Corrupt governments in both empires Infighting among political elites Empires too large in area to manage Invasions from hostile nomadic tribes
Council of Nicaea: sets basic tenets of Christianity Eastern Orthodoxy develops after the schism between that church and the Catholic Church Church develops in power during the Middle Ages in Europe
Middle Ages seen as the “Age of Faith” Missionaries spread Christianity Shared beliefs in Christianity bond the people of medieval Europe Church provided stability and security in times of frequent wars At the local level, the church was the religious and social center. People met there for service, and social gatherings Performed social services such as caring for the sick and the poor. The Church operated most hospitals in medieval Europe.
2 Empires (Rome/Byzantine); 2 Popes Christian Church splits over… use of leaven or unleavened bread Power of the Pope and Rome’s role Excommunicated each other
Authority of the pope as head of the Church challenged by… John Wycliffe, who believes that God is sole authority, Jan Huss, who believes the authority of the Bible is higher than the pope’s authority. Beginning of challenges to the authority of the Catholic Church that leads to the Reformation.
Roman Catholic Eastern Orthodoxy• Strict hierarchy • Patriarch and other• Latin bishops lead the church as a collective group• Priests celibate • Services conducted in• No divorces; only Greek or local languages annulments • Priests may marry • Divorce is allowed under certain circumstances
Constantine relocates the capital of the Eastern Roman Empire to Byzantium and renames it Constantinople Justinian constructs the Hagia Sophia (pronounced ay-uh Sophia) along with numerous other grand churches throughout his empire to show the close connection between church and state Missionary Saints Cyril and Methodius Christianize Slavs to the north of the empire and develop the Cyrillic language to promote religion to the Slavs
Authority in medieval Europe based on the Church Charlemagne crowned emperor by Pope Leo III shows the close connection between church and state Creates the Holy Roman Empire Links Church and government Church creates a system of justice, canon law, to regulate people’s conduct
Reciprocal military obligations between members of the warrior nobility in Medieval Europe Lords grant parcels of land known as fiefs to lesser knights who are known as vassals, who in turn, provide military service to the lord. Chivalry and fealty between a lord and the vassal relationship Contributing factors -Fall of the Roman Empire leaves a gap in protection and services to people -invaders (Muslims & Vikings) overrun communities, people turn to lords for their protection
Manorialism – Smallest economic, social unit revolving around an estate, controlled by a lord, who gives land and protection to his serfs, who in turn give him their services. Land = wealth Characteristics – Manors were self-sufficient where serfs raised and produced nearly everything needed for that community. The open field system allowed several families of serfs to farm strips of the same parcel of land. Living conditions for serfs were generally harsh on manors. Contributing factors – Model of villas in the Roman Empire used to manage rural economies; decline in overland and sea trade after the fall of the Roman Empire
Magna Carta 1215 Political ideas – Limited power of the nobility Legal ideas – No one is above the lawThomas Aquinas: (1225-1274) Truth is known through reason and faith
Moors (Muslims from North Africa) occupy Spain for over 700 years and promote a golden age in art, literature, science, and mathematics Defeat by the Franks at Tours in 732 stops the Muslim invasion of Europe Preserve Roman/Greek knowledge and advance mathematics and science Reconquista drives out the Muslims in the late 1400s Inquisition in Spain leads to torture and expulsion of Muslims and Jew
Nine official Crusades in to the Middle East Recapture Jerusalem Pope told Christians its ok to kill non-Christians Pogroms against Jews and Orthodox too Casualties weakened the feudal nobility Impacts Failure lessened the power of the Pope Mistrust of West by Muslims Trade in spices and other goods from Southwest Asia lead to European desire for new trade routes Desire for spice begins the Era of Exploration
1348-50 Bubonic plague brought from China on trade ships Fleas on rats Most devastating pandemic in human history Wiped out 30-60 of Europe’s population World population went from 450 to 350-375 millionSocial Impacts Collapse of manorial system as productivity ends and serfs leave in search of work; peasant Rebellions grow in response to nobles’ refusal to increase wages Church loses prestige as it is unable to stop the plague through prayer and intervention
Emergence of nationalism and monarchs as national leaders in England and France Instability in England after the Hundred Years War leads to the War of the Roses, which strengthens Parliament since it is called frequently by King Edward III to increase taxes to finance this new war Democracy advanced as Parliament gains greater “power of the purse”