School of Computing& Security Science ORGANISATIONAL RESILIENCE: UNDERSTANDING, AND IDENTIFYING THE ESSENTIAL CONCEPTS. Research Proposal Defence Bruce Braes Student No: 10169360 Degree: Masters Science (Security Science) School Computer & Security Science Principal Supervisor: Dr. David Brooks.
School of Computing& Security Science AGENDA •Introduction - Background, Research Questions, Contribution to Knowledge •Literature Review - Resilience - Individual Resilience - Resilient Organisations - Resilient Capability -Standards - Industry •Underlying Theory •Research Methods - Study Design - Phases One through Four - Participants - Limitations
School of Computing& Security Science Introduction • Background To The Study - The area of study is not clearly defined - Involves all types of organisations not only business but also government and not for profit - Currently a assortment of behaviours rather than an ideology
School of Computing& Security Science Introduction Research Questions 1. What are the essential concepts that contribute to making an organisation resilient as identified by resilience experts? 2. What are the essential concepts that contribute to making an organisation resilient as identified by resilience practitioners? 3. What are the essential concepts that comprise the philosophy of Organisational Resilience?
School of Computing& Security Science Contribution to Knowledge - The objective of this study is to extract and articulate the essential concepts that must be present to make an organisation either resilient or more resilient. - Little or no previous research can be found in this area
School of Computing& Security Science Contribution to Knowledge Benefits of The Research • Organisational Resilience stands at a point where the practical implementation poses a challenge, not only for practitioners, but also for researchers. • Developing the essential concepts will provide a meaningful contribution to knowledge and deliver benefits to practitioners.
School of Computing& Security Science Underlying Theory • Cognitive Psychological Study into knowledge and development and understanding of concepts • Short term memory • Long term memory • Episodic memory • Semantic memory • Concepts “are continuously contributing to our perceptions, learning, memory and language” (Borges, 1964) • Concepts in the context of this study means “a unit of knowledge made up of a number of elements which operate as the characteristics of the concept”
School of Computing& Security Science Literature Review Resilience • The concept of resilience in academic terms has its origin in fields psychology and child behaviour (Coutu, 2002; Reinmoeller & Van Baardwijk, 2005). • Resilience is a fundamental quality of individuals, groups, organisations and systems as a whole to respond productively to significant change that disrupts the expected pattern of events without engaging in an extended period of regressive behaviour (Horne III & Orr, 1998)
School of Computing& Security Science Literature Review Individual Resilience • Resilient people deal with traumatic events in life and display hardiness, an ability to overcome difficulty and recover to continue with their lives. (Kobasa, 1982; Kobasa, Maddi, & Kahn, 1982; Westman, 1990) • It is important to note that some people respond negatively to these types of situations (for example, substance abuse or violence), while others continue to lead healthy and dynamic lives.
School of Computing& Security Science Literature Review Resilient Organisations • “In terms of its organizational resilience and flexibility, its structure and communications, al-Qaeda is like a successful, smart company” (Hoffman, 2004) • Organisational Resilience remains a theoretical concept and methods for achieving improved resilience at both operational and strategic levels within business still challenge both academics and practitioners . (Klein, Nicholls, & Thomalla, 2003). • Traditionally, resilience has been viewed as those qualities that enable an individual, community or organisation to cope with, adapt to and recover from a disaster event (Buckle, Mars, & Smile, 2000;Horne, 1997; Pelling & Uitto, 2001; Riolli& Savicki, 2003).
School of Computing& Security Science Literature Review Resilient Capability • Resilience capacity is a multi-disciplinary quality that allows an organisation to successfully withstand, respond to and potentially capitalise on disrupting events. (Hamel & Valikangas, 2003; Lengnick-Hall & Beck, 2005; McGann, 2004). • Provides an underpinning of insight, adaptability, and robustness. Resilience capacity is embodied in organisational routines and processes by which an organisation continually prepares itself to act decisively and move forward, and establishes a culture of diversity and adjustable integration that empowers it to overcome the potentially incapacitating consequences of a disruptive shock. (Lengnick-Hall & Beck, 2005).
School of Computing& Security Science Literature Review Standards • AS/NZS ISO 31000 2009 Risk Management Standard • AS/NZS ISO 9001 2008 Quality Management System • AS 8001 2003Fraud & Corruption Control • AS 8000 2003Good Governance Principles • AS 3745 2002Emergency Control organisation and procedures for buildings, structures and workplaces • IS0 280000 2007 Security Management Systems for the supply chain • AS/NZ 5050 2010 Business Continuity – Managing disruption related risk • BS7799 Information Security Management • BS311000 2008 Risk Management: Code of Practice • BS25999-2 2007 Business Continuity management • ASIS SPC. 1 2009 Security, Preparedness and Continuity Management Systems
School of Computing& Security Science Literature Review Industry • Traditional risk management systems and solutions are insufficient to handle today’s expanded spectrum of market and business risk. As the rate of change in the market accelerates, companies require an adaptive risk management approach that both responds to and anticipates business shifts (Hollnagel, et al., 2005). • Organisational Resilience marries risk management, information reporting and governance processes with strategic and business planning to create an organisation- wide early warning capability that is embedded in the day to day operations and culture of the organisation . (Booz Allen Hamilton Inc & Weil Gotshal & Manges LLP, 2004).
School of Computing& Security Science Research Methods Delphi Method is based on structural surveys and makes use of the intuitive available information of the participants, who are mainly experts. Participants The field Organisational Resilience is dominated by specialists in sub- domains who have grasped the viewpoint and are moving forward with it and developing into experts. Experts “highly skilled, competent in performance in one or more task domains” (Sternberg & Ben-Zeev)
School of Computing Research Methods& Security Science PHASE ONE Establishes baseline data points Standards Review Reiteration of Data Responds to PHASE TWO Research Question 1 Structured Interviews with Experts PHASE THREE Responds to Survey of Practitioners Research Question 2 PHASE FOUR Responds to Comparative Analysis of results Research Question 3 Phases Two and Three
School of Computing& Security Science Research Methods • Limitations •Organisational Resilience is a broad and wide-ranging •It is heterogeneous and multi dimensional •Establishing a statistically representative sample of the population is to some degree not possible. •Researcher intends to utilise convenience sampling which is a non-probability sampling technique • Further limitation may be semantics; different cohorts may have different experiences; this may then create a vertically heterogeneous semantic net for certain words or concepts in an otherwise homogeneous group.
School of Computing& Security Science Expected Outcomes • Authoritive summarisation of the philosophy of Organisational Resilience • Detailed explanation of how organisations benefit from Organisational Resilience • A basic framework organisation could adopt to increase resilience