In developing countries, stunting remains the biggest problem (29%) with relative decrease of 20% per ten-year period, followed by wasting which shows a persistent rate around 10% for the last 20 years In Africa, stunting stagnated at ~ 40% which translates into increasing numbers of stunted children (from 45 million in 1990 to 60 million in 2010) Asia, in contrast, with a prevalence of 28%, nearly halved the number of stunted children over the last 20 years from 190 million (1990) to 100 million (2010)
43 million children worldwide Globally, overweight increased from 4% to 7%, with highest rates in developed countries (12%) followed by Africa (9%) and Latin America (7%)
Acknowledgements are made to the support in FSM, including the key informants in Pohnpei and Kosrae, including Dr E Pretrick, Ms J Elymore, Dr E Johnson, Mr W Raynor, Ms J Timothy, Mr R Livaie, Ms P Jackson, Dr H Ismael, and Mr Nena Nena, as well as the persons providing rare samples. The funding agencies are also acknowledged for their financial support including the Task Force Sight and Life, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, The Thrasher Research Fund, and the FSM National Government. Without the support of these people and agencies, this sudy could not have been carried out.
Food composition and biodiversity
Food Composition and Biodiversity Barbara Burlingame, PhD Principal Officer Nutrition and Consumer Protection Division FAO
INFOODS• Established in 1984 • Objective: to stimulate• Under UNU and FAO. and coordinate efforts to improve the quality• IUNS Task Force and availability of food• Coordination since analysis data 1999 in FAO worldwide EUROFOODS NORAMFOODS CARKFOODS MEFOODS NESIAFOODS CARICOMFOODS SAARCFOODS AFROFOODS LATINFOODS ASEANFOODS OCEANIAFOODS
International Collaboration• INFOODS (International Network of Food Data Systems)• EuroFIR (European Food Information Resource Network)
INFOODS achievements• Standards and guidelines• Capacity development• Tool development: FCDBMS: Compilation Tool• Publications and Declarations• Databases and tables• Laboratory Quality Assurance• Biodiversity
Standards and guidelines• Component identifiers also called tagnames: Since 1989 over 800 tagnames published• Food nomenclature (Truswell et al., 1991)• Interchange of food composition data (Klensin 1992; FAO, 2004)• Guidelines on compilation of food composition data (Rand et al., 1991)• New energy conversion factors (FAO, 2003)• Food matching guidelines (FAO/INFOODS, 2011) ew N• Guidelines on Conversion among different Units, Denominators and Expressions in preparation w Ne• Guidelines on Checking Food Composition Data prior to the Release of a User Database in preparation w Ne
Capacity development• Involved in/ co-organized over 20 international training courses• Organized 10 training courses• Published distance learning tool Food composition Study Guide in English, French and Spanish together with 12 PowerPoint presentations summarizing the main points of the modules
Publications Food Composition Data Production, Management and Use. English: 2003 Spanish: 2006 French: 2007
Food Composition Study Guide w Ne developed by FAO/INFOODSObjectives• To reach a wider audience cost-effectively, which otherwise would never be served• To assist learners to fill their specific knowledge gaps and assess their knowledge acquisition• To assist learners to perform better when generating, managing or using food composition data• To assist teachers to prepare lessons and test studentsTarget Population• self-learners, FoodComp courses, universities: compilers and users and also analysts; teachers and students
Some examples (3)Software packages for intake assessment or labelling• On INFOODS website ‘softwares’(examples) – WorldFood Dietary Assessment System – CBORD – ESHA Research (commercial): (1) Nutrient Analysis Programs; (2) Nutrient Processor and (3) on-line Food Prodigy; http://www.esha.com• Nutritionist Pro (commercial): (1) Nutritionist Pro™ Knowledge Base (DB); (2) Nutritionist Pro™ Diet Analysis and (3) Nutritionist Pro™ Food Labeling http://www.nutritionistpro.com/• Optifoods (London School of Hygiene and Tropical Medicince, UK) for recipe/diet formulation meeting nutrient requirements (under pilot testing)
Tool development: FCDBMS• FCDBMS is needed to compile a FCDB• FCDBMS exist: – for national/regional programmes – commercial products for different uses (e.g. labelling) – for certain projects• No FCDBMS exists for international use as yet• BUT especially developing countries and researchers do not have the financial means to develop their own FCDBMS software New Compilation Tool was developed by FAO/INFOODS to fill this gap (in Excel allowing data compilation according to INFOODS standards and to document all data)
Publications and Declarations• Food Composition Data: A Users Perspective (Rand et al., 1987)• Food Composition Data – production, management and use (Greenfield & Southgate) In English (2003), Spanish (2006), French (2007) and Korean (2008)• Journal of Food Composition and Analysis (JFCA) was the official INFOODS journal from 1987 to 2010• Indigenous Peoples food systems: the many dimensions of culture, diversity and environment for nutrition and health. (Kuhnlein et al., 2009) New• AFROFOODS declaration (2010) New• Bangkok Declaration (2009) from the 8th International Food Data Conference w Ne
Laboratory Quality Assurance• Several proficiency testing (PT) were organized, especially in ASEANFOODS countries. More PTs are planned in SAARCFOODS countries• Strengthening laboratory capacity in food composition (including accreditation) in the South Pacific in 2002-2004 through FAO• ASEAN Manual of Nutrient Analysis (2011) New
Databases and tables (1)• co-published 9 FCTs: ASEANFOODS (2000), LATINFOODS (2002), Pacific Islands (1994, 2004), Lesotho (2006), Brazil (2008), Armenia (2011), New Composition of selected foods in West Africa (2010), New West African Food Composition Table (2012) New• FAO/INFOODS Density Database (2011) ew N Future work: co-publish more national and regional FCDBs and DBs on yield and retention factors
Databases and tables (2)• Many FCTs/FCDBs compile data from existing sources (often USDA) and are not well documented• Analytical data are missing especially in developing countries (specifically minerals and vitamins) and on food biodiversity• FAO/INFOODS is compiling FCDBs with solely analytical data (one for biodiversity and one for all foods) to avoid reuse of compiled data of compilations
Food CompositionTechnical Barrier to Trade• Nutrient labelling, nutrition claims, health claims• RDI’s, DV’s, % contributions• Identification of food by component• Identification of components and methods• Proportion of ingredients as standards• Processes affecting nutrient content• Units of measure and serving size
Detentions and Confiscations at US Decomposition 1% Filth Others 16% 4% Microbiological Contamination 16% Food Additives 4% Low Acid Canned Food 30% Pesticide Residues 3% Heavy Metals Mold 2% 2% Labelling 21%
Bangkok DeclarationThe delegates to the 8th International Food Data Conference, in• Recognizing the importance of food composition data to nearly all activities in nutrition,• And the continuing need for quality food composition data for the sectors of health, agriculture, the environment and food trade,• Agree to promote the science of food composition in many diverse forums, including national, regional and international conferences,• to undertake advocacy in the context of policy and programme development,• to insure the integration of food composition principles in relevant activities,• and support in various ways the continuing development, maintenance and updating of food composition databases within sustainable infrastructures.
•Note that the degradation of ecosystems and theloss of food biodiversity is contributing greatly tothe increases in poverty and malnutrition in Africa;• Recognize that returning to local crops andtraditional food systems is a prerequisite forconservation and sustainable use of biodiversity forfood and nutrition; The Door of No Return• Acknowledge that local foods are the basis for House of the SlavesAfrican sustainable diets. Gorée Island
•Urge that food composition data be emphasized as thefundamental information underpinning almost all activitiesin the field of nutrition;• Call upon the sectors of public health, agriculture, andenvironment and food trade to help reinforce and assistwith the improvement of food composition data,particularly on local foods;• Request that the contribution of food composition becredited as one of the most important components foraction in nutrition and food quality, food safety, and foodand nutrition security;
•We invite all sectors to place AFROFOODS on thenational, regional and international agenda for all foodand nutrition activities in Africa throughinterdisciplinary strategic plans for achieving therelevant MDGs; and therefore, from the Door ofReturn of the House of the Slaves of Gorée-Dakar, weaccept the challenge ourselves and send this call foraction to our colleagues, as well as to governments, theprivate sector and financial entities, to strengthenAFROFOODS activities in a renewed commitment toan African food renaissance.
Summary• INFOODS assist countries through guidelines, tools and DB• North America and other developed countries are well advanced in FCDB and applications and are source of data for other countries• An increasing number of FCTs/FCDB are published, also on-line and free-of-charge following US example• Analytical data are still missing for many foods, especially in developing countries and on food biodiversity and for processed foods• Food biodiversity are missing• These data could then be used to promote food-based approaches (without or limited fortification and supplementation)• With more awareness by consumers and agriculture more nutritious and delicious food supply and more consumers eat these foods
Overweight trends by World Bank income groupings Overweight (%) Source : WHOCFSRoma, 14th October 2010
Stunting prevalence and number 50 affected in developing countries 48.6 190 Number of stunted (millions) 40.3 39.3 40 37.7 38.2 138 Stunting (%) 30 27.6 23.7 200 150 100 50 0 100 18.1 20 60 13.5 45 51 10 13 10 7 0 1990 2000 2010 1990 2000 2010Source: Department of Nutrition, World Health Organization AFRICA ASIA LATIN AMERICA CFS Roma, 14th October 2010
Overweight prevalence and number affected in developing countries Number of overweight (millions) 8.5 18 6.8 6.8 6.9 14 13Overweight (%) 13 5.7 20 0 15 10 5 0 4.9 6 4 2 4 3.7 7 3.2 4 4 4 4 1990 2000 2010 1990 2000 2010 Source: Department of Nutrition, World Health Organization AFRICA ASIA LATIN AMERICA CFS Roma, 14th October 2010
Millennium Development GoalsGoal 1. Eradicate extreme poverty and hunger – Reduce by half the proportion of people who suffer from hungerGoal 7. Ensure environmental sustainability – reverse the loss of environmental resources – reduce biodiversity loss
CBD Conference of the Parties Decision VII/32 (Kuala Lumpur, 2004) • Noting the linkage between biodiversity, food and nutrition and the need to enhance sustainable use of biodiversity to combat hunger and malnutrition, and thereby contribute to target 2 of goal 1 of the Millennium Development Goals • Requests ...FAO ...to...bring forward options for consideration by the Conference of the Parties at its eighth meeting for a cross-cutting initiative on biodiversity for food and nutrition...to work together with relevant organizations, in order to strengthen existing initiatives on food and nutrition, enhance synergies and fully integrate biodiversity concerns into their work. Decision VIII/23A (Curitiba, 2006) • Adopts the framework for a cross-cutting initiative on biodiversity for food and nutrition.The COP is the governing body of the Convention, and advances implementation of the Conventionthrough the decisions it takes at its periodic meetings.
Food Biodiversity w• Ne Two Nutritional Indicators for Biodiversity in English, French and Spanish: 1. on food composition (FAO, 2008) yearly reporting (in 2008 over 4700 foods reported, in 2011 a total of 12800 mainly from scientific literature) 2. on food consumption (2010 and 2011) reporting every second year (in 2009 over 3000 food reported in food consumption surveys on food biodiversity, in 2011 increase to 4900 foods)• FAO/INFOODS Food Composition Database for New Biodiversity. Only analytical data. First edition in 2010 with 2400 foods, in 2011 with 2600 foods, and in April 2012 over 6000 foods
Biodiversity & Nutrition Rationale• Wild species and intraspecies biodiversity have key roles in global food and nutrition security• Different varieties have statistically different nutrient contents• Acquiring nutrient data on existing biodiversity needs to be a prerequisite for decision-making in GMO work• Nutrient content needs to be among criteria in cultivar promotion• Sample and generate nutrient data for wild foods and individual cultivars• Compile these data systematically and centrally and disseminate widely• Include biodiversity questions and/or prompts in food consumption surveys• Acquiring nutrient data and intake data for varieties is essential in order to understand the impact of biodiversity on food security
Food Biodiversity Resource NutrientWheat, cultivated Triticum Protein, amino acids, and wild four species B-vitamins, vitamin 100+ varieties E, fatty acidsApricots Prunus armeniaca, ß-carotene, lutein, more than 140 lycopene, varieties anthocyanins, vitamin CGrapes Vitis vinifera Vitamin C, organic Thousands of varieties acids, anthocyanins, resveratrol, many phytochemicals
International Rice Commission 20th SessionThe Commission recommended that:• Existing biodiversity of rice varieties and their nutritional composition need to be explored before engaging in transgenics.• Nutrient content needs to be among the criteria in cultivar promotion.• Cultivar-specific nutrient analysis and data dissemination should be systematically undertaken.FAO (2002). Report of the International Rice Commission 20th Session (23-26 July 2002,Bangkok). FAO, Rome.
Traditional use and availability of aquatic biodiversity in rice-based ecosystems Cambodia China LaosFish 70 52 27Crustaceans 6 2 5Molluscs 1 4 8Amphibians 2 4 10Insects 2 3 16Reptiles 8 - 7Aquatic Plants 13 19 20Total 102 84 93 Source: Balzer, Balzer, Pon, 2002; Luo, Xaypladeth
International Rice Commission 20th SessionThe Commission recommended that:• Member countries should promote the sustainable development of aquatic biodiversity in rice-based ecosystems and policy decisions and management measures should enhance the living aquatic resource base.• In areas where wild fish are depleted, rice-fish farming should be considered as a means of enhancing food security and securing sustainable rural development.• Attention should be given to the nutritional contribution of aquatic organisms in the diet of rural people who produce or depend on rice.FAO (2002). Report of the International Rice Commission 20th Session (23-26 July 2002,Bangkok). FAO, Rome.
Sweet potato varieties: α - and β-carotene, mg/100g fresh wtVariety %Moisture β-carotene α-caroteneOrange Flesh Excel 77.8 (0.8) 12.8 (0.1) < 0.1 Kona B # 77.8 (0.6) 6.7 (0.2) 1.5 (0.2) Regal 77.2 (2.1) 13.1 (0.7) < 0.1 UH 71-5 # 70.3 (1.1) 8.0 (0.1) < 0.1Yellow/White Flesh Hoolehua Red # 70.4 (2.7) 0.2 (0.1) < 0.1 Satsuma # 68.3 (0.2) 0.6 (0.1) < 0.1n=6, values in parentheses are standard errors. # Varieties are recommended by the University of Hawaii ExtensionService for good yield and disease resistance. Source: A. S. Huang, L. Tanudjaja, D. Lum. Journal of FoodComposition and Analysis, Vol. 12, No. 2, Jun 1999, pp. 147-151.
Bananas and vitamin A<5 µg carotenes <8500 µg carotenes
Impact of food biodiversity on dietary adequacyBanana β-carotene Banana intake Vitamin A %RDI for vitamin A content in in Philippines intake through covered by banana mcg/100 g in g/d/p banana in intake mcg RE/d/pUSDA 26 93 4 0.7Lacatan 360 93 56 9.3Utin Iap 8510 93 1320 220
26th FAO REGIONAL CONFERENCE FOR EUROPE Innsbruck, Austria, 26-27 June 2008 • Promotion of Traditional Regional Agricultural and Food Products: A Further Step Towards Sustainable Rural DevelopmentThe Conference• Many delegations highlighted the Mediterranean Diet as rich in biodiversity and nutritionally healthy. The promotion of the Mediterranean Diet could play a beneficial role in the sustainable development of agriculture in the Mediterranean region.• remarked that the goal of increased global food production, including bio fuel, should be balanced against the need to protect biodiversity, ecosystems, traditional foods and traditional agricultural practices.
Definition of Sustainable DietsSustainable Diets are those diets with lowenvironmental impacts which contribute to food andnutrition security and to healthy life for present andfuture generations. Sustainable diets are protective andrespectful of biodiversity and ecosystems, culturallyacceptable, accessible, economically fair andaffordable; nutritionally adequate, safe and healthy;while optimizing natural and human resources.
Code of Conduct for Sustainable Diets Premable• Recognizing that the health of humans cannot be isolatedfrom the health of ecosystems;• Conscious that food is an unequalled way of providingideal nutrition for all ages and life cycles/stages;• Recognizing that the conservation and sustainable use offood biodiversity is an important part of human andecosystem well-being;• Recognizing that when ecosystems are able to supportsustainable diets, nutrition programmes, policies andinterventions supporting the use of supplements, RUTF,fortificants, and infant formulas are inappropriate and canlead to malnutrition, and that the marketing of these foodsubstitutes and related products can contribute to majorpublic health problems...
WATERAnimal protein“costs” more waterprotein content andprotein qualitycalculationscalculations per100g dry matterprotein waste withintakes aboverecommendations= water wastewater cost for otherfoods+nutrients
Livestock Composition of milk from minor dairy animals and buffalo breeds: a biodiversity perspective Elinor Medhammar, Ramani Wijesinha- Bettoni, Barbara Stadlmayr, Emma Nilsson, Ute Ruth Charrondiere, Barbara Burlingame
Nutrients, ecosystems and traditions• Mongolia – landlocked – food insecure• n-3 fatty acids – FAO/WHO = 2 g/day• Mares’ milk, local breed, genetic trait• Biodiversity of grasslands
COP 10• Tackle destructive impacts of food production• Plan how the world achieves food security before ecosystems reach critical tipping points• Address the root cause of the problem: the ways in which we meet our need for food.
Biodiversity and nutrition• Dietary energy supply can be satisfied without diversity• Micronutrient supply cannot be satisfied without diversity