BB Practice MC Questions with Answers

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BB Practice MC Questions with Answers

  1. 1. Consumer Behavior MC Questions Answer Guide 1-1
  2. 2. Chapter One 1-2
  3. 3. An understanding of consumer behaviour includes all of the following variablesexcept:A. amount purchasedB. consumers valuesC. economic situationsD. consumers perceptionsE. how purchases are consumedConsumer behaviour theory provides the manager with:A. more problems than it solvesB. concrete solutions to most marketing problemsC. the proper questions to ask in most market decision situationsD. solutions to problemsE. none of the given answersCustomer value is:A. derived from the price of the productB. the difference between all of the benefits derived from the total product and all ofthe costs of acquiring those productsC. the cost to the consumer of altering their behaviour to buy a productD. the difference between the perceived financial and social costs in obtaining theproduct and the financial and social gain in owning the productE. none of the given answers 1-3
  4. 4. The marketing manager should view the consumer as:A. a decision-making unitB. a problem solverC. being primarily concerned with economic factorsD. automatically responding in set ways to marketing stimuliE. A and B onlyWhich of the following is not treated as a major influence on consumer lifestyle:A. cultureB. reference groupsC. social statusD. motivesE. all of the given answers are major influencesMary needs a computer for her studies. She has some computer knowledge from herprevious purchase 5 years ago, but feels that she needs to read more computermagazines, consult several computer shops, and ask for advice from her IT friendsbefore she makes a purchase. What kind of decision-making is Mary experiencing:A. limitedB. extendedC. complexD. complicatedE. behavioural 1-4
  5. 5. Culture provides us with:A. sophisticated ways of behavingB. our expected norms of behaviourC. our basic physiological motivesD. all of the given answersE. none of the given answersGroups serve as a ____________ and as a ___________ for the individual:A. social stimulant, social determinantB. segmentation point, target marketC. source of encouragement, interpreter of informationD. reference point, source of informationE. none of the given answersWhich of the following often leads to lifestyle changes:A. the results of past consumption decisionsB. time-related events such as ageingC. external events such as a job changeD. all of the given answersE. none of the given answers 1-5
  6. 6. Chapter Two 2-6
  7. 7. The choice of a fast food restaurant when a friend comes to visit, you are in the middle ofan interesting chat, and you discover it is time for lunch is influenced by:A. antecedent stateB. social surroundingsC. temporal perspectiveD. task definitionE. physical surroundingsThe usage situation deals with:A. how the product is purchasedB. who influences the product purchasedC. how we communicate to consumers about consumptionD. how and when the product is consumedE: all of the given answersWhen a consumer is so loyal to a particular brand that it is the only brand purchased, themarketer:A. should look closely at the communications situationB. must consider the usage situationC. can redefine the consumers task definition through advertisingD. can ignore the situational influencesE. none of the given answers 2-7
  8. 8. The five classes of situational influences are:A. physical surroundings, people, task definition, lighting and soundB. people, task definition, social surroundings, temporal factors and moodC. physical surroundings, social surroundings, temporal perspective, task definition andmoodD. people, task definition, mood, temporal factors and antecedent statesE. physical surroundings, social surroundings, temporal perspective, task definition andantecedent statesStore atmosphere is:A. the sum of all physical features of a retail environmentB. shown to affect consumers’ judgment of store qualityC. shown to affect consumers’ judgment of store imageD. known to influence shoppers’ moodsE. all of the given answersA group that stays longer in a restaurant because of the music has been influenced by the___________________ characteristic of the situation:A. antecedent stateB. physical surroundingsC. temporal perspectiveD. social surroundingsE. none of the given answersAnswer: B 2-8
  9. 9. Individuals shopping at a ‘convenience’ store rather than a store regularly shopped atbecause they are in a hurry, are being influenced by the ___________________ characteristic ofthe situation:A. antecedent stateB. physical surroundingC. temporal perspectiveD. task definitionE. none of the given answersA person who shops at a nicer store than normal because he/she is buying a gift ratherthan a personal item is influenced by the _____________________ characteristic of thesituation:A. antecedent stateB. social surroundingsC. temporal perspectiveD. task definitionE. none of the given answersAn individual who decides to purchase food at a take-away food store rather than cookwhen too tired has been influenced by the ____________________ characteristic of thesituation:A. utilisation orientationB. task definitionC. antecedent stateD. physical surroundingsE. none of the given answers 2-9
  10. 10. Which of the following is not a social motive for shopping outside the home:A. communicating with others with similar interestsB. meeting with ones friendsC. acquiring status and authorityD. meeting or being near other peopleE. all of the given answersMuffin Break positions itself as the ideal place for a friendly chat. This is a marketing effortbased on the ________________ characteristic of the situation:A. temporal perspectiveB. social surroundingsC. antecedent conditionD. physical surroundingsE. C and D onlyWhen the marketer can neither control nor influence the physical situation:A. advertising should be increasedB. product improvements should be madeC. the sales force should be increasedD. the various elements of the marketing mix should be altered to match the needs andexpectations of the target marketE. none of the given answers 2-10
  11. 11. The advantage of large shopping malls according to consumer behaviour theory is:A. social experiences for consumersB. safe and comfortable area for shoppingC. consumers are exposed to a wide range of information and productsD. plenty of parkingE. A,B and CIt usually takes 3 seconds to buy a can of soft drink but it can months to choose theright car. This is an example of:A. task definitionB. temporal perspectiveC. moodD. antecedent stateE. momentary condition 2-11
  12. 12. Chapter Three 3-12
  13. 13. Problem recognition involves:A. choosing between two or more potentially satisfactory alternativesB. a discrepancy between a situational variable and a psychological variableC. determining which of two or more alternative goals to pursueD. approach-approach conflictE. none of the given answersAnswer: EDifficulty: HighA problem of which the consumer is not aware is:A. a situational problemB. a potential problemC. a manifest problemD. an actual problemE. none of the given answersThe uncontrollable factors that affect the desired state include all of thefollowing except:A. changing family characteristicsB. previous decisionsC. individual developmentD. reference groupsE. all of the given answer 3-13
  14. 14. The uncontrollable factors that affect the actual state include all of the followingexcept:A. the situationB. dissatisfaction with the existing solutionC. changing financial expectationsD. efforts of consumer groupsE. all of the given answersThe existing or actual state is affected by:A. inability to afford certain productsB. absence of particular productsC. lack of awareness of products or brandsD. A and C onlyE. A, B and CAn approach to determining the problems consumers face by analysing thepurchase and/or use of a particular product or brand is known as:A. problem analysisB. activity analysisC. situation analysisD. latent problem analysisE. none of the given answers 3-14
  15. 15. Selective problem recognition involves:A. a discrepancy which any brand within a product category can reduceB. a discrepancy which a variety of brands within a product category can reduceC. recognition of a problem for which there is no solutionD. manifest problem recognitionE. none of the given answersAttempts by firms to ‘break into’ habitual or limited decision making when theirbrand is not currently used generally focus on:A. the desired stateB. the discrepancy between the existing and desired statesC the existing stateD. the current situationE. none of the given answersThe level of a person’s desire to resolve a particular problem depends on 2factors:A. the relative importance of the problem and the magnitude of the discrepancybetween the desired state and the actual stateB. information search and alternative evaluationC. environmental and situational factorsD. mood and motivationE. the involvement level of the product and previous decisions made 3-15
  16. 16. Suppressing problem recognition is done because:A. some companies want their consumers to have a low level of involvement fortheir productB. companies want consumers to be influenced primarily by packaging, price andother marketing variables at the point of purchaseC. government regulation of certain productsD. consumer movements limit promotion of some productsE. A and BTiming problem recognition can sometimes be difficult for a marketer toinfluence because:A. consumers vary in how long they decide they may have an actual problemB. some consumers aren’t influenced by marketing at allC. some consumer needs can arise suddenlyD. problem recognition is influenced by many factorsE. B and C 3-16
  17. 17. Chapter Four 4-17
  18. 18. Internal information search:A. almost never occursB. is most important in extended decisionsC. involves utilising information sources other than the individuals memoryD. is not sufficient to solve consumer problemsE. none of the given answersA consumer notices a new product in a store because of a point-of-purchasedisplay, and based on the information given in the display purchases the product.This is an example of:A. habitual decision makingB. limited decision makingC. extended decision makingD. internal searchE. none of the given answersExternal information can include all of the following except:A. direct experiences with the product through inspection or trialB. professional information provided in pamphlets, articles, and booksC. marketing-generated informationD. the opinions, attitudes and feelings of friends, neighbours and relativesE. all of the given answers can be included in external search 4-18
  19. 19. All of the brands that a consumer would consider for the solution of a particularproblem are known as the:A. inept setB. decision setC. evoked setD. inert setE. none of the given answersAll of the brands that a consumer is aware of but is indifferent toward are knownas the:A. inept setB. so what setC. evoked setD. inert setE. none of the given answersThe inert set is:A. all those brands a consumer would consider for the solution of a problemB. all those brands a consumer is aware of for the solution of a problemC. all those brands a consumer would not consider for the solution of a problemD. all those brands a consumer is aware of but is indifferent towardE. none of the given answers 4-19
  20. 20. The evoked set is:A. all those brands a consumer would consider for the solution of a problemB. all those brands a consumer is aware of for the solution of a problemC. all those brands a consumer would not consider for the solution of a problemD. all those brands a consumer is aware of but is indifferent towardE. none of the given answersWhich of the following is NOT one of the primary sources of informationavailable to consumers:A. personal sourcesB. experiential sourcesC. memoryD. independent sourcesE. all of the given answers are primary sources of informationConsumers engage in external search when:A. they perceive they can obtain a lower priceB. they perceive they can obtain a preferred styleC. the perceived cost of search is less than the perceived value of the searchD. the required information is availableE. none of the given answers 4-20
  21. 21. A brand in a product category characterised by extended decisions that is in theevoked set requires a(n) ________________ strategy:A. maintenanceB. disruptC. interceptD. acceptanceE. none of the given answersConsumer characteristics that are associated with a high level of external searchinclude all of the following except:A. extensive experience with the product categoryB. early stages of the household life cycleC. a high level of perceived risk in the purchaseD. a relatively high education levelE. all of the given answers are associated with a high level of external searchA brand in a product category characterised by extended decisions that is not inthe evoked set requires a(n) ________________ strategy:A. maintenanceB. disruptC. acceptanceD. preferenceE. none of the given answers 4-21
  22. 22. A brand in a product category characterised by limited purchase decisionsthat is not in the target markets evoked set needs a(n) _______________________strategy:A. disruptB. interceptC. acceptanceD. preferenceE. none of the given answersA brand in a product category characterised by limited purchase decisionsthat is in the target markets evoked set needs a(n) _______________________strategy:A. disruptB. interceptC. acceptanceD. preferenceE. none of the given answers 4-22
  23. 23. A disrupt strategy:A. is used by marketers when the brand they are promoting is not part of theevoked set and the target market engages in habitual decision making and thefirst task of this strategy is to disrupt the existing decision patternB. is marketing communications, such as comparative advertising, that is usedto disrupt the decision making behaviour of the consumerC. is used in high involvement situations where the consumers may displayhigh brand loyalty to a productD. is used in low involvement situations where consumers exhibit habitualpurchase behaviourCapture strategy is:A. marketing communications that are used to capture the consumer’sattentionB. capturing the consumer’s attention by using different tactics in theservicescape environmentC. used by marketers when the brand is in the target market’s evoked set andconsumers engage in limited decision makingD. used by marketers when the brand is in the target market’s inert set andconsumers engage in limited decision making 4-23
  24. 24. An intercept strategy is used when:A. an organisation in a shopping mall needs to intercept consumers who walk by astoreB. the objective is to intercept the consumer during the search for information onthe brands in the evoked setC. the objective is to intercept the consumer during the search for information onthe brands in the inert setD. B and CPreference strategy is used when:A. the objective is to make the brand the preferred one in the target market,placing it in the evoked set. This is especially used when the consumer undertakesextended decision makingB. the objective is to make the brand the preferred one in the target market,placing it in the inert set. This is especially used when the consumer undertakesextended decision makingC. the objective is to make the brand the preferred one in the target market,placing it in the evoked set. This is especially used when the consumer undertakeslimited decision makingD. the objective is to make the brand the preferred one in the target market,mainly through the use of marketing communication techniques 4-24
  25. 25. Chapter Five 5-25
  26. 26. Evaluative criteria are:A. the alternatives available to solve a problemB. limited to the evoked setC. limited to the inept setD. the various features a consumer looks for in a product for solving a particular problemE. none of the given answersIndirect methods for determining which evaluative criteria are being used include:A. projective techniquesB. focus groupsC. interviewsD. A and B onlyE. none of the given answersWhich of the following is a common approach to determining consumers judgments ofbrand performance on specific evaluative criteria:A. semantic differential scaleB. conjoint analysisC. MARCD. linear programmingE. none of the given answer 5-26
  27. 27. Which of the following is a useful approach for determining the relative importanceconsumers assign to various evaluative criteria:A. semantic differential scaleB. conjoint analysisC. MARCD. linear programmingE. none of the given answersA just noticeable difference (j.n.d.) refers to:A. the relative difference in sensitivity between various sense modesB. the minimum amount that one item can differ from another with the difference still beingnoticedC. the difference in importance assigned to various evaluative criteriaD. minimum variation in evaluative criteria required for inclusion in a multi-dimensionalscaling solutionE. none of the given answersThe readily observable attribute of a product used to represent the performance level of aless observable attribute is known as:A. a surrogate indicatorB. a lexicographic attributeC. a compensatory attributeD. an interactive variableE. none of the given answers 5-27
  28. 28. The use of price as a surrogate indicator appears to decline with:A. increases in visible product differencesB. increases in prior product experienceC. availability of additional product informationD. all of the given answersE. none of the given answersGiven the following minimum standards: Price = 3, Quality = 4, and Ease of Use = 3,which of the following compact disc players would be chosen using the conjunctivedecision rule: Sanyo Sony PioneerPrice 4 5 2Quality 4 3 5Ease of Use 4 4 4A. SonyB. SanyoC. PioneerD. theres not enough information to decideE. none of the given answers compact disc players would be chosen 5-28
  29. 29. Given the following attribute cut-offs: Price = 5, Quality = 5, and Ease of Use = 4, whichof the following computers would be chosen using the disjunctive decision rule: Hewlett-Packard Macintosh IBMPrice 5 4 4Quality 4 3 5Ease of Use 3 3 3A. Hewlett-PackardB. MacintoshC. IBMD. Hewlett-Packard and IBM would be considered furtherE. Macintosh and IBM would be considered furtherGiven the following attribute cut-offs: Price = 5, Quality = 5, and Ease of Use = 4, whichof the following compact disc players would be chosen using the disjunctive decisionrule: Sony Sanyo Pioneer Price 5 4 4 Quality 4 3 5 Ease of Use 3 3 3A. SonyB. SanyoC. PioneerD. Sony and Pioneer would be considered furtherE. Sanyo and Pioneer would be considered further 5-29
  30. 30. You are given the following information: Rank Cut-off PointPrice 1 4Quality 2 4Ease of Use 3 3Which of the following compact disc players would be chosen using the elimination-by-aspects decision rule: Sony Sanyo PioneerPrice 3 5 4Quality 4 4 4Ease of Use 3 2 3A. SonyB. SanyoC. PioneerD. Sanyo and Pioneer would be considered furtherE. none of the above compact disc players would be chosen 5-30
  31. 31. If using the lexicographic rule:A. it is essential if this rule is used by the target market that the product equalsor exceeds the performance of all other competitors on the most importantcriteriaB. it is essential if this rule is used by the target market that the product equalsor exceeds the performance of all other competitors on all criteriaC. it is essential if this rule is used by the target market that the product onlyhas to satisfactorily meet the criteriaD. none of the given answers is trueElimination-by-aspects rule would be best used by a consumer when:A. they have an important attribute that ranks far higher than all othersB. they have several attributes that ranks far higher than all othersC. they want a product which satisfies all criteria and has an important attributethat ranks far higher than all othersD. they want a product which ranks high on all criteria and has an importantattribute that ranks far higher than all othersE. none of the given answers is true 5-31
  32. 32. Chapter Six 6-32
  33. 33. When making a purchase decision, a consumer can follow the sequence:A: outlet selection first, brand selection secondB. outlet and brand selection simultaneouslyC. brand (or item) selection first, outlet selection secondD. all of the given answersFor a target market using a ‘brand first/outlet second’ decision sequence, a retailershould:A. have price specials on brandsB. use image advertisingC. stock many brands and/or key brandsD. A and C onlyFor a target market using a ‘brand first/outlet second’ decision sequence, amanufacturer should NOT:A. use brand availability advertisingB. develop brand image managementC. use more exclusive distributionD. none of the given answersE. A and C only 6-33
  34. 34. Shopping orientation refers to:A. the situation that led to a particular shopping tripB. the general approach one takes to acquiring both brands and non-purchasesatisfactions from various forms of retail outletsC. whether the decision process was brand first/store second, store first/brandsecond or simultaneousD. the level of service provided by a retail outletPoint-of-purchase displays generally have:A. no influence on brand choiceB. modest influence on brand choiceC. high influence on brand choiceD. their major influence on product category salesThe attributes and components affecting an online store would include:A. wide range of goods and servicesB. lower pricesC. web page design and layoutD. all of the given answers 6-34
  35. 35. Kylie is excited by new technology, has a home computer and pay TV, worksfull-time, likes to spend time with her family, has a high monthly groceryexpenditure, likes to browse the Internet for hours and finds buying groceriesonline appealing. She is a(n):A. active shopperB. modern responsibleC. time starvedD. TraditionalistThe effectiveness of sales personnel is influenced by the interaction(s) of the:A. salesperson’s resourcesB. nature of the customer’s buying taskC. customer-salesperson relationshipD. all of the given answersA stockout situation is:A. caused when a store is temporarily out of a particular brand or productB. caused by a failure to integrate place correctly into the retail channelC. market demand being underestimated due to a failure to understandconsumer behaviourD. B and C 6-35
  36. 36. Raechel’s House of Beauty, a hairdresser and beautician aimed at the sub-30market, has the latest music playing, air-conditioning, comfortable lounges andmocktails in the waiting area. These are all examples of:A. store layoutB. store atmosphereC. servicescapeD. AtmosphericsPurchases that are made as a result of the consumer seeing a product, whichacts as a reminder that they need it, are called:A. impulse purchasesB. reminder purchasesC. unplanned purchaseD. none of the given answersThe risks that consumers face when purchasing a product is classified as:A. financial riskB. social riskC. performance and psychologicalD. all of the given answers 6-36
  37. 37. Chapter Seven 7-37
  38. 38. The likelihood and magnitude of postpurchase dissonance increases for all ofthe following except:A. the more irrevocable the decisionB. the more difficult it is to choose among alternativesC. the more important the decision isD. all of the given answers increase postpurchase dissonanceWhich of the following is not an approach to reducing dissonance?A. increase the desirability of the brand purchasedB. decrease the desirability of the rejected alternativeC. decrease the importance of the purchase decisionD. all of the given answers are approaches for reducing dissonanceSome, but not all, consumer purchases:A. involve extensive postpurchase dissonanceB. do not involve postpurchase dissonanceC. involve postpurchase dissonance only if limited prepurchase alternativeevaluation was utilisedD. A and C 7-38
  39. 39. Most studies treat non-loyal repeat purchasers of a brand of the same as:A. repeat customersB. unibrand purchasers onlyC. unibrand and multibrand purchasersD. those loyal to another brand, and non-use purchasersRelationship marketing has these key elements:A. customisation and augmentationB. developing a core service or productC. pricing to encourage loyaltyD. all of the given answersRepeat purchase behaviour is frequently referred to as:A. brand loyaltyB. relationship marketingC. customer satisfactionD. customer retention 7-39
  40. 40. Which one is NOT an element of relationship marketing:A. developing a core product around which to build customer relationshipsB. pricing in a manner that encourages loyaltyC. engaging in internal marketing in order to perform well for customersD. all of the given answers are elements of relationship marketingWhich of the following are ways in which disposal decisions may influencemarketing strategy:A. Disposal may be necessary before acquisition of a replacement for financial orspace reasons.B. Socially conscious consumers may consider disposal alternatives as importantevaluative criteria in the purchase decision.C. Environmentally sound disposal decisions benefit society as a whole.D. All of the given answers influence marketing strategy.If a consumer has a high-performance expectation for a product, and after useperformance is perceived as better than expected, this consumer will be:A. nonsatisfiedB. dissatisfiedC. satisfiedD. unsatisfied 7-40
  41. 41. With respect to clothing, it has been found that:A. dissatisfaction is caused by a failure of instrumental performance whilesatisfaction requires both instrumental and symbolic performance at theexpected levelB. dissatisfaction is caused by a failure of symbolic performance whilesatisfaction requires both instrumental and symbolic performance at theexpected levelC. dissatisfaction results if either symbolic or instrumental performance isbelow expectationD. satisfaction requires that either symbolic or instrumental performanceexceed expectationsBrand loyalty differs from repeat purchase behaviour in that brand loyalty:A. involves at least 90 per cent of product category purchases with a singlebrandB. must exist over a minimum of 6 repurchase cyclesC. must not include any purchase of another brand when the primary brand isavailableD. implies a psychological commitment to the brand 7-41
  42. 42. The difference between repeat purchase behaviour and brand loyalty isexplained by the statements below EXCEPT:A. repeat purchase often results in brand loyaltyB. brand loyalty implies a psychological commitment to the brandC. repeat purchase may exist because there is only one brand in thatproduct categoryD. brand loyalty is biasedMany consumers judge the performance of a clothing product on itsappearance over time. This is an example of:A. instrumental performanceB. symbolic performanceC. satisfaction measurementD. none of the given answers 7-42
  43. 43. Chapter Eight 8-43
  44. 44. Perception is the activity that:A. links the consumer to marketer, group and situation influencesB. translates data into informationC. converts stimuli into effectD. relates external and internal influencesWhich of the following is NOT a major step in information processing:A. attentionB. interpretationC. exposureD. all of the given answers are steps in information processingAnswer: DExposure occurs when:A. a stimulus comes within range of our sensory receptor nervesB. the individual assigns some meaning to the stimulusC. the individual can recall the stimulusD. the individual becomes aware of the stimulus 8-44
  45. 45. Which of the following is not a stimulus factor that influences attention:A. positionB. contrastC. isolationD. all of the given answers influence attentionIf a target market is not interested in a product, the marketer shouldconsider:A. using stimulus factors to ensure attentionB. blending the message with a topic of interest to the target marketC. using either celebrities or humourD. all of the given answersHemispheric lateralisation refers to:A. transfers from long- to short-term memoryB. transfers from short- to long-term memoryC. information flow from the nervous system to the brainD. different types of activities being controlled by each side of the brain 8-45
  46. 46. Which of the following is NOT a generalisation about how interpretationoccurs:A: interpretation involves placing stimuli into existing categories ofmeaningB. stimuli are interpreted consistent with the individuals expectationsC. temporary characteristics of individuals affect their interpretationsD. all of the given answers are valid generalisationsWhen consumers interpret lower price to reflect lower quality, this is anexample of:A. semanticsB. semioticsC. anthropologyD. cognitive interpretationMisinterpretation of television communications:A. affects primarily the lower social strataB. is more severe in program content than in commercialsC. is more severe in commercials than in program contentD. A and B 8-46
  47. 47. Subliminal perception involves:A. responding to emotional feelings rather than objective stimuliB. interpreting stimuli based on innate rather than learned factorsC. interpreting stimuli based on learned rather than innate factorsD. none of the given answersWhich theory is used to explain and hypothesise that the core reason fordecline in the impact of television advertising is adjustment to the leveland type of stimuli to which we are accustomed:A: selective retention theoryB. selective perception theoryC. adaptation level theoryD. adaptation overload theoryTammy, a marketing student at uni, usually completes her assignment onher laptop whilst watching TV, listening to her friends, taking phone calls,and checking email and Facebook. Tammy might be experiencing:A. information compressionB. adaptation level theoryC. information overloadD. none of the given answers 8-47
  48. 48. Two important personal variables affecting interpretation are:A. learning and involvementB. involvement and interpretationC. learning and expectationsD. none of the given answersThe two critical tasks that advertising and packaging must performare:A. capture attention and convey meaningB. capture attention and influence perceptionC. convey meaning and influence perceptionD. change perception and capture attention 8-48
  49. 49. Chapter Nine 9-49
  50. 50. Learning is:A. any change in the content or organisation of long-term memoryB. the ability to recall a stimulus objectC. the ability to relate to stimulus objectsD. the link between stimuli and information processingMemory is:A. composed of two distinct physiological units, short- and long-termmemoryB. the ability to recall a stimulus objectC. limited to cognitive elementsD. composed of an active and an inactive componentMaintenance rehearsal involves:A. expanding upon newly processed information with information fromretentionB. selectively removing information from retentionC. transferring information from current memory to retentionD. none of the given answers 9-50
  51. 51. Elaborative activities involve:A. transferring information from long-term memory to short-termmemoryB. selectively removing information from retentionC. transferring information from current memory to retentionD. none of the given answersBrands in the semantic memory for a consumer problem arereferred to as:A. associated brandsB. semantic brandsC. recalled setD. evoked setBrand equity is:A. the companys share of the marketB. the value attached to a brand above and beyond any specificfunctional characteristic of the productC. giving the same brand name to two different productsD. B and C 9-51
  52. 52. Low-involvement learning:A. is probably the most common type of consumer learningB. seldom occursC. does not differ noticeably from high-involvement learningD. requires relatively high reward levels to be effectiveHigh-involvement learning:A. occurs primarily in response to television commercialsB. occurs when the individual is motivated to learn the materialC. is rare in consumer behaviourD. is not very effectiveLearning that occurs when an individual is highly motivated to learn thematerial is known as:A. deliberate learningB. high-involvement learningC. evoked learningD. classical learning 9-52
  53. 53. Conditioning refers to learning:A. based upon association of stimulus and responseB. under low-involvement conditionsC. under high-involvement conditionsD. using elaborative activitiesThe process of using an established relationship between a stimulus andresponse to generate the same response to a different stimulus isknown as:A. iconic conditioningB. operant conditioningC. instrumental conditioningD. classical conditioningThe process of using a reinforcement to alter the probability that agiven behaviour will be repeated is known as:A. classical conditioningB. iconic rote learningC. operant conditioningD. cognitive learning 9-53
  54. 54. A manufacturer that introduces a new snack product by givingnumerous free samples is probably using:A. classical conditioningB. operant conditioningC. punishment conditioningD. cognitive learningShaping involves:A. encouraging (rewarding) partial responses leading to the finaldesired responseB. structuring an overall advertisement to provide the desiredinterpretationC. modifying behaviour over time using classical conditioningD. modifying behaviour over time using iconic rote learningThe cognitive approach to learning:A. involves complex, creative problem solutionsB. encompasses all the mental activities of humans as they work tosolve problems or cope with situationsC. involves learning ideas, concepts, attitudes and factsD: all of the given answers 9-54
  55. 55. Vicarious/modelling learning occurs in:A. high-involvement situationsB. low-involvement situationsC. both high-involvement and low-involvement situationsD. reward-producing situationsReinforcement is:A. any positive response to behaviourB. anything that increases the likelihood that a given response will berepeated in the futureC. the result of repetition in a high-involvement situationD. necessary for learning to occurRepeating a message a given number of times over a short time periodrather than over a longer time period will produce:A. no significant differences in the amount of learningB. less rapid learning and forgettingC. a low level of initial learning but one that will last longerD. none of the given answers 9-55
  56. 56. Perceptual mapping:A. takes consumers’ perceptions of how similar brands or products are to eachotherB. alters consumers’ perceptions to fit the marketing strategyC. relates consumers’ perceptions to product attributesD. A and C onlyMessage involvement is important to marketers becauseA. the more involved a consumer is with the message the more they willprocess that messageB. the more involved a consumer is with the message the more likely they willbe to remember that messageC. this can change a consumer’s moodD. A and BYou buy a new pair of jeans and the first day you wear them someone givesyou a compliment about how you look in them. This is an example of:A. punishmentB. reinforcementC. conditional learningD. none of the given answers 9-56
  57. 57. Chapter Ten 10-57
  58. 58. Which of the following is not an advantage of using emotional appeals inadvertisements:A. emotional messages may be processed more thoroughlyB. emotional messages may be remembered better than neutral adsC. emotional messages enhance the attention, attraction and maintenancecapabilities of advertisementsD. all of the given answers are advantagesMaslows need hierarchy involves all the motives below except:A. belongingnessB. physiologicalC. self-actualisationD. all of the given answers are part of Maslows hierarchyProjective techniques are particularly useful for measuring:A. internal motivesB. external motivesC. latent motivesD. manifest motives 10-58
  59. 59. Which motivation research technique requires individuals to respond withthe first word that comes to mind:A. constructionB. projectionC. associationD. sentence completionAccording to the textbook, the liking/disliking aspect of a specific feelingis a(n):A. motiveB. affectC. needD. emotionA latent motive is:A. a social motiveB. a non-social motiveC. the highest level of Maslows hierarchyD. none of the given answers 10-59
  60. 60. A substantial amount of brand switching when the current brand issatisfactory may be explained by the ________________ motive:A. self-expressionB. reinforcementC. need for noveltyD. affiliationA consumer having difficulty choosing between a weekend holiday anda compact disc player is experiencing:A. approach-avoidance conflictB. approach-approach conflictC. avoidance-avoidance conflictD. alternative allocation conflictIndividual personality theories are based, in part, on the assumptionthat:A. situations are the primary determinant of behaviourB. individuals respond primarily to internal motivesC. motivation does not direct behaviourD. none of the given answers 10-60
  61. 61. Social learning theories of personality are based, in part, on theassumption that:A. the environment is the primary determinant of behaviourB. all individuals have internal characteristics or traitsC. motivation does not direct behaviourD. situations do not influence individual behaviour patternsConsumers who continue to purchase a particular product because ithas worked well in the past may be influenced by the _______________need:A. modellingB. consistencyC. reinforcementD. self-expressionA theory of emotion holds that:A. physiological responses occur after internal processesB. emotion precedes physiological responseC. there is no relation between emotion and physiological responseD. physiological response accompanies emotion 10-61
  62. 62. A consumer who is worried about gaining weight but finds it hard togive up their snack habit is faced with sort of problem:A. approach-avoidance motivational conflictB. avoidance-avoidance motivational conflictC. approach-approach motivational conflictD. none of the given answersExtroversion, instability, agreeableness, openness to experience andconscientious are all part of:A. multi-trait theoryB. five factor model of personalityC. social learning theoryD. brand personalityHolden Motor Vehicles likes to be seen as modern, value priced, sleekand Australian cars. This is an example of:A. brand personalityB. brand imageC. brand recallD. A and B 10-62
  63. 63. A person saying that they want a coffee or the day will only get worseis an example of:A. manifest motiveB. latent motiveC. consumption motiveD. none of the given answersAnswer: ANike’s slogan of ‘Just Do It’ is an example of:A. affective preservation motiveB. cognitive growth motiveC. attribution theoryD. internal attribution theory 10-63
  64. 64. Chapter Eleven 11-64
  65. 65. An individuals attitude toward a particular product might not correspondlogically with a particular instance of behaviour toward that object because:A. behaviours require motives or needs as well as attitudesB. translating attitudes into actions requires abilityC. purchases involve trade-offs across attitudesD. all of the given answersWhich of the following may reduce attitude component consistency:A. general measures of attitude that do not predict situation-specific purchasesB. inability to acquire the attitude objectC. joint decision-making that may produce compromise purchasesD. none of the given answersUsing the ideal point multi-attribute attitude models presented in the text, thelower a computed attitude score, the ____________ the attitude:A. more favourableB. more neutralC. more unfavourableD. more uncertain 11-65
  66. 66. The larger the attitude score (using the ideal point multi-attribute attitudemodels presented in the text), the ____________ the attitude:A. more favourableB. more neutralC. less favourableD. more crystallisedThe fact that advertising may alter affect directly and, by altering affect,indirectly alter purchase behaviour without first changing beliefs impliesthat:A. repetition is critical for affect-based campaignsB. classical conditioning principles should guide such campaignsC. traditional measures of advertising effectiveness are inappropriate foraffect-based campaignsD. all of the given answersWhich of the following is a basic strategy for altering the cognitive structureof a consumers attitude:A. change the belief(s) about the attributes of the brandB. change the relative importance of the beliefsC. add new beliefsD. all of the given answers are basic strategies 11-66
  67. 67. Which of the following is NOT a basic strategy for altering the cognitivestructure of a consumers attitude:A. change the belief(s) about the attributes of the brandB. change the underlying motivationC. add beliefsD. change the belief(s) about the attributes of the ideal brandBenefit segmentation is different to lifestyle segmentation because itinvolves grouping consumers in segments on the basis of:A. similar affective ratingsB. similar perceptions/beliefs of performance on specific attributesC. similar behavioural componentsD. none of the given answersA theory that explains how attitudes are formed and changed under varyingconditions of involvement is the:A. multi-attribute modelB. elaboration likelihood modelC. ideal point modelD. central and peripheral model 11-67
  68. 68. Source credibility is a function of:A. cognitive and affective componentsB. operant conditioningC. trustworthiness and expertiseD. subject receptivenessUnder some conditions, the discounting of the message caused by a non-credible source dissipates over time and the message produces attitudechanges similar to one delivered by a credible source. This is known as:A. delayed attitude changeB. the source credibility effectC. the sleeper effectD. source-time interactionEmotional advertisements may enhance attitude formation or attitudechange by increasing:A. ad memorabilityB. product likingC. the ads ability to attract and maintain attentionD. all of the given answers 11-68
  69. 69. For fear appeals to be effective:A. the level of fear must be very lowB. the level of fear must be extremely highC. a highly credible source should be usedD. fear appeals are almost never effectiveCelebrity sources may enhance attitude change due to the fact that:A. they may be viewed as more credible than non-celebritiesB. consumers may associate known characteristics of the celebrity withattributes of the product which coincide with their own needs or desiresC. celebrities may attract more attention to the advertisement than wouldnon-celebritiesD. all of the given answersHonest Sumit, an Indian electronics retailer, uses soccer star Harry Kewelland music by U2 in an ad for his products. This ad targets the affectivecomponent of consumers through what theory:A. affective learningB. behavioural learningC. emotional conditioningD. classical conditioning 11-69

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