Antiprotozoal protozoa nematodes cestodes trematodes • Malaria, Amebiasis and Balantidial Dysentery Leishmaniasis,Trypanosomiasis,Trichomoniasis, and Giardiasis

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• Malaria, Amebiasis and Balantidial Dysentery Leishmaniasis,Trypanosomiasis,Trichomoniasis, and Giardiasis

• Malaria, Amebiasis and Balantidial Dysentery Leishmaniasis,Trypanosomiasis,Trichomoniasis, and Giardiasis

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  • 1. (antiprotozoal & anthelmintic) MWEETWA L: Pharmacologist University of Zambia & Lusaka Apex Medical University Pharmacy Faculty CHEMOTHERAPEUTIC DRUGS
  • 2. antiprotozoal • Protozoal infections are common among people in underdeveloped tropical and subtropical countries due to Poor :- • 1.sanitary conditions and hygienic practices, and • 2.control of the vectors of transmission. • However, with increased world travel, protozoal diseases, such as malaria, amebiasis,leishmaniasis, trypanosomiasis, trichomoniasis, and giardiasis, are no lon-ger confined to specific geographic locales. • Because they are eukaryotes, the unicellular protozoal cells have metabolic processes closer to those of the human host than to prokaryotic bacterial pathogens. Therefore,protozoal diseases are less easily treated than bacterial infections, andmany of the antiprotozoal drugs cause serious toxic effects in the host.
  • 3. EXAMPLES OF protozoa DISEASES • Malaria • Amebiasis and Balantidial Dysentery • Leishmaniasis, • Trypanosomiasis, • Trichomoniasis, and • Giardiasis
  • 4. summary of antiprotozoal agents
  • 5. Amebiasis chemotherapy Amebiasis (also called amebic dysentery) is an infection of the intestinal tract caused by Entamoeba histolytica. The disease can be acute or chronic, with patients showing varying degrees of illness, from no Symptoms to mild diarrhea to fulminating dysentery. The diagnosis is estab-lished by isolating E. histolytica from fresh feces. Therapy is aimed not only at the acutely ill patient but also at those who are asymptomatic carriers, because dormant E. histolytica may cause future infections in the carrier and be a potential source of infection for others.
  • 6. Life cycle of Entamoeba histolytica • Entamoeba histolytica exists in two forms: cysts that can survive out-side the body and labile but invasive trophozoites that do not persist outside the body. • Cysts, ingested through feces-contaminated food or water, pass into the lumen of the intestine, where the trophozoites are liberated. • The trophozoites multiply, and they either invade and ulcerate the mucosa of the large intestine or simply feed on intestinal • bacteria. • The trophozoites within the intestine are slowly carried toward the rec-tum, where they return to the cyst form and are excreted in feces. • [Note: One strategy for treating luminal amebiasis is to add • antibiotics, such as tetracycline, to the treatment regimen, resulting • in a reduction in intestinal flora, the ameba’s major food source.]
  • 7. AMEBIASIS life cycle
  • 8. COMPLICATIONS • Liver abscess • Pleuropulmonary disease • Peritonitis • Pericarditis • Brain abscess • Genitourinary disease
  • 9. CHEMOTHERAPY FOR AMEBIASIS • Classification of amebicidal drugs • Therapeutic agents are classified as luminal, systemic, or mixed (luminal • and systemic) amebicides according to the site where the drug is effective see Figure below. • For example • Luminal amebicides act on the para-site in the lumen of the bowel. • whereas systemic amebicides are effective against amebas in the intestinal wall and liver. • Mixed amebicides are effective against both the luminal and systemic forms of the disease, • although luminal concentrations are too low for single-drug treatment. • Mixed amebicides (metronidazole and tinidazole) Metronidazole is the mixed amebicide of choice for treating amebic infections and kills the E. histolytica trophozoites and also effective against by Giardia lamblia, Trichomonas vaginalis, anaerobic cocci, and anaerobic gram-negative bacilli
  • 10. Life cycle of Entamoeba histolytica, showing the sites of action of amebicidal drugs.
  • 11. metronindazole • Mechanism of action: • Metronidazole is a prodrug. Unionized metronidazole is selective for anaerobic bacteria due to their ability to intracellularly reduce metronidazole to its active form. This reduced metronidazole then covalently binds to DNA, disrupt its helical structure, inhibiting bacterial nucleic acid synthesis and resulting in bacterial cell death.
  • 12. Pharmacokinetics: • Metronidazole is completely and rapidly absorbed after oral administration • For the treatment of amebiasis, it is usually administered with a luminal • amebicide, such as iodoquinol or paromomycin. • This combination provides cure rates of greater than 90 percent. • Metronidazole distributes well throughout body tissues and fluids. • Therapeutic levels can be found in vaginal and seminal fluids, saliva, breast • milk, and cerebrospinal fluid (CSF). • Metabolism of the drug depends on hepatic oxidation of the metronidazole side chain by • mixed-function oxidase, followed by glucuronylation. Therefore, • concomitant treatment with inducers of this enzymatic system, such as phenobarbital, enhances the rate of meta-bolism. • Conversely, those drugs that inhibit this system, such as cimetidine, prolong the plasma half-life of metronidazole. The drug accumulates in patients with severe hepatic disease. • The parent drug and its metabolites are excreted in the urine.
  • 13. Adverse effects • The most common adverse effects are those associated with the gastrointestinal tract, including • nausea • Vomiting • epigastric distress • abdominal cramps • Oral moniliasis and • Metallic taste is commonly experienced • Disulfiram-like effect occurs due to alcohol interaction
  • 14. Tinidazole • Tinidazole is a second-generation nitro-imidazole that is similar to metronidazole in spectrum of activity i.e • Absorption • Adverse effects and • drug interactions • Used in treatment of amebiasis, amebic liver abcess, giardiasis, and trichomoniasis • Tinidazole is as effective as metronidazole, with a shorter
  • 15. commonly used therapeutic options for the treatment of amebiasis
  • 16. Luminal amebicides • After treatment of invasive intestinal or extraintestinal amebic disease is complete, • a luminal agent, such as iodoquinol, oxanide furoate, or paromomycin should be administered for treatment of the symptom- atic colonization state.
  • 17. 1. Iodoquinol • Iodoquinol a halogenated 8-hydroxy quinolone, is amebicidal against E. histolytica and is effective against the luminal trophozoite and cyst forms. • Side effects • Rash • Diarrhea and • Dose-related peripheral neuropathy, including a rare optic neuritis. • Long-term use of this drug should be avoided.
  • 18. Paromomycin • Paromomycin an aminogly-coside antibiotic, is only effective against the intestinal (luminal) forms of E. histolytica and tapeworm, because it is not significantly absorbed from the gastrointestinal tract. • It is an alternative agent for cryptosporidiosis. • Paramomycin is directly amebicidal and also exerts its antiamebic actions by reducing the population of intesti-nal flora. • Its direct amebicidal action is probably due to the effects it has on cell membranes, causing leakage. • Very little of the drug is absorbed on oral ingestion, but that which is absorbed is excreted in urine. • Gastrointestinal distress and diarrhea are the principal adverse effects.
  • 19. Systemic amebicides • These drugs are useful for treating • Liver abscesses and • intestinal wall infections caused by amebas. • These include:- • Ementine andChloroquine
  • 20. Chloroquine • Chloroquine is used in combination with metronidazole and diloxanide furoate to treat and prevent amebic liver abscesses. • It eliminates trophozoites in liver abscesses, but it is not useful in treating luminal amebiasis. •
  • 21. Emetine • Emetine and dehydroemetine are alternative agents for the treat- • ment of amebiasis. • They inhibit protein synthesis by blocking chain elongation. • 1 Intramuscular injection is the preferred route. • Emetine is concentrated in the liver, where it persists for a month after a single dose. • It is slowly metabolized and excreted, and it can accumulate. • Its half-life in plasma is 5 days. • The use of these ipecac alka-loids is limited by their toxicities (dehydroemetine is less toxic than emetine), and close clinical observation is necessary when these drugs are administered • Among the untoward effects are pain at the site of injection, transient nausea, cardiotoxicity (for example, arrhythmias and congestive heart failure), neuromuscular weakness, dizziness, and rashes.
  • 22. CHEMOTHERAPY FOR MALARIA • OVERVIEW • Malaria is an acute infectious disease caused by four species of the protozoal Genus. Plasmodium • The parasite is transmitted to humans through the bite of a Female Anopheles mosquito with P Falciparum infection leading to capillary obstruction and death if treatment not commenced on time • P Falciparum is the most dangerous species causing an acute fulminating disease characterised by Fever, •
  • 23. OVERVIEW • Species • P Falciparum is the most dangerous • P Vivax causes a milder form of the disease • P Ovale is rarely encountered. • P Malariae common to many tropical regions. • Mosquitoes have acquired resistance to Insecticides and other parasite drugs has caused therapeutic challenges.
  • 24. Life Cycle of The Malarial Parasite • When an infected mosquito bites, it injects plasmodium sporozoites into the blood stream. • They migrate through the bloodstream to the liver. • Where they form cyst like structures containing thousands of merozoites. • Upon release each merozoite invades a red blood cell becoming a trophozoite using haemoglobin as a nutrient. • The trophozoites multiply and become
  • 25. Life Cycle of The Malarial Parasite • When cell ruptures heme and merozoites are released that can enter other erythrocytes and become gametocytes which are picked up by mosquitoes from the blood they ingest. • The cycle thus begins again
  • 26. Life Cycle of The Malarial Parasite
  • 27. Life Cycle of The Malarial Parasite
  • 28. Life Cycle of The Malarial Parasite simplified
  • 29. Drugs used to treat Malaria • - Therapeutic classification and - chemical classification Therapeutic classification 1. Causal Prophylaxis : (Primary Tissue schizonticides) • E.g proguanil, primaquine,mefloquine,doxycycline They Destroy parasites in liver and prevent invasion of erythrocytes 2. Clinical cure: erythrocytic schizonticides FAST ACTING HIGH EFFICACY E.g quinine,mefloquine,atovaquone, artemisinin
  • 30. Life cycle of the malarial parasite, Plasmodium falciparum, showing the sites of action of antimalarial drugs.
  • 31. Drugs used to treat Malaria • Drugs used to treat malaria can be classified in different ways e.g • SLOW ACTING LOW EFFICACY • E.g proguanil,pyrimethamine,sulfonamides, tetracyclines 3. Gametocidal • Destroy gametocytes and prevent transmission E.g primaquine,artemisinin – effective against all plasmodia • Quinine - P vivax,Proguanil, pyrimethamine - prevent development of sporozoites Chemical classification
  • 32. 1. A. Aminoquinolines • 4 aminoquinolines • e.g amodiaquine, hydroxychloroquine, pyronaridine - 8 aminoquinolines e.g primaquine, tafenoquine,bulaquine Mode of action • thought to inhibit heme polymerase activity. This results in accumulation of free heme, which is toxic to the parasites. The drug binds the free heme preventing the parasite from converting it to a form less toxic (hemozoin). This drug-heme complex is toxic and disrupts membrane function and kills the parasite
  • 33. Adverse effects • Side effects are minimal at the low doses used in the chemo suppression of malaria. • At higher doses, many more toxic effects occur, such as • Gastrointestinal upset • Pruritus • Headaches • And blurred vision • Chloroquine should be used cautiously in patients with hepatic dysfunction or severe gastrointestinal problems and in patients with neurologic or blood disorders • Chloroquine can cause electrocardiographic (ECG) changes, because it has a quinidine-like effect.
  • 34. 2. B. Biguanides • E.g proguanil, chlorproguanil Mode of action • They inhibits the dihydrofolate reductase of plasmodia and thereby blocks the biosynthesis of purines and pyrimidines, which are essential for DNA synthesis and cell multiplication. This leads to failure of nuclear division at the time of schizont formation in erythrocytes and liver.
  • 35. 3. C.chinchona alkaloids • E.g quinine,quinidine, quinimax Mode of action • They interfere with the parasite's ability to break down and digest hemoglobin. Consequently, the parasite starves and/or builds up toxic levels of partially degraded hemoglobin in itself. • Quinimax is a combination of four alkaloids (quinine, quinidine, cinchoine and cinchonidine). This combination has been shown in several studies to be more effective than quinine, supposedly due to a
  • 36. 4. D. Diaminopyrimidines • E.g pyrimethamine Mode of action • They inhibit the dihydrofolate reductase of plasmodia and thereby blocks the biosynthesis of purines and pyrimidines, which are essential for DNA synthesis and cell multiplication. This leads to failure of nuclear division at the time of schizont formation in erythrocytes and liver.
  • 37. 5.N. Napthoquinone • E.g atovaquone Mode of action • Atovaquone is a hydroxy- 1, 4- naphthoquinone, an analog of ubiquinone, with antipneumocystis activity. • In Plasmodium species, the site of action appears to be the cytochrome bc1 complex (Complex III). Several metabolic enzymes are linked to the mitochondrial electron transport chain via ubiquinone. Inhibition of electron transport by atovaquone will result in indirect inhibition of these enzymes. The ultimate metabolic effects of such blockade may include inhibition of nucleic acid and ATP synthesis • The mechanism of action against Pneumocystis carinii has not been fully elucidated. • Atovaquone also has been shown to have good in vitro activity against Toxoplasma gondii
  • 38. 6.P. Phenanthrene deravatives • E.g.Halofantrine, lumefantrine Mode of action Acts by forming toxic complexes with ferritoporphyrin IX that damage the membrane of the parasite.
  • 39. 7.S. sulfonamides • E.g sulfadoxine, dapsone Mode of action • Sulfadoxine targets Plasmodium dihydropteroate synthase and dihydrofolate reductase. • They compete with para-aminobenzoic acid (PABA) for incorporation into folic acid. • The action of sulfonamides exploits the difference between mammal cells and other kinds of cells in their folic acid metabolism. • Folic acid (as a vitamin) diffuses or is transported into human cells. However, folic acid cannot cross bacterial (and certain protozoan) cell walls by diffusion or active transport. For this reason bacteria must synthesize folic acid from p-aminobenzoic acid.
  • 40. 8.S. sesquiterpene lactones • E.g artesunate, artemether, arteether Mode of action • These compounds have presence of endoperoxide bridge which interact with heme in parasite • heme iron cleaves this endoperoxide bridge leading to generation of highly reactive free radicals which damage
  • 41. 9.T. Tetracyclines • E.g tetracycline,doxycycline Mode of action Tetracyclines passively diffuses through porin channels in the bacterial membrane and reversibly binds to the 30S ribosomal subunit, preventing binding of tRNA to the mRNA- ribosome complex, and thus interfering with protein synthesis.
  • 42. 10.Q. Quinoline methanol • E.g mefloquine Mode of action • Mefloquine has been found to produce swelling of the Plasmodium falciparum food vacuoles. It may act by forming toxic complexes with free heme that damage membranes and interact with other plasmodial components.
  • 43. Thank You • Twalumba!!!
  • 44. CHEMOTHERAPY FOR TRYPANOSOMIASIS • Trypanosomiasis refers to African sleeping sickness and American sleeping sickness • Two chronic and, eventually, fatal diseases caused by species • of Trypanosoma In African sleeping sickness, the causative organisms, T. brucei gambiense and T. brucei rhodiense, initially live and grow in the blood. • The parasite invades the CNS, causing an inflammation of the brain and spinal cord that produces the characteristic lethargy and,eventually, continuous sleep. • Chagas disease (American sleeping sickness) is caused by T. cruzi and occurs in South America.
  • 45. Melarsoprol • Melarsoprol is a derivative of mersalyl oxide, a trivalent arsenical. • Its use is limited to the treatment of trypanosomal infections (usually in the late stage with CNS involvement), and it is lethal to these parasites. • Mechanism of action: • The drug reacts with sulfhydryl groups of various substances, including enzymes in both the organism and host. The parasite’s enzymes may be more sensitive than those
  • 46. Pharmacokinetics • Melarsoprol usually is slowly administered intravenously through a fine needle • Eeven though it is absorbed from the gastrointestinal tract. Because it is very irritating, care should be taken not to infiltrate surrounding tissue. • Adequate trypanocidal concentrations appear in the CSF, whereas pentamidine does not penetrate the CSF. • Melarsoprol is, therefore, the agent of choice in the treatment of T. brucei rhodesiense, which rapidly invades the CNS, as well as for meningoencephalitis caused by T. brucei gambiense. • The host readily oxidizes melarsoprol to a relatively nontoxic, pentavalent arsenic compound. The drug has a very short half-life and is rapidly excreted in urine
  • 47. Adverse effects: • CNS toxicities are the most serious side effects of melarsoprol treatment. • Encephalopathy may appear soon after the first course of treatment but usually subsides. • In rare cases, however, it may be fatal. • Hypersensitivity reactions may also occur, and fever may follow injection. • Gastrointestinal disturbances, such as severe vomiting and abdominal pain, can be minimized if the patient is in the fasting state during drug administration and for several hours thereafter. • Melarsoprol is contraindicated in patients with influenza. • Hemolytic anemia has been seen in patients with glucose-6-phos- phate dehydrogenase deficiency.
  • 48. Pentamidine isethionate • Pentamidine is active against a variety of protozo-al infections, including many trypanosomes such as T. brucei gambiense, for which pentamidine is used to treat and prevent the organism’s hematologic stage. • However, some trypanosomes, including T. cruzi, are resistant. • Pentamidine is also effective in the treatment of systemic blastomycosis (caused by the fungus Blastomyces dermatitidis) and in treating infections caused by Pneumocystis jiroveci (formerly called Pneumocystis carinii, the name now used to refer to the organism in animals). • Note: It is now considered to be a fungus, but it is not sus- ceptible to antifungal drugs.
  • 49. Pentamidine... • Trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole is pre-ferred in the treatment of P. jiroveci infections. • However, pentamidine is an alternative in treating patients with pneumonia caused by P. Jiroveci who have failed to respond to trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole. • The drug is also used in treating P. jiroveci–infected individuals who are allergic to sulfonamides. • Because of the increased incidence of pneumonia caused by this organism in immunocompromised patients, such as HIV pentamidine has assumed an important place in chemotherapy. • Pentamidine is also an alternative drug to stibogluconate in the treatment of leishmaniasis.
  • 50. PENTAMIDINE Mechanism of action • Although its mechanism of action has not been defined, evidence exists that • the drug is thought to interfere with nuclear metabolism producing inhibition of the synthesis of DNA, RNA, phospholipids, and proteins by binding to the parasite’s DNA and interferes with its synthesis of • RNA, DNA, phospholipid, and protein.
  • 51. Pentamidine Pharmacokinetics • Fresh solutions of pentamidine are administered intramuscularly or as an aerosol • The IV route is avoided because of severe adverse reactions, such as a sharp fall in • blood pressure and tachycardia. • The drug is concentrated and stored in the liver and kidney for a long period of time. • Because it does not enter the CSF, it is ineffective against the meningoencephalitic stage of trypanosomiasis. • The drug is not metabolized, and it is excreted
  • 52. Pentamidine Adverse effects • Serious renal dysfunction may occur, which reverses on discontinuation of the drug. • Other adverse reactions are • Hypotension • Dizziness • Rash, and toxicity to β cells of the pancreas.
  • 53. Nifurtimox • Nifurtimox has found use only in the treatment of acute T. cruzi infections (Chagas disease), although treatment of the chronic stage of such infections has led to variable results. • [Note: Nifurtimox is suppressive, not curative.] • Being a nitroaromatic compound, nifurtimox undergoes reduction and eventually generates intracellular oxygen radicals, such as superoxide radicals and hydrogen peroxide • These highly reactive radicals are toxic to T. cruzi, which lacks catalase. • In Mammalian cells are partially protected from such substances by the presence of enzymes, such as catalase, glutathione peroxidase, and superoxide dismutase.
  • 54. Nifurtimox... • Nifurtimox is administered orally and is rapidly absorbed and metabolized to unidentified prod-ucts that are excreted in the urine. • Adverse effects are common following chronic administration, particularly among the elderly. Major toxicities include immediate hypersensitivity reactions such as anaphylaxis delayed hypersensitivity reactions, • such as dermatitis and icterus; and gastrointestinal problems that may be severe enough to cause weight • loss. • Peripheral neuropathy is relatively common, and disturbances in the CNS may also occur. In addition, cell-
  • 55. Suramin • Suramin is used primarily in the early treatment and, especially, the prophylaxis of African trypanosomiasis. • It is very reactive and inhibits many enzymes, among them those involved in energy metabolism (for example, glycerol phosphate dehydrogenase6), which appears to be the mechanism most closely correlated with trypanocidal activity. • The drug must be injected intravenously. • It binds to plasma proteins and remains in the
  • 56. Suramin... • The severity of the adverse reactions demands that the patient be carefully followed, especially if he or she is debilitated. • Although infrequent, adverse reactions include nausea and vomiting (which cause further debilitation of the patient) • shock and loss of consciousness; acute urticaria; and • neurologic prob-lems, including paresthesia, photophobia, palpebral edema (edema of the eyelids), and hyperesthesia of the hands and feet. Albuminuria tends to be common, but when cylindruria (the presence of renal casts in the urine)
  • 57. Benznidazole • Benznidazole is a nitroimidazole derivative that inhib- • its protein and RNA synthesis in T. cruzi cells. • It is an alternative choice for treatment of acute and indeterminate phases of Chagas disease. • But therapy with benznidazole does not offer any signifi cant efficacy or toxicity advantages over that with nifurtimox. • However, benznidazole is recommended as prophylaxis for preventing infections caused by T. cruzi among hematopoietic stem cell transplant recipients because • treatment in potential donors is not always effective.
  • 58. CHEMOTHERAPY FOR LEISHMANIASIS • There are three types of leishmaniasis: cutaneous, mucocutaneous, and visceral. • In the visceral type (liver and spleen), the parasite is in the bloodstream and can cause very serious problems. • Leishmaniasis is transmitted from animals to humans (and between humans) by the bite of infected sandflies. • The diagnosis is established by
  • 59. CHEMOTHERAPY FOR LEISHMANIASIS.. • The treatments of leishmaniasis and trypanosomiasis are difficult, because the effective drugs are limited by their toxicities and failure rates. • Pentavalent antimonials, such as sodium stibogluconate, are the conventional therapy used in the treatment of leishmaniasis, • with pentamidine and amphotericin B as backup agents. • Allopurinol has also been reported to be effective (it is converted to a toxic metabolite by • the amastigote form7 of the organism
  • 60. Life cycle of the causative organism: Leishmania species • The sandfly transfers the flagellated promastigote form of the protozoa, • which is rapidly phagocytized by macrophages. • In the macrophage, the promastigotes rapidly change to nonflagellated amastigotes and multiply, killing the cell.
  • 61. Life cycle of the causative organism: Leishmania species
  • 62. Sodium stibogluconate • Sodium stibogluconate is not effective in vitro. • Therefore, it has been proposed that reduction to the trivalent antimonial compound is essential for activity. • The exact mechanism of action has not been determined. • Evidence for inhibition of glycolysis in the parasite at the phosphofructokinase reaction8 has been found. • Because it is not absorbed on oral administration, sodium stibogluconate must be administered parenterally, and it is distributed in the extravascular compartment. • Metabolism is minimal, and the drug is excreted in urine • Adverse effects include pain at the injection site, gastro-intestinal upsets, and cardiac arrhythmias. Renal and hepatic function should be monitored periodically.
  • 63. CHEMOTHERAPY FOR TOXOPLASMOSIS • One of the most common infections in humans is caused by the protozoan • Toxoplasma gondii, which is transmitted to humans when they consume • raw or inadequately cooked infected meat. • An infected pregnant woman can transmit the organism to her fetus. • Cats are the only animals that shed oocysts, which can infect other animals as well as humans. • The treatment of choice for this condition is a combination of sulfadiazine and pyrimethamine. • • Leucovorin is commonly administered to protect against folate deficiency. • • Other inhibitors of folate biosynthesis, such as trimethoprim and sulfame- • thoxazole, are without therapeutic efficacy in toxoplasmosis. • At the first appearance of a rash, pyrimethamine should be
  • 64. CHEMOTHERAPY FOR GIARDIASIS • Giardia lamblia is the most commonly diagnosed intestinal parasite • It has only two life-cycle stages: the binucleate trophozoite with four flagellae and the drug-resistant, four-nucleate cyst Ingestion, usually from contaminated drinking water, leads to infection. • The trophozoites exist in the small intestine and divide by binary fision. • Occasionally, cysts are formed that pass out in stools. • Although some infections are asymptomatic, severe diarrhea can occur, which can be very serious in immune-suppressed patients. • The treatment of choice is metronidazole for 5 days. One alternative agent is tinidazole, which is equally effective as metronidazole in the treatment of giardiasis but with a much shorter course of therapy (2 grams given once). • Nitazoxanide a nitrothiazole derivative structurally similar to aspirin, was recently
  • 66. Anthelmintic AGENTS • Three major groups of helminths (worms), nematodes, trematod, and cestodes, infect humans. • As in all antibiotic regimens, the anthelmintic drugs are aimed at metabolic targets that are present in the parasite but are either absent from or have different characteristics than those of the host
  • 68. DRUGS FOR THE TREATMENT OF NEMATODES • Nematodes are elongated roundworms that possess a complete digestive system, ncluding both a mouth and an anus. • They cause infections of the intestine as well as the blood and tissues
  • 70. Mebendazole • Mebendazole is a synthetic benzimidazole compound, its effective against a wide spectrum of nematodes. • It is a drug of choice in the treatment of infections by whipworm (Trichuris trichiura), pinworm (Enterobius vermicularis), hookworms (Necator americanus and Ancylostoma duodenale), and roundworm (Ascaris lumbricoides). • Mebendazole acts by binding to and interfering with the assembly of the parasites’ microtubules and also by decreasing glucose uptake. • Affected parasites are expelled with feces. Mebendazole is nearly insoluble in aqueous solution. • Little of an oral dose (that is chewed) is absorbed, unless it is taken with a high-fat meal. It undergoes first-pass metabolism to inactive compounds. • Mebendazole is relatively free of toxic effects, although patients may complain of • abdominal pain and diarrhea. It is, however, contraindicated in pregnant women because it has been shown to be embryo toxic and teratogenic in experimental animals.
  • 71. Thiabendazole • Thiabendazole another synthetic benzimidazole, is effective against strongyloidiasis caused by Strongyloides stercoralis (threadworm), cutaneous larva migrans, and early stages of trichinosis (caused by Trichinella spiralis; • Thiabendazole, like the other benzimidazoles, affects microtubular aggregation. • Although nearly insoluble in water, the drug is readily absorbed on oral administration. • It is hydroxylated in the liver and excreted in urine. • The adverse effects most often encountered are dizziness, anorexia, nausea, and • vomiting. • There have been reports of central nervous system (CNS) symptomatology. • There have been a number of fatalities among the cases of erythema multiforme and Stevens-Johnson syndrome reportedly caused by thiabendazole. Its use is contraindicated during pregnancy.
  • 72. Pyrantel pamoate • Pyrantel pamoate along with mebendazole, is effective in the treatment of infections caused by roundworms,pinworms, and hookworms • Pyrantel pamoate is poorly absorbed orally and exerts its effects in the intestinal tract. • It acts as a depolarizing, neuromuscular-blocking agent, causing persistent activation of the parasite’s nicotinic receptors. • The paralyzed worm is then expelled from the host’s intestinal tract. • Adverse effects are mild and include nausea, vomiting, and
  • 73. Ivermectin • Ivermectin is the drug of choice for the treatment of onchocerciasis (river blindness) caused by Onchocerca volvulus and for cutaneous larva migrans and strongyloidiasis. • Ivermectin targets the parasite’s glutamate-gated chloride channel receptors. • Chloride influx is enhanced, and hyperpolarization occurs, resulting in paralysis of the worm. • The drug is given orally. It does not cross the blood-brain barrier and has no pharmacologic effects in the CNS. • However, it is contraindicated in patients with meningitis, because their blood-brain barrier is more permeable, making CNS effects possible. Ivermectin is also contraindicated in pregnancy. • The killing of the microfilaria can result in a Mazotti-like reaction (fever, headache, dizziness, somnolence, and hypotension).
  • 74. Diethylcarbamazine • Diethylcarbamazine is used in the treatment of filariasis because of its ability to immobilize microfilariae and render them susceptible to host defense mechanisms. • Combined with albendazole, diethylcarbamazine is effective in the treatment of Wuchereria bancrofti and Brugia malayi infections. • It is rapidly absorbed following oral administration with meals and is excreted primarily in urine. • Urinary alkalosis and renal impairment may require dosage reduction. Adverse effects are primarily caused by host reactions to the killed organisms. • Symptoms include fever, malaise, rash, myalgias, arthralgias, and head- ache, and their severity is related to parasite load.
  • 75. The trematodes • The trematodes(flukes) are leaf-shaped flatworms that are generally characterized by the tissues they infect. • For example, they may be categorized as liver, lung, intestinal, or blood • Trematode infections are generally treated with praziquantel • This drug is an agent of choice for the treatment of all forms of schistosomiasis and other trematode infections and for cestode infections like cysticercosis. Permeability of the cell membrane to calcium is increased, causing
  • 77. praziquantel • Praziquantel is rapidly absorbed after oral administration and distributes • into the cerebrospinal fluid. • High levels occur in bile. The drug is extensively metabolized oxidatively, resulting in a short half-life. • The metabolites are inactive and are excreted through urine and bile. Common adverse effects include drowsiness, dizziness, malaise, and anorexia as well as gastrointestinal upsets. • The drug is not recommended for pregnant women or nursing mothers. • Drug interactions due to increased metabolism have been reported with dexamethasone, phenytoin, and carbamazepine. • Cimetidine, which inhibits cytochrome P450 isozymes,causes increased praziquantel levels. Praziquantel is contraindicated forthe treatment of ocular cysticercosis, because destruction of the organism in the eye may damage the organ
  • 78. DRUGS FOR THE TREATMENT OF CESTODES • The cestodes, or “true tapeworms,” typically have a flat, segmented body and attach to the host’s intestine. • Like the trematodes, the tapeworms lack a mouth and a digestive tract throughout their life cycle.
  • 79. Niclosamide • Niclosamide is the drug of choice for most cestode (tapeworm) infections. • Its action has been ascribed to inhibition of the parasite’s mitochondrial phosphorylation of adenosine diphosphate, which produces usable energy in the form of adenosine triphosphate. • Anaerobic metabolism may also be inhibited. • The drug is lethal for the cestode’s scolex and segments of cestodes but not for the ova. • A laxative is administered prior to oral administration of niclosamide. • This is done to purge the bowel of all dead segments and so preclude digestion and liberation of the ova, which may lead to cysticercosis. • Alcohol should be avoided within 1 day of niclosamide.
  • 80. Albendazole • Albendazole is a benzimidazole that, like the others, inhibits microtubule synthesis and glucose uptake in nematodes. • Its primary therapeutic application, however, is in the treatment of cestodal infestations, such as cysticercosis (caused by Taenia soliumlarvae) and • hydatid disease (caused by Echinococcus granulosus).
  • 81. Albendazole • Albendazole is erratically absorbed after oral administration, but absorp- • tion is enhanced by a high-fat meal. • It undergoes extensive first-pass metabolism, including formation of the sulfoxide, which is also active. • Albendazole and its metabolites are primarily excreted in urine. • When used in short-course therapy (1–3 days) for nematodal infestations, • adverse effects are mild and transient and include headache and nausea. • Treatment of hydatid disease (3 months) has a risk of hepatotoxicity and, rarely, agranulocytosis or pancytopenia. • Medical treatment of neurocysticercosis is associated with inflammatory responses to dying parasites in the CNS, including headache, vomiting, hyperthermia, con- • vulsions, and mental changes. • The drug should not be given during pregnancy or to children under 2 years of age.
  • 83. END THANKS Created by Pharmacologist L. Mweetwa for: Pharmacy, Medical Students and Other Interested Health Care Students Disclaimer: These slides have been created for educational purposes only, the author does not, in any way, profit from it and that all rights regarding information ,images, characters used in this presentation belong to their original creator(s) More slides on other topics available on request For comments Email: