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Fibre, nylon & polyester


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  • 1. Fibre, Nylon & Polyester Presented by:  Noor Azurah Abdul Razak (20101037502)  Wan Norazwani Mahusin (D20101037506)  Ira Nusrat Jaafar (D20101037533) Lecturer : Dr Noorsyida
  • 2. Fibre • Fibres are the base unit of all textile materials and products. • They are slender thread- like structures that can be spun into yarns and thread, and woven, knitted or felted into materials. Wool Fibres CottonFibres
  • 3. Fibre Classifications Man-made Fibre - Synthetic Fibre -Regenerated Fibre Natural Fibre
  • 4.  Composed of atoms of various elements, such as carbon, hydrogen, oxygen, sometimes of nitrogen and other elements (sulphur) in lower quantities  Come from plants, animals and minerals.  Have short fibres, called staple fibres.  The exception to this rule is silk, a natural fibre whose continuous filaments are up to one kilometre in length. Sources of natural fibres • Cotton from the cotton plant • Linen from the flax plant • Wool from sheep • Silk from silkworms Natural Fibres
  • 5.  Cotton  Linen/Flax  Hemp Hemp 1) Plant Fibres - Cellulose Fibres Flax Cotton
  • 6. 2) Animal Fibres – Protein Fibres  Silk  Wool  Alpaca  Angora/Mohair Angora Alpaca Silk
  • 7. Man-made Fibres  Man is involved in the actual fibre formation process.  Synthetic fibres and regenerated fibres are man-made, usually from chemical and natural polymer sources.  Continuous filament fibres: Fibres are long and do not always have to be spun into yarn. Sources of synthetic fibres • Viscose comes from pine trees or petrochemicals. • Acrylic, nylon and polyester come from oil and coal. Viscose
  • 8.  Slick and abrasion resistant  Strong and resilient  Resistant to most common fibre degradants: sunlight (except for nylon)  Flame resistance varies widely  Low density  Non-biodegradable Common Properties
  • 9. Man-made – Synthetic Fibres • Fibers made by chemical synthesis are often called synthetic fibers. • Examples:  Polyester  Acrylic  Lycra  Nylon Polyester Nylon
  • 10. Man-made – Regenerated Fibres  Fibres regenerated from natural polymer sources.  Examples:  Rayon  Acetate Acetate Rayon
  • 11. Common Manufacturing Process o Polymerization (poly condensation or poly- addition) o Spinning o Drawing
  • 12. Polymerization • Process of macromolecules formation through repetition of basic units (synthesis fibres). • Activated and controlled during the process by various parameters: Temperature, pressure, catalysers and reaction stabilizers • Two mechanisms of chemical reaction available for the synthesis of linear polymers:  Poly-condensation - two molecules of same type or of different types are joined together to form macromolecules by removing simple secondary products as water, hydrochloric acid, alcohol.  Poly-addition - joins together several molecules and redistributes the valence links existing in the monomers, however without removing secondary products.
  • 13. Spinning • The term spinning defines the extrusion process through spinnerets of fluid polymer masses which are able to solidify in a continuous flow. • The polymer processing from the solid to the fluid state can take place with two methods: Melting: applied on thermoplastic polymers which show stable performances at the processing temperatures (used by 70% of the fibres) Solution: the polymer is solved in variable concentrations according to the kind of polymer and of solvent, anyhow such as to produce a sufficiently viscous liquid. (used by 30% of the fibres)
  • 14. Drawing • The polymer extruded by the spinnerets in form of filaments has not yet the properties which are typical of a textile fibre: poor thermal and chemical stability, low resistance to ageing, high plasticity • To develop strength, pliability, toughness, and elasticity properties.
  • 15. Issue 1: Silk Production Causes Painful Death for Insects • Silkworm is a domesticated insect. • Undergoes stages of metamorphosis: egg, larva, pupa, and adult. • Silk derived from the cocoons of larvae. Most of the insects raised by the industry don’t live past the pupa stage • They are steamed or gassed alive in their cocoons. Approximately 3,000 silkworms are killed to make every pound of silk.
  • 16. NYLON 18
  • 17. • belonging to a class of polymers called polyamides • It is made of repeating units linked by amide bonds and is frequently referred to as polyamide • Developed in the 1930s as an alternative to silk • Developed by Wallace Carothers at the Dupont Chemical company 19
  • 18. General Properties of Nylon • Functional group is amide • Light in weight • Incredible tensile strength • Durability • Resistance to damage • Takes dye easily • Absorbs most water • Greater stretchability • Dries slower • smoother and softer fabric than polyester • Somewhat UV resistant 20
  • 19. Type of Nylon and its Manufacture • In nylon, the repeating units contain chains of carbon atoms. • There are various different types of nylon depending on the nature of those chains for example: – Nylon-6,6 – Nylon-6 21
  • 20. 22
  • 21. Nylon-6,6 • synthesised by polycondensation of hexamethylenediamine and adipic acid. Nylon -6,6 23
  • 22. Reactor Evaporator Reaction Vessel Spinning Process 24
  • 23. • Hexamethylene diamine and adipic acid are combined with water in a reactor. This produces nylon salt. • The nylon salt is then sent to an evaporator where excess water is removed. • The nylon salt goes into a reaction vessel where a continuous polymerization process takes place. This chemical process makes molten nylon 6-6. • The molten nylon -6,6 undergoes a spinning process, where the nylon 6-6 is extruded and sent through a spinneret, which is a small metal plate with fine holes. • The nylon is then air-cooled to form filaments. 25
  • 24. Uses of Nylons • Synthetic replacement for silk • It replaced silk in military applications such as parachutes and flak vests, and was used in many types of vehicle tires. • Used in many applications, including fabrics, bridal veils, carpets, musical strings, and rope. 26
  • 25. Carpets 27
  • 26. Tyres Air bags 28
  • 27. Ropes Zip ties Hoses conveyor belts 29
  • 28. Guitar Nut 30
  • 29. Toothbrush 31
  • 30. Parachutes 32
  • 31. Bridal veils Flak vest 33
  • 32. ISSUE 2: ADVANCED MATERIAL Artificial Muscles From Fishing Line And Thread 34
  • 33. 35
  • 34. • Artificial muscles have been crafted out of materials including metal wires and carbon nanotubes, but they have proven to be costly to make and tricky to control. • According to research published in the journal Science on 20th February 2014, these scientists instead turned to high-strength polymer fibres made of polyethylene and nylon, materials found in everyday items like fishing line and sewing thread. They twisted the fibres into very tight coils and used changes in temperature to make the artificial muscles contract and relax. 36
  • 35. POLYESTER The name "polyester“ (aka Terylene) refers to the linkage of several monomers (esters) within the fibre. 37
  • 36. Esters are formed when alcohol reacts with a carboxylic acid: Example : 38
  • 37. Forms of Polyester Filament Staple Tow Fiberfill 39
  • 38. filament form : polyester fiber continuous in length, producing smooth-surfaced fabrics Staple form : filaments are cut to short, predetermined lengths. easier to blend with other fibers Tow : A form in which continuous filament are drawn loosely together Fiberfill : the voluminous form used in the manufacture of pillows and outerwear 40
  • 39. 41
  • 40. Different Structures Of Polyester 42
  • 41. o Colorless and transparent o Smooth and lustrous o Shape as we require o Shiny glass rod like 43
  • 42. Characteristics of polyester Strong Very durable Resistant to stretching and shrinking Quick drying Wrinkle resistant Mildew resistant Retains its shape good for making outdoor clothing Easily washed 44
  • 43. Manufacturing Polyester Polymerization Spinning Drawing 45
  • 44. 46
  • 45. Drawing • when polyester emerges from the spinneret, it is soft and easily elongated up to 5 times its original length. • This helps to reduce the fibre width. • This fibre is now ready and would into cones as filaments. It can also be crimped and cut into staple lengths as per requirement 47
  • 46. Some Major Polyester Fibre Uses Apparel: Every form of clothing Home Furnishings: Carpets, curtains, draperies, sheets and pillow cases, wall coverings Other Uses: hoses, power belting, ropes and nets, thread, tire cord, auto upholstery, sails, floppy disk liners, and fiberfill for various products including pillows and furniture 48
  • 47. 49
  • 48. Issue 3: Advanced material of polyester Transforming plastic bottles into polyester fabric 50
  • 49. 51
  • 50. Comparison Between Polyester and Nylon 52
  • 51. Nylon Polyester Functional group is amide Functional group is ester Absorbs most water Absorbs some water Greater stretchability Resistant to stretching Dries slower Dries quickly smoother and softer fabric than polyester polyester has always been a rougher fabric than nylon Somewhat UV resistant More UV resistant lightweight and durable synthetic fabrics Mildew resistant 53
  • 52. Let’s play the game  54
  • 53. Q1: What are the base unit of all textile materials and products? 55 Answer: Fibre
  • 54. Q2 : State 2 classifications of fibre 56 Ans: Man-made & Natural Fibre
  • 55. Q3 : State 3 common manufacturing process of fibre 57 Ans: •Polymerization (polycondensation or poly- addition) •Spinning •Drawing
  • 56. Q4 : Give 2 example of synthetic fibres 58 Ans: •Nylon •Polyester •Acrylic •Lycra
  • 57. Q5 : Name 4 forms of polyester 59 Ans: • Filament •Staple •Tow •Fiberfill
  • 58. Q6 : What is the functional group for polyester? 60 Ans: • Ester
  • 59. Q7 : Gives 2 type of nylon 61 Ans: • Nylon -6 •Nylon -6,6
  • 60. Q8 : What is the product when alcohol reacts with carboxylic acid? 62 Ans: • Ester
  • 61. Q9 : What are the process to form polyester? 63 Ans: • Polymerization •Spinning •Drawing
  • 62. Q10 : What is the another name for nylon 64 Ans: • Polyamide