The silent way

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The silent way

  1. 1. The Silent Way
  2. 2. Theoretical Background (1) <ul><li>1. Challenge of Audio-Lingua Method: </li></ul><ul><li>Ss are unable to transfer habits formed in the classroom to communicate outside of it. </li></ul><ul><li>2. Noam Chomsky: </li></ul><ul><li>Language must not be considered a product of habit formation, but rule formation. </li></ul><ul><li>Language acquisition must be a procedure of people using their own thinking process, or cognition, to discover the rules of the language they are acquiring. </li></ul>
  3. 3. Theoretical Background (2) <ul><li>Cognitive Approach 認知教學法 </li></ul><ul><li>Rather than responding to stimuli, Ss are </li></ul><ul><li>responsible for their learning, </li></ul><ul><li>engaged in formulating hypotheses to discover the rules of target language (grammar), </li></ul>
  4. 4. Background (1) <ul><li>American educator, Galeb Gattegno created in the 70s, 1983. </li></ul><ul><li>Basic principle: Teaching should be subordinated to learning. </li></ul><ul><li>Teaching is to serve learning process rather than to dominate it. </li></ul><ul><li>Learners are actively searching for rules of the target language regarding to the learner in the cognitive approach. </li></ul>
  5. 5. Background (2) <ul><li>errors signs that Ss were actively testing their hypotheses. </li></ul><ul><li>No English teaching methods are directly from cognitive approach, but a number of innovative methods emerged. </li></ul><ul><li>The silent way is one of them. </li></ul>
  6. 6. Background (3) <ul><li>Learning is a process which we initiate by ourselves by mobilizing our inner resources. (perception, awareness, cognition, imagination, intuition, creativity..) </li></ul><ul><li>In the process of learning, we integrate into ourselves whatever ‘new’ that we create, and use it as a stepping stone for further learning. </li></ul>
  7. 7. Teaching (1) <ul><li>Gattegno “ The teacher works with the students; the students work on the language.” </li></ul><ul><li>In a period of class, teacher should not talk more than 10%. </li></ul><ul><li>Have Ss talk. </li></ul><ul><li>Ss should use language for self-expression. </li></ul><ul><li>Ss develop their inner criteria for correctness. </li></ul>
  8. 8. Teaching (2) <ul><li>Only the learners can do the learning. </li></ul><ul><li>Ss is to make use of what they know. </li></ul><ul><li>Learning is Ss’ personal responsibility. </li></ul><ul><li>Teacher should respect the autonomy of the learners in language. </li></ul><ul><li>Teaching involves only one structure at a time. </li></ul>
  9. 9. Teaching (3) <ul><li>With minimal spoken cues, Ss are guided to produce the structure. </li></ul><ul><li>Ss practice without repetition. </li></ul><ul><li>Ss gain autonomy in the language by exploring it. </li></ul><ul><li>T sets up situation to ‘force awareness’ through the use of nonverbal gestures and the tools which are available. </li></ul>

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