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Wine Pre History
Wine Pre History
Wine Pre History
Wine Pre History
Wine Pre History
Wine Pre History
Wine Pre History
Wine Pre History
Wine Pre History
Wine Pre History
Wine Pre History
Wine Pre History
Wine Pre History
Wine Pre History
Wine Pre History
Wine Pre History
Wine Pre History
Wine Pre History
Wine Pre History
Wine Pre History
Wine Pre History
Wine Pre History
Wine Pre History
Wine Pre History
Wine Pre History
Wine Pre History
Wine Pre History
Wine Pre History
Wine Pre History
Wine Pre History
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Wine Pre History

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Assignment One-Part B. Introduction to Wine Business.

Assignment One-Part B. Introduction to Wine Business.

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  • 1. Wine Pre-history<br />By Brodie Comer<br />
  • 2. Introduction<br />Wine has played a very significant role in society and human <br />history dating back as far as the most early documented <br />civilizations in human history. <br />In this slideshow the first evidence of wine grapes and <br />theories behind the first discovery of grape fermentation such <br />as the Paleolithicaltheory will be discussed. <br />
  • 3. Introduction cont…..<br />The development and growth of wines discovery and viticulture<br />will also be discussed along with the various uses and roles <br />wine has played in primitive societies; such as ceremonies<br />and rituals, religion, war, ancient high society and as an <br />ancient medicine.<br />Wine played an important role in ancient society as it continues<br />to do so in our society today.<br />
  • 4. First evidence of wine grapes<br />According toAlhoff, F.(2008); “The family of Viticae – <br />(wine grapes) can be traced back to the plant Ampelopsis from <br />500 million years ago….<br />…The Viticae family is traced back to 50 million years ago from<br /> fossil seeds and leaf impressions found by archeologists in<br />North Eastern Europe.”<br />
  • 5. The Paleolithical theory: the first discovery of wine grapes and grape fermentation<br />McGovern, P. E. (2003), has a theory based on other theories <br />by historians and archeologists that the first encounter <br />humans would have had with wine grapes would have been<br /> 2 million years ago when humans (homo sapiens) migrated <br />from East Africa into the middle east. It is believed that in<br />Turkey, Iran, Palestine or Israel at this time (which has been <br />named the Paleolithical period of human history) that<br />humans would have first discovered grapes after seeing birds <br />eating them which as a result would have influenced them to <br />first try grapes.<br />
  • 6. The Paleolithical theory: the first discovery of wine grapes and grape fermentation cont…<br />P. E, McGovern. (2003), theorizes that the discovery of grape <br />fermentation may have been as a result of the caveman/ <br />woman gathering “up as many of the berries as possible, perhaps <br />into an animal hide or even a wooden container that has <br />been crudely hollowed out……depending on the grapes ripeness,<br />the skins of some rapture and exude their juice, under <br />the accumulated weight of the grape mass. If the grapes are then<br />left in their ‘container’, gradually being eaten over the next day <br />or two, this juice will ferment owing to the natural yeast ‘bloom’<br />on the skins and become a low-alcoholic wine…………. <br />
  • 7. The Paleolithical theory: the first discovery of wine grapes and grape fermentation cont…<br />…. Reaching the bottom of the ‘barrel’ our imagined cavemen <br />or woman will dabble a finger in the concoction , lick it and <br />be pleasantly surprised by the mildly intoxicating beverage that <br />has been produced accidentally. More intentional squeezings<br />might then ensue.”<br />
  • 8. Paleolithical period: “Stone-age beaujoulaisnouveau”.<br />Douro’s stone vessels have been found dating back to this<br />time period and archeologists believed they contained wine. <br />Due to the nature of the way that grape fermentation would <br />have been discovered in the paleolithical period the grapes <br />would have undergone carbonic maceration from the <br />grape bunches having a few of the grapes at the bottom of <br />the vessel splitting under the weight of the other grapes <br />and beginning fermentation….so the cavemen/woman<br />would have been unintentionally making what has been<br />dubbed a “stone-age beajoulais nouveau”. <br />
  • 9. Neolithical period: large scale wine-making begins<br />The Neolithical period from 8500 BC – 4000 BC was the first time <br />in human pre-history when the necessary <br />preconditions came together for the innovation of viticulture. <br />The Neolithical period is the time when large scale <br />wine-making began, there is chemical evidence that supports this in <br />Neoltihical pottery vessels found that had contained wine in <br />various Neolithical sites.<br />
  • 10. Neolithical period: Georgia<br />It is believed that the first wine-making began in Shulaveri which is modern day Georgia around 6000 BC as a result of pottery vessels found in archeolicigalsites in valleys in Georgia containing organic material which has been tested and is believed to be wine.<br />Large concentrations of grape pips have also been found in these sites dating back to this time period which also supports this idea.<br />As many as 500 different wild grape varieties have been discovered in Georgia with as many as 65 in production today.<br />
  • 11. Neolithical period: Iran<br />It is believed that in about 5,400 BC wine making spread <br />from Georgia into modern day Iran.<br />Pottery vessels containing a residue of organic material tested <br />and believed to be wine have been found in Archeological sites<br />of HajiFiruzIepe in the Zagros Mountains dating between <br />5,400 BC to 5,000 BC. <br />There are many references in Ancient Iranian poetry dating back <br />to this time time period to drinking wine as being a part <br />of celebration and ceremony.<br />
  • 12. Bronze Age: Wine-making spreads to lower Mesopotomia and Ancient Egypt<br />Pottery vessels found in archeological sites of Late Uruk in<br />Lower Mesopotomia have also been found to contain wine <br />residue it is from here that wine-making most likely spread<br />to Ancient Egypt.<br />In around 3000 BC grape cultivation began in Levant in Egypt <br />and as a result of this grape cultivation the royal wine industry<br />was established in the Nile Delta in 3,200 BC.<br />From here wine-making spread to Ancient Rome and Europe<br />and then into Ancient China.<br />
  • 13. Golden Age: Ancient Roman wine and wine-making in Ancient China<br />Wine-making spread from Egypt into Ancient Rome and it is <br />during the Golden Age that wine-making really evolved with <br />the development of Grand Cru vineyards in 200 BC. <br />It is also during this time that wine-making began in Ancient <br />China as a result of Zhang Qians explorations into Europe following<br />the Han Dynasty.<br />Knowledge of wine-making was brought back to Ancient <br />China and viticulture began with wild Eurasian grapes found<br />growing in China. The picture to the right is a bronze wine <br />storage container from the Shang Dynasty c. 1600-1046 BC.<br />
  • 14. Ancient Viticulture: Romans leading the way<br />It could be said that the Romans were the pioneers and <br />innovators of viticulture in the ancient world. They were the first <br />to start trellising their vines on stakes for canopy management<br />and to start the practice of controlling sun exposure to grapes <br />by trimming foliage etc. Previouslyvines were trained to grow<br />up tree trunks next to the vines.<br />The early Romans were also the first to plant their vines on hills<br />in order to let cool air run down through the vines and also<br />for effective water irrigation. <br />
  • 15. Ancient viticulture: Medieval times<br />It is during the middle ages in which the viticultural practices<br />of studying varietals and the suitability of specific vines to <br />specific area’s was developed and became common <br />viticultural technique throughout all of the countries in which <br />wine was growen.<br />
  • 16. Ancient viniculture: Wine pressing<br />The earliest archeological findings to give insight into how wine <br />was made in ancient times has been found in Israel, Jordan <br />and Palestine also known as the “Holy Land”. In the hills of <br />these countries wine presses in the form of stone bases have <br />been found. Ancient vintners would have put the grapes into <br />the basins and stomped on them to release the juice and <br />these would have had “square-cut or circular basins, connected <br />by channels in series along a hillside, [which] were almost <br />certainly used to separate grape must from its pomace of<br /> skins, seeds and other matter”,McGovern, P.E. (2003). <br />
  • 17. Ancient viniculture: wine preservation<br />During the Neolithical period in Ancient Greece and Eqypt<br />Terenbith tree resin was added to wine as a method of <br />preservation and was the most popular and widespread additive<br />in wines of the ancient world. It continued to be added to wine as<br />a method of preservation for thousands of years.<br />Along with Terenbith tree resin, honey, water,herbs and <br />spices were also added to wine as a method of <br />‘preservation’, however rather than preserving the wine it <br />masked the off flavours and odours of the wine once it had<br />become oxidized.<br />
  • 18. Ancient Viticulture: wine preservation cont…..<br />There is also other evidence from wine jars found still in tact in <br />old ship wrecks dated back to the Pheonician’s that olive oil <br />and tree resin was used as a method of preserving wine. The<br />jars found in the ship wreck showed that the jars were coated <br />with tree resin before adding the wine, olive oil was poured on<br />top of the wine once it was poured into the jars which created <br />a film over the wine and then the top of the jar and rim of the <br />jar was coated in resin to seal the jar.<br />
  • 19. Ancient viniculture: Aging wine<br />In Monastrialii, Greece jars have been found dating back to 1700 <br />BC containing wine that shows evidence that the Ancient <br />Greeks were most likely the first to start using oak to age their <br />wine and give the wine more character. Oak compounds have <br />been found in these jars containing resin wine.<br />McGovern, P.E. (2003) states, “ This amazing finding….implies<br />MM Winemakers intentionally introduced oak flavourant…<br />either directly by adding chips or oak resin itself…or indirectly<br />by stomping out the grapes in oaken wine-presses or, <br />more impressively aging the wine in oak barrels”.<br />
  • 20. Ancient viniculture: wine storage<br />In many Neolithical and Bronze Age sites there is evidence <br />of ancient vintners having ‘cellars’. In Egypt rooms filled with <br />levels of wooden slats which would have contained jars <br />are believed to be for the storage of wine. <br />In Jordan, Israel and Palestine there have been many stone <br />towers which have been found which are believed to have <br />been used for the storage of wine as the stone keeps the towers <br />at a cool moderate temperature. It is also believed that <br />these towers were used to store freshly picked grapes before <br />being pressed. <br />
  • 21. Wine in primitive societies: from ordinary drink to status symbol<br />Wine at first was a very ordinary part of everyday life in <br />ancient times. It was much safer to drink than water as there <br />was not the water sanitation we have today. Wine was added <br />to water to kill bacteria in the water making it safe to drink.<br />As wine developed and spread around the ancient world it become <br />a status symbol, especially in Ancient Greece during the 5th and <br />4th centuries BC where it was drunk after a meal during <br />a ‘Symposia’. A Symposia was a wine party where the guests <br />would retire to an Andron which was an architectural feature <br />often in the centre of the home. <br />
  • 22. Wine in primitive societies: wine as a status symbol<br />The wine would be mixed in a special bowl called a ‘Krater’ and<br />then the ceremony would be initiated with a toast to the Gods<br />and the guests ancestors. Throughout the evening wine <br />would continue to be drunk while having <br />philisophicall conversation.<br />The value of the wine being drunk would be assessed by its <br />Strength. Alhoff, F. (2008), “Now sweetness could be indicated <br />by the terms ‘glykys’ and ‘hedus’, the former being translated <br />as ‘sweet’ as in “sugary” and the latter ‘sweet’ as in “delightful”<br />
  • 23. Wine in primitive societies: wine as a status symbol.<br />The picture to the left is of a Creek boy<br />at a symposium from an ancient Greek<br />vase.<br />Wine was also important in ancient royal<br />marriages. Often children of Kings and <br />Queens of different royal kingdoms were married to each other <br />as a way of creating alliances between the Kingdoms. An amount <br />of wine was often negotiated as a “gift” to the Royals of <br />the daughter being married. <br />
  • 24. Wine in primitive societies: Religion and rituals<br />Ancient Greeks had a god of wine Dionysus and the Ancient <br />Romans had the god of wine Bacchus. Wine was often given as <br />a gift to the Gods during animal sacrifices.<br />Ancient Egyptians buried jars of wine in tombs with <br />mummified members of the royal family, believing that they <br />would be able to drink the wine in the after-life.<br />Many ancient cultures also believed vines sprung <br />from the blood of humans who fought against the <br />Gods.<br />To the left is a picture of Dionysus on an ancient<br />Greek vase.<br />
  • 25. Wine in primitive societies: Religion and rituals<br />In ancient society wine was an important part of ancient <br />religious rituals. Alhoff, F. (2008), “As symbol and metaphor<br />it became part of Christian and Jewish ritual. The culture of <br />wine spread, and so did its role as a catylyst for community, <br />for bringing together family and friends”.<br />It was used by Catholics in communion and by Christians<br />In Church as a symbol as the blood of Christ. A tradition<br />that lives on in both religions today.<br />
  • 26. Wine in primitive societies: wine as an ancient Weapon and Medicine<br />Wine as a weapon: The Cyclops used wine as a weapon. <br />It potency was a weapon when it was used against enemies<br />not used to drinking wine and its strength.<br />Wine as a medicine: In Ancient Greece wine was used as a <br />medicine for many common sicknesses, particularly it was <br />believed to be a cure for Hemlock poisoning and was added to <br />tree resin which was believed to have health giving properties.<br />
  • 27. Conclusion<br />In conclusion, since humans began exploring the world they <br />also discovered and explored wine and have over time continued <br />to develop viticulture and viniculture to be what it is today <br />through a slow evolution and discovery of wine varieties and <br />wine-making techniques.<br />Wine played an important part in ancient society, from <br />everyday life, religion and as a way of bringing together <br />community in ancient rituals. It was an important part <br />bringing together ancient kingdoms and bring people together <br />in celebration as it continues to do so today.<br />
  • 28. Bibliography<br />Alhoff, F. (2008). Wine &amp; Philosophy: A Symposium on Thinking <br />&amp; Drinking. Victoria, Australia: Blackwell Publishing.<br />McGovern, P.E. (2003) Ancient Wine: The Search for the Origins <br />of Viniculture. Princeton, United States of America: <br />Princeton University Press. <br />
  • 29. References<br />Alhoff, F. (2008). Wine &amp; Philosophy: A Symposium on Thinking <br />&amp; Drinking. Victoria, Australia: Blackwell Publishing.<br />Fosters Group. History of Wine. Retrieved 31st July, 2009,<br />from http://www.fosters.com.au<br />McGovern, P.E. (2003). Ancient Wine: The Search for Origins<br />of Viniculture. Princeton, United States of America:<br />Princeton University Press.<br />University of Pensylvania. University of Pensylvania Museum <br />of Archeology &amp; Anthropology presents: The Origins and <br />Ancient History of Wine. Retrieved 31st July, 2009, from, <br />http://www.museum.upenn.edu.<br />
  • 30. References<br />Walton, S. (2005). The Ultimate Book of Cocktails. London, <br />United Kingdom: Annes Publishing Ltd.<br />Wikipedia. History of Wine. Retrieved on 31st July, 2009, <br />from http://www.wikipedia.org<br />Wikipedia. Ancient Rome and Wine Expansion of <br />Viticulture. Retrieved on 31st July, 2009, from <br />http://www.wikipedia.org<br />Wine History. Retrieved on 31st of July, 2009, from<br />http://www.winepros.com<br />

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