Influence tactics of leaders


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Influence tactics of leaders

  1. 1. Influence Tactics of Leaders
  2. 2. Influence <ul><li>Is defined as </li></ul><ul><li>“ a force one person (the agent) exerts on someone else (the target) to induce a change in the target, including changes in behaviors, opinions, attitudes, goals, needs and values” </li></ul><ul><li>“ The ability to affect the behavior of others in a particular direction.” </li></ul>
  3. 3. <ul><li>To influence, a leader uses strategies or tactics, actual behaviors designed to change another person’s attitudes, beliefs, values or actions. </li></ul>How to influence?
  4. 4. Power <ul><li>The concept of power often evokes negative impressions. For example, referring to the use of power can infer that people are being dominated, manipulated or coerced. </li></ul><ul><li>Power is the ability to bring about change in one’s psychological environment. </li></ul><ul><li>Power is the potential or capacity to influence. </li></ul>
  5. 5. INFLUENCE MODEL Power and Influence Tactics Commitment, Compliance, Resistance Group effectiveness Follower Performance Follower satisfaction Leader Behavior Follower Responses End Result Leader characteristics Style Situation
  6. 6. Influence tactics <ul><li>Rational Persuasion </li></ul><ul><li>Inspirational appeal </li></ul><ul><li>Consultation </li></ul><ul><li>Ingratiation </li></ul><ul><li>Exchange </li></ul><ul><li>Personal Appeal </li></ul><ul><li>Coalition </li></ul><ul><li>Legitimating </li></ul><ul><li>Pressure </li></ul>
  7. 7. Influence tactics <ul><li>Consultation </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Need your support so will seek your assistance or modify your proposal to get it. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Reward, coercive or legitimate </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Rational Persuasion </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Logical arguments and factual evidence </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Expert Power </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Inspirational appeal </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Arouse enthusiasm by appealing to values ideals and aspirations </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Referent power </li></ul></ul>
  8. 8. Influence tactics <ul><li>Ingratiation </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Get you in a good mood before asking you for something </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Reward Power </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Exchange </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Quid pro Quo </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Reward Power </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Personal Appeal </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Appeals to your feelings of loyalty and friendship </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Referent or Reward Power </li></ul></ul>
  9. 9. Influence tactics <ul><li>Coalition </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Get someone else to persuade you to comply </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Use someone else’s support as reason for you to comply </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Coercive Power </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Legitimating </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Claims to have the authority to get you to do something </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Verifying its in the policy manual, rules or practices and traditions </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Legitimate Power </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Pressure </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Use demands threats or persistent reminders </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Coercive Power </li></ul></ul>
  10. 10. Effectiveness of a tactic? <ul><li>Is it consistent with social norms and role expectations </li></ul><ul><li>Does leader have appropriated power base </li></ul><ul><li>Will tactics influence followers’ attitude </li></ul><ul><li>The leader’s skill in using tactic </li></ul><ul><li>How much built in resistance because of the nature of the request </li></ul>
  11. 11. Essentially Ethical and Honest Influence Tactics
  12. 12. Essentially Dishonest and Unethical Influence Tactics a person's tendency to deceive and manipulate other people for their personal gain
  13. 13. <ul><li>Tactics that create favorable follower attitude. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Consultation, inspirational appeal, rational persuasion. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Tactics that result in compliance without changing attitudes—coercion and manipulation. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Pressure, legitimating, some coalition building </li></ul></ul>Effectiveness of tactics
  14. 14. Sequencing of Influence Tactics Begin with the most positive, or least abrasive tactic If necessary, proceed to a stronger tactic Use a more abrasive tactic such as upward appeal only as a last resort Begin with low-cost, low-risk tactics <ul><li>If necessary, proceed to higher-cost, higher- risk tactic </li></ul>
  15. 15. Implicit leadership <ul><li>Implicit leadership theory refers to beliefs held about how leaders behave in general and what is expected of them (Eden & Leviathan, 1975). </li></ul><ul><li>Prototypes are positive characterizations of a leader. </li></ul><ul><li>Ant prototypes are traits and behaviors people do not want to see in a leader. </li></ul>
  16. 16. Implicit Leadership Theory Dimensions