BB Practice Essay Questions And MCQ (Part Two Chapters 8-11)


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BB Practice Essay Questions And MCQ (Part Two Chapters 8-11)

  1. 1. Consumer Behavior Practice Questions and MC Questions (Part Two: Chapters 8-11) 2-1
  2. 2. Note!! • It is important to practice some of the questions at the back of the text as well as attempt some Multiple-Choice Questions • The answers to the selected practice essay questions here do NOT represent a “model answer” and you are strongly advised to draft your own approach and give your own local examples • The MCQ do not have answers- practice these yourself and compare with your classmates 2-2
  3. 3. Review and discussion questions Chapter Eight: Perception 2-3
  4. 4. Review and discussion questions (selected) from end of the chapter 2-4
  5. 5. Review Questions What is information processing? How is perception a part of this system? Information processing is a series of activities whereby an individual acquires, stores and assigns meaning to stimuli. Perception is the process of exposure to information. This process may be selective; it may be that not all the information, nor the exact content of information, is totally received by the individual for information processing. How can exposure be defined? What influences the type of objects, messages and events that an individual consumer will seek exposure to? Exposure occurs when a stimulus comes within range of one of the individual’s primary sensory receptors. We are exposed to only a small fraction of the available stimuli, and this is usually the result of ‘self-selection’. Situational as well as stimulus factors will affect which stimuli a consumer is exposed to, i.e. placement and location. 2-5
  6. 6. What is the function of attention as part of the process of perception? What factors affect the stimuli that a consumer will attend to? How do marketers use this? Attention occurs when the stimulus activates one or more sensory receptor nerves and the resulting sensations go into the brain for processing. There are two determinants of attention: stimulus factors—physical characteristics of the stimulus itself; and individual factors—characteristics of the individual consumer. Marketers use their knowledge of the effects of manipulating these factors, alone and in combination, to bring about attention to exposed stimuli. Which stimulus factors are most effective in attracting attention? What problems can arise from a marketing point of view by simply relying on stimulus factors? Stimulus factors include: contrast; intensity; colour; movement; position; isolation; and closure. Two potential problems are that the strategy will be so successful in attracting attention to the stimulus object that it will reduce the attention devoted to the sales message; and that the stimulus will have a negative effect on the interpretation of the message. 2-6
  7. 7. What function does interpretation fulfil? What effect does it have on how the meaning of a stimulus is created? Interpretation is the assignment of meaning to stimuli that have been attended to. Interpretation is a function of individual, as well as stimulus-related and situational, characteristics. Cognitive interpretation appears to involve a process whereby new stimuli are placed in existing categories of meaning. Affective interpretation is the emotional or feeling response triggered by the stimulus. What is the difference between cognitive and affective interpretation? Cognitive interpretation involves the process whereby new stimuli are placed in existing categories of meaning (e.g. when compact disc players were a new product, they were interpreted by comparing them with cassette tape recorders). Affective interpretation is an emotional response triggered by a stimulus, such as an advertisement for wearing safety belts that depicts a rather ugly accident in which the driver is not wearing a safety belt. 2-7
  8. 8. How does knowledge of the process of perception assist the marketing manager in: (a) formulating a media or a retail strategy? (b) designing advertisements and packages? (c) developing brand names? (d) evaluating and regulating advertising? Marketing managers use their knowledge of information processing in a variety of ways. The fact that media exposure is selective is the basis for media strategy. Retailers can enhance their operations by viewing their outlets as information environments. Both stimulus and personal-interest factors are used to attract attention to advertisements and packages. Characteristics of the target market and the message are studied to ensure that accurate interpretation occurs. The meaning that consumers assign to words and parts of words is the basis for selecting a brand name. Information-processing theory guides a wide range of advertising evaluation techniques. 2-8
  9. 9. Discussion Questions 1. How could a marketing manager for (a) the Quit (anti-smoking) campaign, (b) a restaurant chain, (c) a superannuation fund, (d) children’s toys or (e) a boutique vineyard use the material in this chapter to guide the development of a national advertising campaign? Would the usefulness of this material be limited just to advertising decisions? Explain your answer. 2-9
  10. 10. The following points are critical: Exposure: Will the target market seek out the information? Students should describe how their media selections will change based on whether or not the target market will actively seek the information. Attention: As above, except that the emphasis is on the advertisement content and the use of stimulus factors to attract attention. Interpretation: Here the student must be sure that the meaning assigned to the advertisement is consistent with objectives of the firm. The usefulness of the information is not limited to advertising. The product itself is a piece of information, and is subject to all the laws of perception. Its colour, shape and so forth give the consumer meaning that can influence the purchase decision. The personal sales presentation is also subject to perceptual concepts, as are store design and layout. 2-10
  11. 11. Multiple-Choice Questions (answers given during lectures) 2-11
  12. 12. Perception is the activity that: A. links the consumer to marketer, group and situation influences B. translates data into information C. converts stimuli into effect D. relates external and internal influences Which of the following is NOT a major step in information processing: A. attention B. interpretation C. exposure D. all of the given answers are steps in information processing Answer: D Exposure occurs when: A. a stimulus comes within range of our sensory receptor nerves B. the individual assigns some meaning to the stimulus C. the individual can recall the stimulus D. the individual becomes aware of the stimulus 2-12
  13. 13. Which of the following is not a stimulus factor that influences attention: A. position B. contrast C. isolation D. all of the given answers influence attention If a target market is not interested in a product, the marketer should consider: A. using stimulus factors to ensure attention B. blending the message with a topic of interest to the target market C. using either celebrities or humour D. all of the given answers Hemispheric lateralisation refers to: A. transfers from long- to short-term memory B. transfers from short- to long-term memory C. information flow from the nervous system to the brain D. different types of activities being controlled by each side of the brain 2-13
  14. 14. Which of the following is NOT a generalisation about how interpretation occurs: A: interpretation involves placing stimuli into existing categories of meaning B. stimuli are interpreted consistent with the individual's expectations C. temporary characteristics of individuals affect their interpretations D. all of the given answers are valid generalisations When consumers interpret lower price to reflect lower quality, this is an example of: A. semantics B. semiotics C. anthropology D. cognitive interpretation Misinterpretation of television communications: A. affects primarily the lower social strata B. is more severe in program content than in commercials C. is more severe in commercials than in program content D. A and B 2-14
  15. 15. Subliminal perception involves: A. responding to emotional feelings rather than objective stimuli B. interpreting stimuli based on innate rather than learned factors C. interpreting stimuli based on learned rather than innate factors D. none of the given answers Which theory is used to explain and hypothesise that the core reason for decline in the impact of television advertising is adjustment to the level and type of stimuli to which we are accustomed: A: selective retention theory B. selective perception theory C. adaptation level theory D. adaptation overload theory Tammy, a marketing student at uni, usually completes her assignment on her laptop whilst watching TV, listening to her friends, taking phone calls, and checking email and Facebook. Tammy might be experiencing: A. information compression B. adaptation level theory C. information overload D. none of the given answers 2-15
  16. 16. Two important personal variables affecting interpretation are: A. learning and involvement B. involvement and interpretation C. learning and expectations D. none of the given answers The two critical tasks that advertising and packaging must perform are: A. capture attention and convey meaning B. capture attention and influence perception C. convey meaning and influence perception D. change perception and capture attention 2-16
  17. 17. Review and discussion questions Chapter Nine: Learning and Memory 2-17
  18. 18. Review and discussion questions (selected) from end of the chapter 2-18
  19. 19. Review Questions 1. What are the different kinds of learning theories? Consumers use two basic types of learning: conditioning and cognition. There are two forms of conditioned learning: classical and operant. Classical conditioning is the process of using an existing relationship between a stimulus and response to bring about the learning of the same response to a different stimulus. Reinforcement plays a much larger role in operant conditioning than it does in classical conditioning. No automatic stimulus–response relationship is involved, so the subject must first be induced to engage in the desired behaviour, and then this behaviour must be reinforced. The cognitive approach to learning encompasses the mental activities of humans as they work to solve problems. It includes iconic rote learning (forming associations between unconditioned stimuli without rewards), vicarious learning/modelling (learning by observing others) and reasoning. 2-19
  20. 20. 2. Describe low involvement learning. How does it differ from high involvement learning? A low involvement learning situation is one in which the consumer has little or no motivation to learn the material. Low-involvement learning can involve the same processes as high- involvement learning, but classical conditioning, iconic rote learning and modelling are most common. Repetition appears to be particularly important in low-involvement situations. 3. What is cognitive learning and how does it differ from the conditioning theory approach to learning? Cognitive learning can range from very simple information acquisition to abstract reasoning. Unlike conditioning theory, it does not require any form of conditioning (rewards or unconditioned stimuli). 2-20
  21. 21. 5. What is stimulus generalisation? When do marketers use it? Once we have learnt a particular response that works for us, we are able to capitalise on that learning by transferring it to similar learning situations (generalising). This is particularly useful to marketers in branding, where the use of a family brand allows consumers to learn product quality and performance via stimulus generalisation. 6. Define short-term memory and long-term memory. Short-term memory is that portion of total memory that is currently activated. Long-term memory is our total accumulation of prior learning. 7. What are elaborative activities? Elaborative activities are the use of previously stored experiences, values, attitudes, beliefs and feelings to interpret and evaluate information in current memory as well as add relevant, previously stored information. Elaborative activities serve to redefine or add new elements to memory. 2-21
  22. 22. 9. What is brand image? Why is it important? Brand image refers to the schematic memory of a brand. It contains the target market’s interpretation of the product’s attributes, benefits, usage situations, users and manufacturer/marketer characteristics. It is what we think of and feel when we hear or see a brand name. 10. What is brand equity? Brand equity is the value consumers assign to a brand above and beyond any specific functional characteristics of the product. There is a halo effect associated with the reputation of the brand, such that it has added value or meaning to consumers. 2-22
  23. 23. Discussion Questions 1. What kind of learning would you use to ensure that consumers learn a favourable product position for the following? (a) The Athlete’s Foot (b) The Salvation Army (c) Doritos corn chips (d) Porsche motorcycles (e) Motorola mobile phones The first point is whether high or low involvement learning is appropriate. This will require a discussion of the target market. Iconic rote learning and classical conditioning would be the main factors in a low involvement advertising campaign. Reasoning would be a good approach if high involvement learning was used. All aspects of the marketing mix must be consistent with the desired product image. 2-23
  24. 24. 3. Discuss stimulus generalisation and discrimination with respect to a firm’s branding strategy. Identify five brand names that encourage learning by utilising stimulus generalisation. Examples of brand names that encourage generalisation are General Electric, Yamaha, Westinghouse, Sunbeam, Revlon and Black & Decker. Examples of brand names that discourage generalisation are Procter and Gamble, WD & HO Wills, PTL. Stimulus generalisation occurs when, for an existing stimulus–response relationship, a new stimulus that is very similar to the existing one elicits the same response. Companies sometimes use stimulus generalisation in the form of family branding by placing the same brand name on their different products and brand extensions. Stimulus discrimination occurs when an individual learns to produce a response to one stimulus, but avoids making the same response to another, similar stimulus. Companies use advertising to differentiate their brands from the others in the market. 2-24
  25. 25. Multiple-Choice Questions (answers given during lectures) 2-25
  26. 26. Learning is: A. any change in the content or organisation of long-term memory B. the ability to recall a stimulus object C. the ability to relate to stimulus objects D. the link between stimuli and information processing Memory is: A. composed of two distinct physiological units, short- and long-term memory B. the ability to recall a stimulus object C. limited to cognitive elements D. composed of an active and an inactive component Maintenance rehearsal involves: A. expanding upon newly processed information with information from retention B. selectively removing information from retention C. transferring information from current memory to retention D. none of the given answers 2-26
  27. 27. Elaborative activities involve: A. transferring information from long-term memory to short-term memory B. selectively removing information from retention C. transferring information from current memory to retention D. none of the given answers Brands in the semantic memory for a consumer problem are referred to as: A. associated brands B. semantic brands C. recalled set D. evoked set Brand equity is: A. the company's share of the market B. the value attached to a brand above and beyond any specific functional characteristic of the product C. giving the same brand name to two different products D. B and C 2-27
  28. 28. Low-involvement learning: A. is probably the most common type of consumer learning B. seldom occurs C. does not differ noticeably from high-involvement learning D. requires relatively high reward levels to be effective High-involvement learning: A. occurs primarily in response to television commercials B. occurs when the individual is motivated to learn the material C. is rare in consumer behaviour D. is not very effective Learning that occurs when an individual is highly motivated to learn the material is known as: A. deliberate learning B. high-involvement learning C. evoked learning D. classical learning 2-28
  29. 29. Conditioning refers to learning: A. based upon association of stimulus and response B. under low-involvement conditions C. under high-involvement conditions D. using elaborative activities The process of using an established relationship between a stimulus and response to generate the same response to a different stimulus is known as: A. iconic conditioning B. operant conditioning C. instrumental conditioning D. classical conditioning The process of using a reinforcement to alter the probability that a given behaviour will be repeated is known as: A. classical conditioning B. iconic rote learning C. operant conditioning D. cognitive learning 2-29
  30. 30. A manufacturer that introduces a new snack product by giving numerous free samples is probably using: A. classical conditioning B. operant conditioning C. punishment conditioning D. cognitive learning Shaping involves: A. encouraging (rewarding) partial responses leading to the final desired response B. structuring an overall advertisement to provide the desired interpretation C. modifying behaviour over time using classical conditioning D. modifying behaviour over time using iconic rote learning The cognitive approach to learning: A. involves complex, creative problem solutions B. encompasses all the mental activities of humans as they work to solve problems or cope with situations C. involves learning ideas, concepts, attitudes and facts D: all of the given answers 2-30
  31. 31. Vicarious/modelling learning occurs in: A. high-involvement situations B. low-involvement situations C. both high-involvement and low-involvement situations D. reward-producing situations Reinforcement is: A. any positive response to behaviour B. anything that increases the likelihood that a given response will be repeated in the future C. the result of repetition in a high-involvement situation D. necessary for learning to occur Repeating a message a given number of times over a short time period rather than over a longer time period will produce: A. no significant differences in the amount of learning B. less rapid learning and forgetting C. a low level of initial learning but one that will last longer D. none of the given answers 2-31
  32. 32. Perceptual mapping: A. takes consumers’ perceptions of how similar brands or products are to each other B. alters consumers’ perceptions to fit the marketing strategy C. relates consumers’ perceptions to product attributes D. A and C only Message involvement is important to marketers because A. the more involved a consumer is with the message the more they will process that message B. the more involved a consumer is with the message the more likely they will be to remember that message C. this can change a consumer’s mood D. A and B You buy a new pair of jeans and the first day you wear them someone gives you a compliment about how you look in them. This is an example of: A. punishment B. reinforcement C. conditional learning D. none of the given answers 2-32
  33. 33. Review and discussion questions Chapter Ten: Motivation and Personality 2-33
  34. 34. Review and discussion questions (selected) from end of the chapter 2-34
  35. 35. Review Questions . Describe Maslow’s hierarchy of needs. How does it function? A motive hierarchy simply means that some motives are more important or basic than others. Maslow’s hierarchy-of-needs approach is based on four premises: (1) all humans acquire a similar set of motives through genetic endowment and social interaction; (2) some motives are more basic or critical than others; (3) the more basic motives must be satisfied to a minimum level before other motives are activated; and (4) as soon as the basic motives are satisfied, more advanced motives come into play. 2-35
  36. 36. 3. What are some of the limitations of Maslow’s theory? The theory proposes that as basic motives become satisfied, more advanced motives come into play. However, there are many examples of individuals who have sacrificed their lives for friends or ideas or have given up shelter and food to seek self-actualisation. Maslow’s theory is based on Western cultures, but many Asian cultures value social motives more highly than those of personal achievement and satisfaction. Some religions satisfy self-actualisation motives before physiological ones. And some individuals, by consuming products and services that may be detrimental to their health (e.g. cigarettes and alcohol), are focusing on satisfying their social or ego needs over their safety ones. Also, any given consumption behaviour can satisfy more than one need, and the same consumption behaviour can satisfy different needs at different times. 2-36
  37. 37. . What is (a) a manifest motive and (b) a latent motive? How can each be accessed in motivational research? Manifest motives are motives known to the individual, and are freely admitted. Latent motives are unknown to the individual, or are such that he or she is reluctant to admit them. They can be discovered by standard marketing research techniques such as direct questioning. Direct advertising appeals can be made to these motives. At other times, consumers are unable or unwilling to admit the motives that are influencing them—latent motives. This type of motive can be determined by motivation-research techniques such as word association, sentence completion and picture response. While direct advertising appeals can be used, indirect appeals are often necessary. In many purchase situations, both manifest and latent motives are operating. 2-37
  38. 38. 11. What is the relationship between emotions and physiological changes? The consistent presence of physiological changes during emotional experiences has led researchers to determine that physiological responses precede emotional responses. For example, when we start to fall, the physiological responses occur prior to the emotion of fear. 12. How can marketers use emotions in developing marketing strategies? Marketers want to elicit a particular emotional response to better gain the involvement of the consumer. The consumer’s emotional response will aid attention, interpretation and retention of the information presented. The combination of product positioning, advertising and emotions is powerful when successfully presented to target consumers. 2-38
  39. 39. Discussion Questions 1. How could Maslow’s hierarchy of needs be used to develop a marketing strategy for the following? (a) The Salvation Army (b) a gym (c) a night club (d) hair care products (e) a range of curry spices (f) an MP3 player The key to this question is to define the target market(s) carefully. Then the marketing mix can be structured to meet the level of need of the target market. Note that more than one level of need can be satisfied by each of those products. A marketing program geared towards one level may make the brand/product inappropriate for other levels. 2-39
  40. 40. 3. Marketers do not just satisfy consumers’ needs, they also create them in the first place. Discuss this statement in the context of innate versus acquired needs. In many ways marketing is about making people aware of unsatisfied (latent) needs. The needs can be triggered by making people aware of them. But it is unlikely that marketers actually create needs, because people do not seek things they do not need. The marketers simply seek to make them aware of their pre-existing need/s. 5. How could marketers apply the dimensions of brand personality shown in Figure 10.2 (p. 316) to develop a marketing campaign? Pick an example of a product or service and show how this might be done. Consumers often purchase cars to reflect their own personality (or their perception of the personality they would like to have). Marketers can therefore seek to establish a brand personality for their car so as to reflect the desired personality of the consumer. For example, consumers who see themselves as exciting and fun (or want to be seen as exciting and fun) will purchase a car that itself has a brand personality of exciting and fun. Through the use of colours, music, styling, images, users and celebrities etc. a marketer can create this fun and exciting personality around the brand. 2-40
  41. 41. Multiple-Choice Questions (answers given during lectures) 2-41
  42. 42. Which of the following is not an advantage of using emotional appeals in advertisements: A. emotional messages may be processed more thoroughly B. emotional messages may be remembered better than neutral ads C. emotional messages enhance the attention, attraction and maintenance capabilities of advertisements D. all of the given answers are advantages Maslow's need hierarchy involves all the motives below except: A. belongingness B. physiological C. self-actualisation D. all of the given answers are part of Maslow's hierarchy Projective techniques are particularly useful for measuring: A. internal motives B. external motives C. latent motives D. manifest motives 2-42
  43. 43. Which motivation research technique requires individuals to respond with the first word that comes to mind: A. construction B. projection C. association D. sentence completion According to the textbook, the liking/disliking aspect of a specific feeling is a(n): A. motive B. affect C. need D. emotion A latent motive is: A. a social motive B. a non-social motive C. the highest level of Maslow's hierarchy D. none of the given answers 2-43
  44. 44. A substantial amount of brand switching when the current brand is satisfactory may be explained by the ________________ motive: A. self-expression B. reinforcement C. need for novelty D. affiliation A consumer having difficulty choosing between a weekend holiday and a compact disc player is experiencing: A. approach-avoidance conflict B. approach-approach conflict C. avoidance-avoidance conflict D. alternative allocation conflict Individual personality theories are based, in part, on the assumption that: A. situations are the primary determinant of behaviour B. individuals respond primarily to internal motives C. motivation does not direct behaviour D. none of the given answers 2-44
  45. 45. Social learning theories of personality are based, in part, on the assumption that: A. the environment is the primary determinant of behaviour B. all individuals have internal characteristics or traits C. motivation does not direct behaviour D. situations do not influence individual behaviour patterns Consumers who continue to purchase a particular product because it has worked well in the past may be influenced by the _______________ need: A. modelling B. consistency C. reinforcement D. self-expression A theory of emotion holds that: A. physiological responses occur after internal processes B. emotion precedes physiological response C. there is no relation between emotion and physiological response D. physiological response accompanies emotion 2-45
  46. 46. A consumer who is worried about gaining weight but finds it hard to give up their snack habit is faced with sort of problem: A. approach-avoidance motivational conflict B. avoidance-avoidance motivational conflict C. approach-approach motivational conflict D. none of the given answers Extroversion, instability, agreeableness, openness to experience and conscientious are all part of: A. multi-trait theory B. five factor model of personality C. social learning theory D. brand personality Holden Motor Vehicles likes to be seen as modern, value priced, sleek and Australian cars. This is an example of: A. brand personality B. brand image C. brand recall D. A and B 2-46
  47. 47. A person saying that they want a coffee or the day will only get worse is an example of: A. manifest motive B. latent motive C. consumption motive D. none of the given answers Answer: A Nike’s slogan of ‘Just Do It’ is an example of: A. affective preservation motive B. cognitive growth motive C. attribution theory D. internal attribution theory 2-47
  48. 48. Review and discussion questions Chapter Eleven: Attitude and Attitude Change 2-48
  49. 49. Review and discussion questions (selected) from end of the chapter 2-49
  50. 50. Review Questions 2. What are the components of an attitude? What drives an individual to achieve consistency amongst attitude components? What factors may reduce the apparent consistency between attitude components? The cognitive component of an attitude consists of an individual’s beliefs and knowledge about an object. The affective component represents one’s feelings about, or emotional reactions towards, an object. The behavioural component consists of overt actions and/or statements of behaviour related to an object. All three components of attitude tend to be consistent and reinforce a particular attitude. That is, a favourable attitude is generally composed of positive cognitions (beliefs), positive feelings (affect) and intentions to use or consume (behaviour). 2-50
  51. 51. Measures of beliefs and feelings are not always consistent with product/brand use or purchase because: • a favourable attitude requires a need or motive before it can be translated into action • translating favourable beliefs and feelings into ownership requires ability • purchases often involve trade-offs both within and between product categories • if the cognitive and affective components are weakly held, when the consumer obtains additional information while shopping, the initial attitudes may give way to new ones • many purchase decisions involve other household members either directly or indirectly • we generally measure brand attitudes independently of the purchase situation, but many items are purchased for specific situations • it is difficult to measure all of the relevant aspects of an attitude. 2-51
  52. 52. 3. What strategies can be used to change the following components of an attitude? (a) affective (b) behavioural (c) cognitive (a) Affective: Various forms of classical conditioning, particularly emotional ads, can be used, as can ‘mere exposure’. (b) Behavioural: Operant conditioning and ‘shaping’ are most effective. (c) Cognitive: Cognitive learning, including iconic rote learning, is important in this area. 4. What makes an attitude more resistant to change? As attitude is built on three components, to make any attitude change involves changing all three components. In general, all three components of an attitude tend to be consistent with each other. Hence, if marketing managers can influence one component, the other components may also be influenced. Attitude-change strategies can focus on affect, behaviour, cognition or some combination of these. Attempts to change affect generally rely on classical conditioning. Change strategies focusing on behaviour rely more on operant conditioning. Changing cognition usually involves information processing and cognitive learning. 2-52
  53. 53. 8. What are the types of appeal characteristics? There are many different types of appeal. Fear appeals make use of the threat of negative consequences if attitudes or behaviour are not altered. They are useful in persuasive messages for certain types of products. While fear appeals have been studied primarily in terms of physical fear, social fears are also used in advertising. Humorous appeals can also be effective in influencing attitudes. However, the humorous message must remain focused on the brand or main selling point in order to be effective. It is not clear yet what causes comparative ads to succeed or fail. They therefore require extensive pre-testing. Emotional appeals have been found to have a strong effect on attitudes towards both the advertisement and the product. The effectiveness of one- versus two-sided messages depends largely on the situation and the characteristics of the target audience. Non-verbal aspects of the advertisement, such as pictures, surrealism and music, also affect attitudes. 2-53
  54. 54. 9. What factors influence the effectiveness of fear appeals in changing attitudes? For fear appeals to be successful, the level of fear must not be so great as to cause the consumer to distort or reject the message. In addition, the message must be believable in that the source of the fear-arousing message is viewed as highly credible. 10. When is a two-sided message likely to be more effective than a one-sided message? In a one-sided message, only a positive point of view is expressed; in a two-sided message, both good and bad points are expressed. One-sided messages are more effective in reinforcing attitudes, whereas two-sided messages are more effective in accomplishing attitude change. Two-sided messages have been shown to be particularly effective in communicating to highly educated consumers. 2-54
  55. 55. Discussion Questions 5. How might a marketing manager for an energy-sports-drink company influence attitudes towards their brand through: (a) changing beliefs about the attributes of the sports drink? (b) changing the relative importance of these beliefs? (c) adding a new belief? (d) changing beliefs about the attributes of the ideal sports drink? (a) The key here is to give information to change thoughts on the brand. Giving statistics, figures on performance enhancement etc. would achieve this. (b) This is achieved by identifying why particular attributes need to be considered. For example, an ad could be run discussing strength of the drink and highlighting what could happen if a sports drinks is not strong enough. (c) Feature evidence on something that needs to be considered, such whether it contains a certain ingredient not before discussed. (d) Much of what has already been discussed will change attitudes on what a sports drink should contain and as such would change the ideal drink. Marketing new attributes or altering existing attribute perceptions will ultimately change the ideal perception. 2-55
  56. 56. 7. What type of message appeal would be most suitable in attempting to improve consumers’ attitudes to the following? (a) a boutique beer (b) a credit union (c) Apple computers (d) McDonald’s (e) Pantene hair shampoo (f) garbage recycling Construct the table below and, for each product, discuss which type of appeal or combination would be most appropriate to attract attention and communicate key content to target consumers. 2-56
  57. 57. Type of appeal A A Apple Mc- Pantene Garbage boutique credit computers Donald’s hair recyc- beer union shampoo ling Source credibility X X Fear appeals X Humour appeal X Comparative ads X X X Emotional appeals X X One-sided X X X X message Two-sided X X message 2-57
  58. 58. Multiple-Choice Questions (answers given during lectures) 2-58
  59. 59. An individual's attitude toward a particular product might not correspond logically with a particular instance of behaviour toward that object because: A. behaviours require motives or needs as well as attitudes B. translating attitudes into actions requires ability C. purchases involve trade-offs across attitudes D. all of the given answers Which of the following may reduce attitude component consistency: A. general measures of attitude that do not predict situation-specific purchases B. inability to acquire the attitude object C. joint decision-making that may produce compromise purchases D. none of the given answers Using the ideal point multi-attribute attitude models presented in the text, the lower a computed attitude score, the ____________ the attitude: A. more favourable B. more neutral C. more unfavourable D. more uncertain 2-59
  60. 60. The larger the attitude score (using the ideal point multi-attribute attitude models presented in the text), the ____________ the attitude: A. more favourable B. more neutral C. less favourable D. more crystallised The fact that advertising may alter affect directly and, by altering affect, indirectly alter purchase behaviour without first changing beliefs implies that: A. repetition is critical for affect-based campaigns B. classical conditioning principles should guide such campaigns C. traditional measures of advertising effectiveness are inappropriate for affect-based campaigns D. all of the given answers Which of the following is a basic strategy for altering the cognitive structure of a consumer's attitude: A. change the belief(s) about the attributes of the brand B. change the relative importance of the beliefs C. add new beliefs D. all of the given answers are basic strategies 2-60
  61. 61. Which of the following is NOT a basic strategy for altering the cognitive structure of a consumer's attitude: A. change the belief(s) about the attributes of the brand B. change the underlying motivation C. add beliefs D. change the belief(s) about the attributes of the ideal brand Benefit segmentation is different to lifestyle segmentation because it involves grouping consumers in segments on the basis of: A. similar affective ratings B. similar perceptions/beliefs of performance on specific attributes C. similar behavioural components D. none of the given answers A theory that explains how attitudes are formed and changed under varying conditions of involvement is the: A. multi-attribute model B. elaboration likelihood model C. ideal point model D. central and peripheral model 2-61
  62. 62. Source credibility is a function of: A. cognitive and affective components B. operant conditioning C. trustworthiness and expertise D. subject receptiveness Under some conditions, the discounting of the message caused by a non- credible source dissipates over time and the message produces attitude changes similar to one delivered by a credible source. This is known as: A. delayed attitude change B. the source credibility effect C. the sleeper effect D. source-time interaction Emotional advertisements may enhance attitude formation or attitude change by increasing: A. ad memorability B. product liking C. the ad's ability to attract and maintain attention D. all of the given answers 2-62
  63. 63. For fear appeals to be effective: A. the level of fear must be very low B. the level of fear must be extremely high C. a highly credible source should be used D. fear appeals are almost never effective Celebrity sources may enhance attitude change due to the fact that: A. they may be viewed as more credible than non-celebrities B. consumers may associate known characteristics of the celebrity with attributes of the product which coincide with their own needs or desires C. celebrities may attract more attention to the advertisement than would non-celebrities D. all of the given answers Honest Sumit, an Indian electronics retailer, uses soccer star Harry Kewell and music by U2 in an ad for his products. This ad targets the affective component of consumers through what theory: A. affective learning B. behavioural learning C. emotional conditioning D. classical conditioning 2-63