Conservation and use of wildlife in the Congo
Upcoming SlideShare
Loading in...5
×
 

Conservation and use of wildlife in the Congo

on

  • 268 views

 

Statistics

Views

Total Views
268
Views on SlideShare
268
Embed Views
0

Actions

Likes
0
Downloads
3
Comments
0

0 Embeds 0

No embeds

Accessibility

Categories

Upload Details

Uploaded via as Adobe PDF

Usage Rights

© All Rights Reserved

Report content

Flagged as inappropriate Flag as inappropriate
Flag as inappropriate

Select your reason for flagging this presentation as inappropriate.

Cancel
  • Full Name Full Name Comment goes here.
    Are you sure you want to
    Your message goes here
    Processing…
Post Comment
Edit your comment

Conservation and use of wildlife in the Congo Conservation and use of wildlife in the Congo Presentation Transcript

  • Conservation and utilization of wildlife in the Congo Basin: How to tackle the protein gap? Robert Nasi, Nathalie Van Vliet, Miguel Pinedo-Vasquez Nutrition
and
Food
Production
in
the
Congo
Basin Brussels,
30
September
–
1
October
2013
  • The “Bushmeat Crisis”  Empirical evidence • Historical: hunting-related extinctions (passenger pigeon, American buffalo…) • Today: local extirpation because of hunting (for food or trade in wildlife parts)  Is “doomsday” coming? • Not sure but there is a clear sustainability problem  Biodiversity but also livelihoods of local people are at stake
  • Importance of wildlife  Ecological • Keystone species • Ecological services  Economical • Local livelihoods, food security • Income generation  Cultural • • • • Social bonding, Redistribution Traditional ceremonies, Taboos  Defaunation • Not restricted only to environmental or conservation issues • Livelihoods issues are at least as important • “Bushmeat hunting” needs to be approached as a socio-ecological system
  • Ecological aspects  Extinction or extirpation of hunted species  Food chain feed–back and Allee effects  Potential pest outbreaks  Changes in pollination patterns  Changes in seed predation / dispersion patterns  Modification of vegetation dynamics and biomass fluxes
  • Socio-economic aspects  Potential food crisis; malnutrition  Deforestation or forest degradation for alternative sources of protein  Unsustainable harvesting of other wild resources (e.g. fish)  Public health issues  Loss of income  Loss of cultural identity
  • Bushmeat hunting in Congo Basin  Estimates of the value of the bushmeat trade range from US$42 to US$205 million per year in West-Central Africa.  Current harvest in Central Africa alone may well be in excess of 5 million tons annually, equivalent of over 2 billion chickens or 15 million cows!  30 to 80% of the protein intake of many rural populations
  • LA A simplified bushmeat value chain Resource Transporters Hunters Consumers,
rural Consumers,
urban
(incl.
international) Retailers Wholesalers
  • Issues at hands  Complex wicked problem, no simple solution or “silver bullet”  Driven by many underlying causes similar to the ones that drive poverty  Livelihood issues as important as biological ones  Very important gender dimension to be properly considered  Interdiction and enforcement only policies cannot work in the short or medium term  Resource needs to be managed and its use monitored
  • Tackling the protein gap  Solution can only be combinations of various actions at different points of the value chain and of the enabling environment  Actions need to be combined at various levels around three main elements: – Reducing the demand for bushmeat – Making the off-take, supply more sustainable with proper management of the resource – Creating an conducive and enabling institutional and policy environment
  • Reducing demand  Hunters, rural consumers – Develop alternative sources of protein at a cost similar to bushmeat – Improve economic opportunities in productive sectors – Use local media (e.g. radio) to deliver environmental education and raise awareness
  • Reducing demand  Retailers, urban consumers – Strictly enforcing ban of protected/endangered species sales and consumption – Confiscating and publicly incinerating carcasses – Taxing sales of authorized species  International consumers – Instituting very heavy fines for possession or trade of bushmeat (whatever the status or provenance of the species) – Raising awareness of the issue in airports or seaports – Engaging and making accountable airline or shipping companies
  • Improving sustainability of supply  Hunter, rural consumers – Negotiate hunting rules allowing harvesting resilient species and banning vulnerable ones – Define self-monitored quotas and co-construct simple selfmonitoring tools  Research and extension services – Develop and disseminate simple monitoring methods – Understanding the “empty forest” syndrome: • Role of source-sink effects in hunting areas • Competition and substitutions effects on forest composition and structure – Analyze relationships and trade-off between bushmeat and other protein sources • Bushmeat and freshwater fish consumption • Bushmeat and domestic meat (livestock, poultry…) footprints • Is there a nutritional transition? Where? Into which alternative protein source?
  • Improving sustainability of supply  Extractive industries – Enforce codes of conducts and include wildlife concerns in companies’ standard operating procedures – Forbid transportation on company’s cars or trucks – Establish manned checkpoints (with trained personnel) on main roads – Provide alternative sources of protein at cost – Organize, support community hunting schemes – Adopt and implement certification
  • “Enabling” environment  National policy makers and agencies (range states) – Enhancing ownership, linked to tenurial and rights reform – Legitimize the bushmeat debate – Make an economic assessment of the sector and include in national statistics – Acknowledge contribution of bushmeat to food security in national strategies – Develop a framework to “formalize” parts of the trade – Review national legislation for coherence, practicality and to reflect actual practices (without surrendering key conservation concerns) – Include bushmeat/wildlife modules in curricula
  • “Enabling” environment  International policies – Strict enforcement of CITES – Ensure wildlife issues are covered within internationallysupported policy processes – Link international trade with increased emerging disease risks – Impose tough fines and shame irresponsible behavior  Local institutions – Negotiate full support of communities that have a vested interest in protecting the resource – Increase capacity to setup and manage sustainable bushmeat markets – Develop local participatory monitoring tools
  • Conclusion?  No universal solutions exist to solve the problem of unsustainable bushmeat hunting in tropical forests.  Some principles need to be taken into account in order to achieve the sustainability of bushmeat hunting: – Ensure that research is linked to the practices – Mitigate against the potential for tension between livelihood and conservation objectives – Analyse both the livelihood and conservation implications of a given intervention on all stakeholders – Search alternative models from other sectors – Identify the most appropriate entry points – Employ multi-pronged approaches to a complex problem by involving different stakeholders
  • Pictures: Nathalie Van Vliet, David Wilkie, Rober Nasi and CIFOR