groups </li></ul><ul><li>U...
Audience-specific organizational scheme Chapter 4: Content Organization Copyright © 2004 by Prentice Hall Example: BMO Fin...
Audience-specific organizational scheme <ul><li>Can be impossible to represent the depth and breadth of site content in a ...
Metaphor-driven organizational scheme <ul><li>http://www.jkrowling.com/   </li></ul>Chapter 4: Content Organization Copyri...
Metaphor-driven organizational scheme  <ul><li>Shows group by a visual metaphor. </li></ul><ul><li>Not many examples, beca...
See the problem? <ul><li>This is a hamster, but what if your user thinks it’s a rat, and hates rats? </li></ul>Chapter 4: ...
Hybrid organizational scheme  <ul><li>Combines multiple organizational schemes </li></ul><ul><li>Quite common, but must be...
Hybrid organizational scheme example Chapter 4: Content Organization Copyright © 2004 by Prentice Hall Example: Nordstrom
Hybrid organizational scheme example   www.iastate.edu   Chapter 4: Content Organization Copyright © 2004 by Prentice Hall
4.3 Organizational Structures <ul><li>Review: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Organizational schemes create groups </li></ul></ul><u...
Types of organizational structures <ul><li>Hierarchy </li></ul><ul><li>Hypertext </li></ul><ul><li>Database </li></ul><ul>...
Hierarchical organizational structure <ul><li>Structuring by rank or level </li></ul><ul><li>A tree, in computer science t...
An organization chart is a hierarchy Chapter 4: Content Organization Copyright © 2004 by Prentice Hall Manufacturing Marke...
Definitions <ul><li>Breadth of a hierarchy:  the number of links available at each level </li></ul><ul><li>Depth of a hier...
Hypertext organizational structures <ul><li>Almost always combined with other structures </li></ul><ul><li>Consists of add...
Database organizational structures <ul><li>Database organizational structure provides a bottom-up view, whereas a hierarch...
Database example: selecting a car model Chapter 4: Content Organization Copyright © 2004 by Prentice Hall
Controlled vocabulary <ul><li>Predetermined set of terms that describe a specific domain </li></ul><ul><li>There are no sy...
Thesaurus <ul><li>Contains  </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Synonyms  </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Broader terms  </li></ul></ul><ul><...
4.5 Research and Interview Techniques <ul><li>Problem: how do you know what your users’ categories are? </li></ul><ul><ul>...
Card sorting provides an answer <ul><li>Devise a list of about 40 questions that a user might have.  Or can place 40 nouns...
Example: Choir Task Analyses <ul><li>Keeping track of attendance </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Create attendance sheet </li></ul><...
Example: Find nouns  <ul><ul><li>Create attendance sheet </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Add/remove members as necessary </li><...
Example: Cards <ul><li>Place one of the following on a card </li></ul><ul><ul><li>attendance,  </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>...
Example: Users make piles <ul><li>Example 1 </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Members </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Rehearsal night </li>...
Cluster analysis <ul><li>Can be done “be eyeball,” just looking at the piles for patterns </li></ul><ul><li>Much better: u...
Summary <ul><li>In this chapter you learned about: </li></ul><ul><li>Organizational schemes:  classification systems for o...
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  • Chapter 4: Content Organization Copyright © 2004 by Prentice Hall
  • Chapter 4: Content Organization Copyright © 2004 by Prentice Hall
  • Chapter 4: Content Organization Copyright © 2004 by Prentice Hall
  • Chapter 4: Content Organization Copyright © 2004 by Prentice Hall
  • Chapter 4: Content Organization Copyright © 2004 by Prentice Hall
  • Chapter 4: Content Organization Copyright © 2004 by Prentice Hall
  • Chapter 4: Content Organization Copyright © 2004 by Prentice Hall
  • Chapter 4: Content Organization Copyright © 2004 by Prentice Hall
  • 6 3 Organizational Content(Started)

    1. 1. 4. Content Organization <ul><li>In this chapter you will learn about: </li></ul><ul><li>Organizational schemes: classification systems for organizing content into groups </li></ul><ul><li>Organizational structures: defining the relationships among the groups </li></ul><ul><li>Research and interview techniques: How to discover a way to organize things so people can find what they want </li></ul><ul><li>Controlled vocabularies and thesauri </li></ul>Chapter 4: Content Organization Copyright © 2004 by Prentice Hall
    2. 2. <ul><li>You have a mass of content that you want your users to be able to find </li></ul>Graphic overview: scheme and structure Chapter 4: Content Organization Copyright © 2004 by Prentice Hall Fact 1 Fact 13 Fact 12 Fact 11 Fact 10 Fact 9 Fact 8 Fact 5 Fact 7 Fact 6 Fact 3 Fact 4 Fact 2 Fact 14 Fact 15 Fact 16 Fact 17 Fact 18 Fact 19 Fact 20
    3. 3. How to Organize so Users Can Find Things? <ul><li>First, group related things, forming the groups in terms of the way users think . (How? Keep reading.) </li></ul>Chapter 4: Content Organization Copyright © 2004 by Prentice Hall Fact 13 Fact 8 Fact 14 Fact 15 Fact 19 Fact 10 Fact 2 Fact 17 Fact 12 Fact 5 Fact 3 Fact 4 Fact 1 Fact 11 Fact 9 Fact 7 Fact 6 Fact 16 Fact 18 Fact 20
    4. 4. This is an organizational scheme <ul><li>Now give names to the groups, or have the users do that </li></ul>Chapter 4: Content Organization Copyright © 2004 by Prentice Hall Fact 13 Fact 8 Fact 14 Fact 15 Fact 19 Fact 10 Fact 2 Fact 17 Fact 12 Fact 5 Fact 3 Fact 4 Fact 1 Fact 11 Fact 9 Fact 7 Fact 6 Fact 16 Fact 18 Fact 20 Group D Group C Group A Group B Group E
    5. 5. Next: how do the groups relate to each other? <ul><li>Perhaps in a hierarchy: </li></ul>Chapter 4: Content Organization Copyright © 2004 by Prentice Hall
    6. 6. How do the groups relate to each other, continued <ul><li>Perhaps with hyperlinks: </li></ul>Chapter 4: Content Organization Copyright © 2004 by Prentice Hall
    7. 7. Those are two organizational structures <ul><li>Remember: </li></ul><ul><li>A scheme groups similar things together </li></ul><ul><li>A structure shows how those groups are related </li></ul><ul><li>End of introductory overview; now let’s get back to the details of organizational schemes and organizational structures </li></ul><ul><li>And how we discover how users think: how they see the groupings </li></ul>Chapter 4: Content Organization Copyright © 2004 by Prentice Hall
    8. 8. 4.2 Organizational Schemes <ul><li>Familiar in everyday life: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Phone book </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Appointment book </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Shopping mall diagram with store locations </li></ul></ul>Chapter 4: Content Organization Copyright © 2004 by Prentice Hall
    9. 9. These are exact organizational schemes <ul><li>Alphabetical: Example: phone book </li></ul><ul><li>Chronological: Example: appointment book </li></ul><ul><li>Geographical: Example: shopping mall diagram </li></ul>Chapter 4: Content Organization Copyright © 2004 by Prentice Hall
    10. 10. Not always possible <ul><li>Where can I find sardines packed in water, with no salt added? </li></ul><ul><ul><li>In the canned fish section? </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>In the dietetic foods section? </li></ul></ul>Chapter 4: Content Organization Copyright © 2004 by Prentice Hall
    11. 11. Supermarket is an example of an ambiguous organizational scheme <ul><li>“ Ambiguous” describe organizational situations where there is more than one reasonable way to group things </li></ul><ul><li>Four types of ambiguous organizational schemes: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Topical </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Task-oriented </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Audience-specific </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Metaphor-driven </li></ul></ul>Chapter 4: Content Organization Copyright © 2004 by Prentice Hall
    12. 12. Topical organizational scheme <ul><li>Organizes content by subject </li></ul><ul><li>Examples: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Library subject index </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Encyclopedia </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Chapter titles in textbooks </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Website home pages (usually combined with other schemes as well) </li></ul></ul><ul><li>http://www.worldbank.org/ </li></ul>Chapter 4: Content Organization Copyright © 2004 by Prentice Hall
    13. 13. Topical organizational scheme: http://www.worldbank.org/ Chapter 4: Content Organization Copyright © 2004 by Prentice Hall
    14. 14. Task-Oriented Organizational Scheme <ul><li>Organizes content by what user wants to do. </li></ul>Chapter 4: Content Organization Copyright © 2004 by Prentice Hall
    15. 15. Task-oriented organizational scheme Chapter 4: Content Organization Copyright © 2004 by Prentice Hall Example: Autobytel.com
    16. 16. Audience-specific organizational scheme <ul><li>Useful when there are two or more distinct user groups </li></ul><ul><li>User may navigate to appropriate page and bookmark it </li></ul>Chapter 4: Content Organization Copyright © 2004 by Prentice Hall
    17. 17. Audience-specific organizational scheme Chapter 4: Content Organization Copyright © 2004 by Prentice Hall Example: BMO Financial Group
    18. 18. Audience-specific organizational scheme <ul><li>Can be impossible to represent the depth and breadth of site content in a single home page </li></ul><ul><li>Readers often come to a Web site with specific interests or goals in mind </li></ul><ul><li>Use the home page to split the audience immediately into interest groups </li></ul><ul><ul><li>offer them specific, more relevant information in menu pages deeper within the site. </li></ul></ul>Chapter 4: Content Organization Copyright © 2004 by Prentice Hall
    19. 19. Metaphor-driven organizational scheme <ul><li>http://www.jkrowling.com/ </li></ul>Chapter 4: Content Organization Copyright © 2004 by Prentice Hall
    20. 20. Metaphor-driven organizational scheme <ul><li>Shows group by a visual metaphor. </li></ul><ul><li>Not many examples, because it is difficult to find metaphors that will work with all users. </li></ul><ul><li>Possible example: pet supply store: </li></ul>Chapter 4: Content Organization Copyright © 2004 by Prentice Hall
    21. 21. See the problem? <ul><li>This is a hamster, but what if your user thinks it’s a rat, and hates rats? </li></ul>Chapter 4: Content Organization Copyright © 2004 by Prentice Hall
    22. 22. Hybrid organizational scheme <ul><li>Combines multiple organizational schemes </li></ul><ul><li>Quite common, but must be done with care to avoid confusion </li></ul>Chapter 4: Content Organization Copyright © 2004 by Prentice Hall
    23. 23. Hybrid organizational scheme example Chapter 4: Content Organization Copyright © 2004 by Prentice Hall Example: Nordstrom
    24. 24. Hybrid organizational scheme example www.iastate.edu Chapter 4: Content Organization Copyright © 2004 by Prentice Hall
    25. 25. 4.3 Organizational Structures <ul><li>Review: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Organizational schemes create groups </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Organizational structures define the relations between groups </li></ul></ul>Chapter 4: Content Organization Copyright © 2004 by Prentice Hall
    26. 26. Types of organizational structures <ul><li>Hierarchy </li></ul><ul><li>Hypertext </li></ul><ul><li>Database </li></ul><ul><li>Some websites have site maps that represent the structure </li></ul>Chapter 4: Content Organization Copyright © 2004 by Prentice Hall
    27. 27. Hierarchical organizational structure <ul><li>Structuring by rank or level </li></ul><ul><li>A tree, in computer science terms </li></ul>Chapter 4: Content Organization Copyright © 2004 by Prentice Hall
    28. 28. An organization chart is a hierarchy Chapter 4: Content Organization Copyright © 2004 by Prentice Hall Manufacturing Marketing Distribution Research President E A B C D Etc.
    29. 29. Definitions <ul><li>Breadth of a hierarchy: the number of links available at each level </li></ul><ul><li>Depth of a hierarchy: the number of levels </li></ul><ul><li>Broad shallow hierarchies offer many choices at each level </li></ul><ul><li>Narrow deep hierarchies require many clicks to get to the bottom level </li></ul><ul><li>Users prefer broad shallow hierarchies </li></ul>Chapter 4: Content Organization Copyright © 2004 by Prentice Hall
    30. 30. Hypertext organizational structures <ul><li>Almost always combined with other structures </li></ul><ul><li>Consists of adding links to a page </li></ul><ul><li>Hard to find a commercial website that does not use hypertext </li></ul>Chapter 4: Content Organization Copyright © 2004 by Prentice Hall
    31. 31. Database organizational structures <ul><li>Database organizational structure provides a bottom-up view, whereas a hierarchy provides a top-down </li></ul><ul><li>Both have their place </li></ul><ul><li>In a database structure the user fills in data, and is then taken directly to the right page. One click, when it works ideally. </li></ul>Chapter 4: Content Organization Copyright © 2004 by Prentice Hall
    32. 32. Database example: selecting a car model Chapter 4: Content Organization Copyright © 2004 by Prentice Hall
    33. 33. Controlled vocabulary <ul><li>Predetermined set of terms that describe a specific domain </li></ul><ul><li>There are no synonyms </li></ul><ul><li>Only one term describes a concept </li></ul><ul><li>Can help combat the ambiguity of English </li></ul>Chapter 4: Content Organization Copyright © 2004 by Prentice Hall
    34. 34. Thesaurus <ul><li>Contains </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Synonyms </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Broader terms </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Narrower terms </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Variants </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Used in conjunction with a controlled vocabulary, makes searching more effective </li></ul><ul><li>User types in variant, thesaurus supplies search term from controlled vocabulary </li></ul>Chapter 4: Content Organization Copyright © 2004 by Prentice Hall
    35. 35. 4.5 Research and Interview Techniques <ul><li>Problem: how do you know what your users’ categories are? </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Will they look for a sweater under Winter Wear or under Men’s Clothing? </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>What do they expect to find under “About Us”? </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>What can you put on the home page for a college that will lead most directly to the tuition? </li></ul></ul><ul><li>You don’t know! </li></ul><ul><li>Not until you ask your users . . . </li></ul><ul><li>. . . who, of course, have no idea what you mean by “What are your categories?” </li></ul>Chapter 4: Content Organization Copyright © 2004 by Prentice Hall
    36. 36. Card sorting provides an answer <ul><li>Devise a list of about 40 questions that a user might have. Or can place 40 nouns selected from the task analyses. </li></ul><ul><li>Write each question on a card; number cards on back </li></ul><ul><li>Ask each user to sort the cards into piles, where the cards in each pile seem related to each other </li></ul><ul><li>Ask the user to give a name to each pile </li></ul><ul><li>Do this with ten or more users </li></ul><ul><li>Do statistical analysis of the clustering in the groups </li></ul>Chapter 4: Content Organization Copyright © 2004 by Prentice Hall
    37. 37. Example: Choir Task Analyses <ul><li>Keeping track of attendance </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Create attendance sheet </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>… </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Add/remove members as necessary </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Print out attendance sheet for rehearsal night </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Place attendance sheet at entry way of rehearsal venue </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Provide pencils </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Collect attendance sheets at end of night </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Update the list </li></ul></ul>Chapter 4: Content Organization Copyright © 2004 by Prentice Hall
    38. 38. Example: Find nouns <ul><ul><li>Create attendance sheet </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Add/remove members as necessary </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Create print out attendance sheet for rehearsal night </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Place attendance sheet at entry way of rehearsal venue </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Provide pencils </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Collect attendance sheets at end of night </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Update the list </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>attendance, sheet, members, print out, rehearsal night, rehearsal venue, pencils, list … </li></ul></ul>Chapter 4: Content Organization Copyright © 2004 by Prentice Hall
    39. 39. Example: Cards <ul><li>Place one of the following on a card </li></ul><ul><ul><li>attendance, </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>sheet, </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>members, </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>print out, </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>rehearsal night, </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>rehearsal venue, </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>pencils, </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>list … </li></ul></ul>Chapter 4: Content Organization Copyright © 2004 by Prentice Hall
    40. 40. Example: Users make piles <ul><li>Example 1 </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Members </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Rehearsal night </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Rehearsal Venue </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>List </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Pencils </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Sheet </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Print out </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Attendance </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Example 2 </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Members </li></ul><ul><li>Attendance </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Rehearsal night </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Rehearsal Venue </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Pencils </li></ul><ul><li>Print out </li></ul><ul><li>Sheet </li></ul><ul><li>list </li></ul>Chapter 4: Content Organization Copyright © 2004 by Prentice Hall
    41. 41. Cluster analysis <ul><li>Can be done “be eyeball,” just looking at the piles for patterns </li></ul><ul><li>Much better: use cluster analysis software </li></ul><ul><li>See the text’s companion website to download CardZort, by Jorge Toro of DePaul University </li></ul>Chapter 4: Content Organization Copyright © 2004 by Prentice Hall
    42. 42. Summary <ul><li>In this chapter you learned about: </li></ul><ul><li>Organizational schemes: classification systems for organizing content into groups: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Exact: Alphabetical, Chronological, Geographical </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Ambiguous: Topical, Task-oriented, Audience-specific, metaphor-driven </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Organizational structures: defining the relationships among the groups: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Hierarchy, Hypertext, Database </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Controlled vocabularies and thesauri </li></ul><ul><li>Card sorting </li></ul>Chapter 4: Content Organization Copyright © 2004 by Prentice Hall
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