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Survey Correlational Research
Survey Correlational Research
Survey Correlational Research
Survey Correlational Research
Survey Correlational Research
Survey Correlational Research
Survey Correlational Research
Survey Correlational Research
Survey Correlational Research
Survey Correlational Research
Survey Correlational Research
Survey Correlational Research
Survey Correlational Research
Survey Correlational Research
Survey Correlational Research
Survey Correlational Research
Survey Correlational Research
Survey Correlational Research
Survey Correlational Research
Survey Correlational Research
Survey Correlational Research
Survey Correlational Research
Survey Correlational Research
Survey Correlational Research
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Survey Correlational Research

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  • 1. SABRINA BINTI MOHD ALI NURULFARAIZA BINTI ARIFFIN NUR SYAHIDA BINTI ABDUL RAHMAN NOOR AZREEN JALALUDIN NURSHEHA BINTI MOHD HADZRI
  • 2. History of Survey Research Was initially developed in the 1920’s- 1960’s 1980’s, theories and principles evolved to create a unified perspective on the design, conduct and evaluation of surveys.
  • 3. Definition Survey Research-A method of collecting information by asking question. Face to- face such as (at home, in school or at work).By email-people to answer and mail back) Survey- Instrument to collect data that describe 1 or more characteristics of a specific population
  • 4. Components of a Survey Method Plan 1. Clarify the purpose 2. Assess Resources 3. Population and Sample 4. Variables in the study 5. Instrumentation 6. Collect Data 7. Process data 8. Analyze resultsAnalysis of the Study
  • 5. Type of Surveys There are two types of surveys: 1)Cross-sectional survey 2)Longitudinal survey
  • 6. Type of Surveys There are two types of surveys: 1. Cross-sectional survey  Collects information from a sample that has been drawn from a fixed population  Info is collected at just one point in time, it still take days to gather all the data  A census (Banci) is after the entire population is surveyed 2. Longitudinal survey Data are collected at 2 or more times. Require an extended commitment by the researcher and participants. Assessment of Stress and Its Risk Factors among Primary School Teachers in the Klang Valley, Malaysia
  • 7. Trend study Examines changes over time in a particular population defined by some particular trait/traits. Researcher can analyze changes in attitudes, beliefs, behaviors within that particular population over time. Cohort Study Involves one population selected at a particular time period but multiple samples taken and surveyed at different points of time. Can be different samples, but in the same population. Panel Study The same individuals are studies over time. Frequent problem: lost of individuals from the study because of relocation, name change, lack of interest, or death. Take long time. 2. Longitudinal survey
  • 8. Steps in Survey Research The focus of study in survey is called unit of analysis Group of persons that is focus of the study is called target population. 4 basic ways to collect data survey (direct to group, email, telephone, personal interview) Sample to be surveyed should be selected randomly if possible. Types of tools used (questionnaire and interview schedule)
  • 9. Non-response In almost all surveys, some members of the sample will not respond. Item non-response is due to unclear or questionable forms of wording. Non-response is a serious problem in many surveys. A variety of techniques are employed to reduce this problem (e.g., rewards or incentive for completing the surveys). What is Non-response ?
  • 10. Correlational ResearchCorrelational Research DEFINITION  Associational Research – a study to determine the relationship among two or more variables without any attempt to influence them.  Investigate the possibility of relationship between variables.  Descriptive Research - describe an existing relationship between variables.
  • 11. Explanatory studies Prediction Studies Help explain important in human behaviors. Predict likely outcomes. Researchers who conduct often investigate a number of variables they believe are related to a more complex variable. Researchers used two variables; predictor variable and criterion variable. For example : The relationship found between frequency of smoking and incidence of lung cancer. There are other factors; lifestyle, environment, and generic predisposition. For example: High school grades are related to college grades. High school grades can be used to predict the student college grades. The Purpose of The CorrelationThe Purpose of The Correlation ResearchResearch
  • 12. Problem Selection Variables to be correlated should be selected on the basis of some rationale. It should be a logical one. “Treasure hunts”- the researcher correlates all sorts of variables to see what turns up are strongly discourage (cause inefficiency and findings difficult to interpret). Design & Procedure Scores for two (or more) variables of interest are obtained for each member of the sample, and the paired scores are then correlated. The result is expressed as a correlation coefficient that indicates the degree of relation between the two variables.
  • 13. Data Analysis & Interpretation When two variables are correlated, the result is a correlation coefficient, which is a decimal number ranging from -.00 to +1.00 i.e. a person with a high score on one of the variables is likely to have a high score on the other variable, and a person with a low score on one variable is likely to have low score on the other. Data Collection oIn all correlational studies, research participants must be able to provide the desired data and must be available to the researcher. oValid measuring instruments should be selected to represent the variables. oIt is especially important that the measure used for the criterion variable be valid.
  • 14. Continued…Continued… o Because a combination of variables usually results in a more accurate prediction than any one variable, a prediction study often results in a multiple regression equation. o A multiple regression equation, also called a multiple prediction equation, is a prediction equation including two or more variables that individually predict a criterion, resulting in a more accurate prediction. o An intervening variable, a variable that cannot be directly observed or controlled, can influence the link between predictor and criterion variables.
  • 15. Educational Research:Educational Research: Causal-Comparative StudyCausal-Comparative Study  At least two different groups are compared on a dependent variable or measure of performance (called the “effect”) because the independent variable (called the “cause”) has already occurred or cannot be manipulated.  Dependent variable-the change or difference occurring as a result of the independent variable.  Independent variable- an activity of characteristic believed to make a difference with respect to some behavior.
  • 16. Purpose of causalPurpose of causal comparative researchcomparative research  The researcher attempts to determine the cause, or reason, for pre existing differences in groups of individuals.  Attempts to identify cause and effect relationships.  Involve two or more group variables.  Involve making comparison.  Individuals are not randomly selected and assigned to two or more groups.  Cannot manipulate the independent variable  Less costly and time consuming.
  • 17. Causal Comparative Research 1. Problem 2. Sample 3. Design and Procedure 4. Data Analysis 1. Problem 2. Sample 3. Design and Procedure 4. Data Analysis
  • 18. Causal Comparative Design  Hypotheses • Alternative- Teachers with a high level of experience will be more satisfied with their jobs than teachers with low levels of experience. • Null- Teachers with a high level of experience will be equally satisfied with their jobs when compared to teachers with low levels of experience.  Variables • Dependent- Job satisfaction • Independent- Years of experience • Two levels (high & low) • Exists naturally in the population of teachers at the start of study. Example: The Relationship between Years of Experience and Job Satisfaction
  • 19.  Two groups sampled, one for each level of the independent variable: •High Experience • Low Experience  Select two groups that differ on some independent variable • One group possesses some characteristic that the other does not • Each group possesses the characteristic but in differing amount • The independent variable must be clearly operationally defined •* Randomly sample subjects from each of the two groups • Collect background information on subjects to determine the equality of the groups • Compare groups on the dependent variable Sample
  • 20.  What other variable besides years of experience could explain job satisfaction among teachers?  Matching: Each subject in the high experience group is matched with a subject with a low experience group along the variable of class size.  Each high experience teacher who teachers a large class is matched with a low experience teacher who teaches a large class.  Each high experience teacher who teaches a small class is matched with a low experience teacher who teaches a small class. Control of Extraneous variableControl of Extraneous variable
  • 21. Data Analysis • Mean - job satisfaction ratings for High Experience and Low Experience subjects are compared using t-test, ANOVA or other appropriate statistical test. •Rejection of the null hypothesis supports the alternative hypothesis that years of experience result in increased job satisfaction.
  • 22. Example of ResearchExample of Research ObjectivesObjectives To identify the purpose of of Causal ComparativeCausal Comparative ResearchResearch? To Identify the meaning of Causal ComparativeCausal Comparative ResearchResearch topics and describe the basic design? To examine the type of Causal Comparative ResearchCausal Comparative Research?
  • 23. Session Q & A 1. How many methods of survey research? 2. Why we conduct survey research? 3. What is the purpose of the survey? 4. When do we use correlational research? 5. List the basic steps in correlational research 6. What are the strengths of the CCR study? 7. What are the weaknesses of the CCR study?

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