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Wine Pre History
 

Wine Pre History

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Assignment One-Part B. Introduction to Wine Business.

Assignment One-Part B. Introduction to Wine Business.

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    Wine Pre History Wine Pre History Presentation Transcript

    • Wine Pre-history
      By Brodie Comer
    • Introduction
      Wine has played a very significant role in society and human
      history dating back as far as the most early documented
      civilizations in human history.
      In this slideshow the first evidence of wine grapes and
      theories behind the first discovery of grape fermentation such
      as the Paleolithicaltheory will be discussed.
    • Introduction cont…..
      The development and growth of wines discovery and viticulture
      will also be discussed along with the various uses and roles
      wine has played in primitive societies; such as ceremonies
      and rituals, religion, war, ancient high society and as an
      ancient medicine.
      Wine played an important role in ancient society as it continues
      to do so in our society today.
    • First evidence of wine grapes
      According toAlhoff, F.(2008); “The family of Viticae –
      (wine grapes) can be traced back to the plant Ampelopsis from
      500 million years ago….
      …The Viticae family is traced back to 50 million years ago from
      fossil seeds and leaf impressions found by archeologists in
      North Eastern Europe.”
    • The Paleolithical theory: the first discovery of wine grapes and grape fermentation
      McGovern, P. E. (2003), has a theory based on other theories
      by historians and archeologists that the first encounter
      humans would have had with wine grapes would have been
      2 million years ago when humans (homo sapiens) migrated
      from East Africa into the middle east. It is believed that in
      Turkey, Iran, Palestine or Israel at this time (which has been
      named the Paleolithical period of human history) that
      humans would have first discovered grapes after seeing birds
      eating them which as a result would have influenced them to
      first try grapes.
    • The Paleolithical theory: the first discovery of wine grapes and grape fermentation cont…
      P. E, McGovern. (2003), theorizes that the discovery of grape
      fermentation may have been as a result of the caveman/
      woman gathering “up as many of the berries as possible, perhaps
      into an animal hide or even a wooden container that has
      been crudely hollowed out……depending on the grapes ripeness,
      the skins of some rapture and exude their juice, under
      the accumulated weight of the grape mass. If the grapes are then
      left in their ‘container’, gradually being eaten over the next day
      or two, this juice will ferment owing to the natural yeast ‘bloom’
      on the skins and become a low-alcoholic wine………….
    • The Paleolithical theory: the first discovery of wine grapes and grape fermentation cont…
      …. Reaching the bottom of the ‘barrel’ our imagined cavemen
      or woman will dabble a finger in the concoction , lick it and
      be pleasantly surprised by the mildly intoxicating beverage that
      has been produced accidentally. More intentional squeezings
      might then ensue.”
    • Paleolithical period: “Stone-age beaujoulaisnouveau”.
      Douro’s stone vessels have been found dating back to this
      time period and archeologists believed they contained wine.
      Due to the nature of the way that grape fermentation would
      have been discovered in the paleolithical period the grapes
      would have undergone carbonic maceration from the
      grape bunches having a few of the grapes at the bottom of
      the vessel splitting under the weight of the other grapes
      and beginning fermentation….so the cavemen/woman
      would have been unintentionally making what has been
      dubbed a “stone-age beajoulais nouveau”.
    • Neolithical period: large scale wine-making begins
      The Neolithical period from 8500 BC – 4000 BC was the first time
      in human pre-history when the necessary
      preconditions came together for the innovation of viticulture.
      The Neolithical period is the time when large scale
      wine-making began, there is chemical evidence that supports this in
      Neoltihical pottery vessels found that had contained wine in
      various Neolithical sites.
    • Neolithical period: Georgia
      It is believed that the first wine-making began in Shulaveri which is modern day Georgia around 6000 BC as a result of pottery vessels found in archeolicigalsites in valleys in Georgia containing organic material which has been tested and is believed to be wine.
      Large concentrations of grape pips have also been found in these sites dating back to this time period which also supports this idea.
      As many as 500 different wild grape varieties have been discovered in Georgia with as many as 65 in production today.
    • Neolithical period: Iran
      It is believed that in about 5,400 BC wine making spread
      from Georgia into modern day Iran.
      Pottery vessels containing a residue of organic material tested
      and believed to be wine have been found in Archeological sites
      of HajiFiruzIepe in the Zagros Mountains dating between
      5,400 BC to 5,000 BC.
      There are many references in Ancient Iranian poetry dating back
      to this time time period to drinking wine as being a part
      of celebration and ceremony.
    • Bronze Age: Wine-making spreads to lower Mesopotomia and Ancient Egypt
      Pottery vessels found in archeological sites of Late Uruk in
      Lower Mesopotomia have also been found to contain wine
      residue it is from here that wine-making most likely spread
      to Ancient Egypt.
      In around 3000 BC grape cultivation began in Levant in Egypt
      and as a result of this grape cultivation the royal wine industry
      was established in the Nile Delta in 3,200 BC.
      From here wine-making spread to Ancient Rome and Europe
      and then into Ancient China.
    • Golden Age: Ancient Roman wine and wine-making in Ancient China
      Wine-making spread from Egypt into Ancient Rome and it is
      during the Golden Age that wine-making really evolved with
      the development of Grand Cru vineyards in 200 BC.
      It is also during this time that wine-making began in Ancient
      China as a result of Zhang Qians explorations into Europe following
      the Han Dynasty.
      Knowledge of wine-making was brought back to Ancient
      China and viticulture began with wild Eurasian grapes found
      growing in China. The picture to the right is a bronze wine
      storage container from the Shang Dynasty c. 1600-1046 BC.
    • Ancient Viticulture: Romans leading the way
      It could be said that the Romans were the pioneers and
      innovators of viticulture in the ancient world. They were the first
      to start trellising their vines on stakes for canopy management
      and to start the practice of controlling sun exposure to grapes
      by trimming foliage etc. Previouslyvines were trained to grow
      up tree trunks next to the vines.
      The early Romans were also the first to plant their vines on hills
      in order to let cool air run down through the vines and also
      for effective water irrigation.
    • Ancient viticulture: Medieval times
      It is during the middle ages in which the viticultural practices
      of studying varietals and the suitability of specific vines to
      specific area’s was developed and became common
      viticultural technique throughout all of the countries in which
      wine was growen.
    • Ancient viniculture: Wine pressing
      The earliest archeological findings to give insight into how wine
      was made in ancient times has been found in Israel, Jordan
      and Palestine also known as the “Holy Land”. In the hills of
      these countries wine presses in the form of stone bases have
      been found. Ancient vintners would have put the grapes into
      the basins and stomped on them to release the juice and
      these would have had “square-cut or circular basins, connected
      by channels in series along a hillside, [which] were almost
      certainly used to separate grape must from its pomace of
      skins, seeds and other matter”,McGovern, P.E. (2003).
    • Ancient viniculture: wine preservation
      During the Neolithical period in Ancient Greece and Eqypt
      Terenbith tree resin was added to wine as a method of
      preservation and was the most popular and widespread additive
      in wines of the ancient world. It continued to be added to wine as
      a method of preservation for thousands of years.
      Along with Terenbith tree resin, honey, water,herbs and
      spices were also added to wine as a method of
      ‘preservation’, however rather than preserving the wine it
      masked the off flavours and odours of the wine once it had
      become oxidized.
    • Ancient Viticulture: wine preservation cont…..
      There is also other evidence from wine jars found still in tact in
      old ship wrecks dated back to the Pheonician’s that olive oil
      and tree resin was used as a method of preserving wine. The
      jars found in the ship wreck showed that the jars were coated
      with tree resin before adding the wine, olive oil was poured on
      top of the wine once it was poured into the jars which created
      a film over the wine and then the top of the jar and rim of the
      jar was coated in resin to seal the jar.
    • Ancient viniculture: Aging wine
      In Monastrialii, Greece jars have been found dating back to 1700
      BC containing wine that shows evidence that the Ancient
      Greeks were most likely the first to start using oak to age their
      wine and give the wine more character. Oak compounds have
      been found in these jars containing resin wine.
      McGovern, P.E. (2003) states, “ This amazing finding….implies
      MM Winemakers intentionally introduced oak flavourant…
      either directly by adding chips or oak resin itself…or indirectly
      by stomping out the grapes in oaken wine-presses or,
      more impressively aging the wine in oak barrels”.
    • Ancient viniculture: wine storage
      In many Neolithical and Bronze Age sites there is evidence
      of ancient vintners having ‘cellars’. In Egypt rooms filled with
      levels of wooden slats which would have contained jars
      are believed to be for the storage of wine.
      In Jordan, Israel and Palestine there have been many stone
      towers which have been found which are believed to have
      been used for the storage of wine as the stone keeps the towers
      at a cool moderate temperature. It is also believed that
      these towers were used to store freshly picked grapes before
      being pressed.
    • Wine in primitive societies: from ordinary drink to status symbol
      Wine at first was a very ordinary part of everyday life in
      ancient times. It was much safer to drink than water as there
      was not the water sanitation we have today. Wine was added
      to water to kill bacteria in the water making it safe to drink.
      As wine developed and spread around the ancient world it become
      a status symbol, especially in Ancient Greece during the 5th and
      4th centuries BC where it was drunk after a meal during
      a ‘Symposia’. A Symposia was a wine party where the guests
      would retire to an Andron which was an architectural feature
      often in the centre of the home.
    • Wine in primitive societies: wine as a status symbol
      The wine would be mixed in a special bowl called a ‘Krater’ and
      then the ceremony would be initiated with a toast to the Gods
      and the guests ancestors. Throughout the evening wine
      would continue to be drunk while having
      philisophicall conversation.
      The value of the wine being drunk would be assessed by its
      Strength. Alhoff, F. (2008), “Now sweetness could be indicated
      by the terms ‘glykys’ and ‘hedus’, the former being translated
      as ‘sweet’ as in “sugary” and the latter ‘sweet’ as in “delightful”
    • Wine in primitive societies: wine as a status symbol.
      The picture to the left is of a Creek boy
      at a symposium from an ancient Greek
      vase.
      Wine was also important in ancient royal
      marriages. Often children of Kings and
      Queens of different royal kingdoms were married to each other
      as a way of creating alliances between the Kingdoms. An amount
      of wine was often negotiated as a “gift” to the Royals of
      the daughter being married.
    • Wine in primitive societies: Religion and rituals
      Ancient Greeks had a god of wine Dionysus and the Ancient
      Romans had the god of wine Bacchus. Wine was often given as
      a gift to the Gods during animal sacrifices.
      Ancient Egyptians buried jars of wine in tombs with
      mummified members of the royal family, believing that they
      would be able to drink the wine in the after-life.
      Many ancient cultures also believed vines sprung
      from the blood of humans who fought against the
      Gods.
      To the left is a picture of Dionysus on an ancient
      Greek vase.
    • Wine in primitive societies: Religion and rituals
      In ancient society wine was an important part of ancient
      religious rituals. Alhoff, F. (2008), “As symbol and metaphor
      it became part of Christian and Jewish ritual. The culture of
      wine spread, and so did its role as a catylyst for community,
      for bringing together family and friends”.
      It was used by Catholics in communion and by Christians
      In Church as a symbol as the blood of Christ. A tradition
      that lives on in both religions today.
    • Wine in primitive societies: wine as an ancient Weapon and Medicine
      Wine as a weapon: The Cyclops used wine as a weapon.
      It potency was a weapon when it was used against enemies
      not used to drinking wine and its strength.
      Wine as a medicine: In Ancient Greece wine was used as a
      medicine for many common sicknesses, particularly it was
      believed to be a cure for Hemlock poisoning and was added to
      tree resin which was believed to have health giving properties.
    • Conclusion
      In conclusion, since humans began exploring the world they
      also discovered and explored wine and have over time continued
      to develop viticulture and viniculture to be what it is today
      through a slow evolution and discovery of wine varieties and
      wine-making techniques.
      Wine played an important part in ancient society, from
      everyday life, religion and as a way of bringing together
      community in ancient rituals. It was an important part
      bringing together ancient kingdoms and bring people together
      in celebration as it continues to do so today.
    • Bibliography
      Alhoff, F. (2008). Wine & Philosophy: A Symposium on Thinking
      & Drinking. Victoria, Australia: Blackwell Publishing.
      McGovern, P.E. (2003) Ancient Wine: The Search for the Origins
      of Viniculture. Princeton, United States of America:
      Princeton University Press.
    • References
      Alhoff, F. (2008). Wine & Philosophy: A Symposium on Thinking
      & Drinking. Victoria, Australia: Blackwell Publishing.
      Fosters Group. History of Wine. Retrieved 31st July, 2009,
      from http://www.fosters.com.au
      McGovern, P.E. (2003). Ancient Wine: The Search for Origins
      of Viniculture. Princeton, United States of America:
      Princeton University Press.
      University of Pensylvania. University of Pensylvania Museum
      of Archeology & Anthropology presents: The Origins and
      Ancient History of Wine. Retrieved 31st July, 2009, from,
      http://www.museum.upenn.edu.
    • References
      Walton, S. (2005). The Ultimate Book of Cocktails. London,
      United Kingdom: Annes Publishing Ltd.
      Wikipedia. History of Wine. Retrieved on 31st July, 2009,
      from http://www.wikipedia.org
      Wikipedia. Ancient Rome and Wine Expansion of
      Viticulture. Retrieved on 31st July, 2009, from
      http://www.wikipedia.org
      Wine History. Retrieved on 31st of July, 2009, from
      http://www.winepros.com