Directive Counseling – this type of counseling is mostly counselor-centered
because it allows the counselor to give the counselee information about the latter,
his/her opportunities, and his/her problems.
Five steps in performing the Directive Counseling
• Clinical analysis – collecting, summarizing, and organizing data.
• Diagnosis – formulating hypothesis as to the cause or causes of the problem.
• Prognosis – predicting the development of the problem.
• Counseling – the heart of the process wherein the counselor and the counselee
talk and discuss the problem, and, by means of leading questions, enables the
counselee to develop insight.
• Follow-up – helping the pupils with recurring or new problems.
Nondirective Counseling - this type of counseling is regarded
as client-centered because the responsibility is given to the
clients for exploring their own problem. Emphasis is given to
the individual, not the problem.
Eclectic Counseling – a combination of the good features of
the directive and non-directive counseling. This type of
counseling emphasizes that the responsibility of planning and
carrying out the counseling process is dependent on the
counselor while the development of insight and decision
making rests on the counselee.
Elements of Counseling
• a person who is professionally capable to extend help.
• the person who seeks help and lets himself/herself be
subjective for counseling.
The counseling environment
• a place to facilitate counseling.
Essentials of Counseling Process
The relationship – the relationship of the counselor and the counselee should be based
on mutual trust and respect.
Atmosphere – an atmosphere of the acceptance of the counselee for what she/he is and
allowing the purposeful of feelings. The counselor shows willingness to help and has a
deep understanding of counselee as an individual.
Facilitation of counselee’s effort – the counselee is encouraged to talk about his/her
problem without fear.
Attention to life’s adjustments – the counselor skillfully leads the counselee to choose
from several alternatives to find ways to solve problems and adjust to situations in life.
Follow-up – the counselor knows the counselee would need a continuing assistance
until she/he gradually becomes self-directed.
Principles of Counseling
Principle of individualization – this principle requires the
counselor to recognize and understand the client’s unique
characteristics. Recognition and understanding of their
unique characteristics give them the feeling that they treated
as individuals. Treating them as individuals help the
counselor to deal with them in a very personalized way.
Dealing with the client in a personalized way requires that
methods appropriate to them be used.
Three things that must be remembered in applying
the principle of individualization
Each client is a unique individual.
Each problem she/he presents is a specific one.
Each counseling relationship should be based on
the client and the peculiar circumstances which
brought about the problems.