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Assignment One-Part B. Introduction to Wine Business.

Assignment One-Part B. Introduction to Wine Business.

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  • 1. Wine Pre-history
    By Brodie Comer
  • 2. Introduction
    Wine has played a very significant role in society and human
    history dating back as far as the most early documented
    civilizations in human history.
    In this slideshow the first evidence of wine grapes and
    theories behind the first discovery of grape fermentation such
    as the Paleolithicaltheory will be discussed.
  • 3. Introduction cont…..
    The development and growth of wines discovery and viticulture
    will also be discussed along with the various uses and roles
    wine has played in primitive societies; such as ceremonies
    and rituals, religion, war, ancient high society and as an
    ancient medicine.
    Wine played an important role in ancient society as it continues
    to do so in our society today.
  • 4. First evidence of wine grapes
    According toAlhoff, F.(2008); “The family of Viticae –
    (wine grapes) can be traced back to the plant Ampelopsis from
    500 million years ago….
    …The Viticae family is traced back to 50 million years ago from
    fossil seeds and leaf impressions found by archeologists in
    North Eastern Europe.”
  • 5. The Paleolithical theory: the first discovery of wine grapes and grape fermentation
    McGovern, P. E. (2003), has a theory based on other theories
    by historians and archeologists that the first encounter
    humans would have had with wine grapes would have been
    2 million years ago when humans (homo sapiens) migrated
    from East Africa into the middle east. It is believed that in
    Turkey, Iran, Palestine or Israel at this time (which has been
    named the Paleolithical period of human history) that
    humans would have first discovered grapes after seeing birds
    eating them which as a result would have influenced them to
    first try grapes.
  • 6. The Paleolithical theory: the first discovery of wine grapes and grape fermentation cont…
    P. E, McGovern. (2003), theorizes that the discovery of grape
    fermentation may have been as a result of the caveman/
    woman gathering “up as many of the berries as possible, perhaps
    into an animal hide or even a wooden container that has
    been crudely hollowed out……depending on the grapes ripeness,
    the skins of some rapture and exude their juice, under
    the accumulated weight of the grape mass. If the grapes are then
    left in their ‘container’, gradually being eaten over the next day
    or two, this juice will ferment owing to the natural yeast ‘bloom’
    on the skins and become a low-alcoholic wine………….
  • 7. The Paleolithical theory: the first discovery of wine grapes and grape fermentation cont…
    …. Reaching the bottom of the ‘barrel’ our imagined cavemen
    or woman will dabble a finger in the concoction , lick it and
    be pleasantly surprised by the mildly intoxicating beverage that
    has been produced accidentally. More intentional squeezings
    might then ensue.”
  • 8. Paleolithical period: “Stone-age beaujoulaisnouveau”.
    Douro’s stone vessels have been found dating back to this
    time period and archeologists believed they contained wine.
    Due to the nature of the way that grape fermentation would
    have been discovered in the paleolithical period the grapes
    would have undergone carbonic maceration from the
    grape bunches having a few of the grapes at the bottom of
    the vessel splitting under the weight of the other grapes
    and beginning fermentation….so the cavemen/woman
    would have been unintentionally making what has been
    dubbed a “stone-age beajoulais nouveau”.
  • 9. Neolithical period: large scale wine-making begins
    The Neolithical period from 8500 BC – 4000 BC was the first time
    in human pre-history when the necessary
    preconditions came together for the innovation of viticulture.
    The Neolithical period is the time when large scale
    wine-making began, there is chemical evidence that supports this in
    Neoltihical pottery vessels found that had contained wine in
    various Neolithical sites.
  • 10. Neolithical period: Georgia
    It is believed that the first wine-making began in Shulaveri which is modern day Georgia around 6000 BC as a result of pottery vessels found in archeolicigalsites in valleys in Georgia containing organic material which has been tested and is believed to be wine.
    Large concentrations of grape pips have also been found in these sites dating back to this time period which also supports this idea.
    As many as 500 different wild grape varieties have been discovered in Georgia with as many as 65 in production today.
  • 11. Neolithical period: Iran
    It is believed that in about 5,400 BC wine making spread
    from Georgia into modern day Iran.
    Pottery vessels containing a residue of organic material tested
    and believed to be wine have been found in Archeological sites
    of HajiFiruzIepe in the Zagros Mountains dating between
    5,400 BC to 5,000 BC.
    There are many references in Ancient Iranian poetry dating back
    to this time time period to drinking wine as being a part
    of celebration and ceremony.
  • 12. Bronze Age: Wine-making spreads to lower Mesopotomia and Ancient Egypt
    Pottery vessels found in archeological sites of Late Uruk in
    Lower Mesopotomia have also been found to contain wine
    residue it is from here that wine-making most likely spread
    to Ancient Egypt.
    In around 3000 BC grape cultivation began in Levant in Egypt
    and as a result of this grape cultivation the royal wine industry
    was established in the Nile Delta in 3,200 BC.
    From here wine-making spread to Ancient Rome and Europe
    and then into Ancient China.
  • 13. Golden Age: Ancient Roman wine and wine-making in Ancient China
    Wine-making spread from Egypt into Ancient Rome and it is
    during the Golden Age that wine-making really evolved with
    the development of Grand Cru vineyards in 200 BC.
    It is also during this time that wine-making began in Ancient
    China as a result of Zhang Qians explorations into Europe following
    the Han Dynasty.
    Knowledge of wine-making was brought back to Ancient
    China and viticulture began with wild Eurasian grapes found
    growing in China. The picture to the right is a bronze wine
    storage container from the Shang Dynasty c. 1600-1046 BC.
  • 14. Ancient Viticulture: Romans leading the way
    It could be said that the Romans were the pioneers and
    innovators of viticulture in the ancient world. They were the first
    to start trellising their vines on stakes for canopy management
    and to start the practice of controlling sun exposure to grapes
    by trimming foliage etc. Previouslyvines were trained to grow
    up tree trunks next to the vines.
    The early Romans were also the first to plant their vines on hills
    in order to let cool air run down through the vines and also
    for effective water irrigation.
  • 15. Ancient viticulture: Medieval times
    It is during the middle ages in which the viticultural practices
    of studying varietals and the suitability of specific vines to
    specific area’s was developed and became common
    viticultural technique throughout all of the countries in which
    wine was growen.
  • 16. Ancient viniculture: Wine pressing
    The earliest archeological findings to give insight into how wine
    was made in ancient times has been found in Israel, Jordan
    and Palestine also known as the “Holy Land”. In the hills of
    these countries wine presses in the form of stone bases have
    been found. Ancient vintners would have put the grapes into
    the basins and stomped on them to release the juice and
    these would have had “square-cut or circular basins, connected
    by channels in series along a hillside, [which] were almost
    certainly used to separate grape must from its pomace of
    skins, seeds and other matter”,McGovern, P.E. (2003).
  • 17. Ancient viniculture: wine preservation
    During the Neolithical period in Ancient Greece and Eqypt
    Terenbith tree resin was added to wine as a method of
    preservation and was the most popular and widespread additive
    in wines of the ancient world. It continued to be added to wine as
    a method of preservation for thousands of years.
    Along with Terenbith tree resin, honey, water,herbs and
    spices were also added to wine as a method of
    ‘preservation’, however rather than preserving the wine it
    masked the off flavours and odours of the wine once it had
    become oxidized.
  • 18. Ancient Viticulture: wine preservation cont…..
    There is also other evidence from wine jars found still in tact in
    old ship wrecks dated back to the Pheonician’s that olive oil
    and tree resin was used as a method of preserving wine. The
    jars found in the ship wreck showed that the jars were coated
    with tree resin before adding the wine, olive oil was poured on
    top of the wine once it was poured into the jars which created
    a film over the wine and then the top of the jar and rim of the
    jar was coated in resin to seal the jar.
  • 19. Ancient viniculture: Aging wine
    In Monastrialii, Greece jars have been found dating back to 1700
    BC containing wine that shows evidence that the Ancient
    Greeks were most likely the first to start using oak to age their
    wine and give the wine more character. Oak compounds have
    been found in these jars containing resin wine.
    McGovern, P.E. (2003) states, “ This amazing finding….implies
    MM Winemakers intentionally introduced oak flavourant…
    either directly by adding chips or oak resin itself…or indirectly
    by stomping out the grapes in oaken wine-presses or,
    more impressively aging the wine in oak barrels”.
  • 20. Ancient viniculture: wine storage
    In many Neolithical and Bronze Age sites there is evidence
    of ancient vintners having ‘cellars’. In Egypt rooms filled with
    levels of wooden slats which would have contained jars
    are believed to be for the storage of wine.
    In Jordan, Israel and Palestine there have been many stone
    towers which have been found which are believed to have
    been used for the storage of wine as the stone keeps the towers
    at a cool moderate temperature. It is also believed that
    these towers were used to store freshly picked grapes before
    being pressed.
  • 21. Wine in primitive societies: from ordinary drink to status symbol
    Wine at first was a very ordinary part of everyday life in
    ancient times. It was much safer to drink than water as there
    was not the water sanitation we have today. Wine was added
    to water to kill bacteria in the water making it safe to drink.
    As wine developed and spread around the ancient world it become
    a status symbol, especially in Ancient Greece during the 5th and
    4th centuries BC where it was drunk after a meal during
    a ‘Symposia’. A Symposia was a wine party where the guests
    would retire to an Andron which was an architectural feature
    often in the centre of the home.
  • 22. Wine in primitive societies: wine as a status symbol
    The wine would be mixed in a special bowl called a ‘Krater’ and
    then the ceremony would be initiated with a toast to the Gods
    and the guests ancestors. Throughout the evening wine
    would continue to be drunk while having
    philisophicall conversation.
    The value of the wine being drunk would be assessed by its
    Strength. Alhoff, F. (2008), “Now sweetness could be indicated
    by the terms ‘glykys’ and ‘hedus’, the former being translated
    as ‘sweet’ as in “sugary” and the latter ‘sweet’ as in “delightful”
  • 23. Wine in primitive societies: wine as a status symbol.
    The picture to the left is of a Creek boy
    at a symposium from an ancient Greek
    vase.
    Wine was also important in ancient royal
    marriages. Often children of Kings and
    Queens of different royal kingdoms were married to each other
    as a way of creating alliances between the Kingdoms. An amount
    of wine was often negotiated as a “gift” to the Royals of
    the daughter being married.
  • 24. Wine in primitive societies: Religion and rituals
    Ancient Greeks had a god of wine Dionysus and the Ancient
    Romans had the god of wine Bacchus. Wine was often given as
    a gift to the Gods during animal sacrifices.
    Ancient Egyptians buried jars of wine in tombs with
    mummified members of the royal family, believing that they
    would be able to drink the wine in the after-life.
    Many ancient cultures also believed vines sprung
    from the blood of humans who fought against the
    Gods.
    To the left is a picture of Dionysus on an ancient
    Greek vase.
  • 25. Wine in primitive societies: Religion and rituals
    In ancient society wine was an important part of ancient
    religious rituals. Alhoff, F. (2008), “As symbol and metaphor
    it became part of Christian and Jewish ritual. The culture of
    wine spread, and so did its role as a catylyst for community,
    for bringing together family and friends”.
    It was used by Catholics in communion and by Christians
    In Church as a symbol as the blood of Christ. A tradition
    that lives on in both religions today.
  • 26. Wine in primitive societies: wine as an ancient Weapon and Medicine
    Wine as a weapon: The Cyclops used wine as a weapon.
    It potency was a weapon when it was used against enemies
    not used to drinking wine and its strength.
    Wine as a medicine: In Ancient Greece wine was used as a
    medicine for many common sicknesses, particularly it was
    believed to be a cure for Hemlock poisoning and was added to
    tree resin which was believed to have health giving properties.
  • 27. Conclusion
    In conclusion, since humans began exploring the world they
    also discovered and explored wine and have over time continued
    to develop viticulture and viniculture to be what it is today
    through a slow evolution and discovery of wine varieties and
    wine-making techniques.
    Wine played an important part in ancient society, from
    everyday life, religion and as a way of bringing together
    community in ancient rituals. It was an important part
    bringing together ancient kingdoms and bring people together
    in celebration as it continues to do so today.
  • 28. Bibliography
    Alhoff, F. (2008). Wine & Philosophy: A Symposium on Thinking
    & Drinking. Victoria, Australia: Blackwell Publishing.
    McGovern, P.E. (2003) Ancient Wine: The Search for the Origins
    of Viniculture. Princeton, United States of America:
    Princeton University Press.
  • 29. References
    Alhoff, F. (2008). Wine & Philosophy: A Symposium on Thinking
    & Drinking. Victoria, Australia: Blackwell Publishing.
    Fosters Group. History of Wine. Retrieved 31st July, 2009,
    from http://www.fosters.com.au
    McGovern, P.E. (2003). Ancient Wine: The Search for Origins
    of Viniculture. Princeton, United States of America:
    Princeton University Press.
    University of Pensylvania. University of Pensylvania Museum
    of Archeology & Anthropology presents: The Origins and
    Ancient History of Wine. Retrieved 31st July, 2009, from,
    http://www.museum.upenn.edu.
  • 30. References
    Walton, S. (2005). The Ultimate Book of Cocktails. London,
    United Kingdom: Annes Publishing Ltd.
    Wikipedia. History of Wine. Retrieved on 31st July, 2009,
    from http://www.wikipedia.org
    Wikipedia. Ancient Rome and Wine Expansion of
    Viticulture. Retrieved on 31st July, 2009, from
    http://www.wikipedia.org
    Wine History. Retrieved on 31st of July, 2009, from
    http://www.winepros.com