SABRINA BINTI MOHD ALI
NURULFARAIZA BINTI ARIFFIN
NUR SYAHIDA BINTI ABDUL RAHMAN
NOOR AZREEN JALALUDIN
NURSHEHA BINTI MOHD HADZRI
History of Survey
Was initially developed in the 1920’s-
1980’s, theories and principles
evolved to create a unified perspective
on the design, conduct and evaluation
Survey Research-A method of collecting
information by asking question. Face to-
face such as (at home, in school or at
work).By email-people to answer and mail
Survey- Instrument to collect data that
describe 1 or more characteristics of a
Components of a
Survey Method Plan
1. Clarify the purpose
2. Assess Resources
3. Population and Sample
4. Variables in the study
6. Collect Data
7. Process data
8. Analyze resultsAnalysis of the
Type of Surveys
There are two types of
Type of Surveys
There are two types of surveys:
1. Cross-sectional survey
Collects information from a sample that has been drawn from a
Info is collected at just one point in time, it still take days to
gather all the data
A census (Banci) is after the entire population is surveyed
2. Longitudinal survey
Data are collected at 2 or more times.
Require an extended commitment by the researcher and
Assessment of Stress and Its
Risk Factors among Primary
School Teachers in the Klang
Examines changes over time in a particular population defined
by some particular trait/traits.
Researcher can analyze changes in attitudes, beliefs, behaviors
within that particular population over time.
Involves one population selected at a particular time period but
multiple samples taken and surveyed at different points of time.
Can be different samples, but in the same population.
The same individuals are studies over time.
Frequent problem: lost of individuals from the study because of
relocation, name change, lack of interest, or death.
Take long time.
2. Longitudinal survey
Steps in Survey Research
The focus of study in survey is called unit of
Group of persons that is focus of the study is called
4 basic ways to collect data survey (direct to group,
email, telephone, personal interview)
Sample to be surveyed should be selected randomly if
Types of tools used (questionnaire and interview
In almost all surveys, some members of the sample
will not respond.
Item non-response is due to unclear or questionable
forms of wording.
Non-response is a serious problem in many surveys.
A variety of techniques are employed to reduce this
problem (e.g., rewards or incentive for completing the
What is Non-response ?
Correlational ResearchCorrelational Research
Associational Research – a study to determine the
relationship among two or more variables without
any attempt to influence them.
Investigate the possibility of relationship between
Descriptive Research - describe an existing
relationship between variables.
Explanatory studies Prediction Studies
Help explain important in human
Predict likely outcomes.
Researchers who conduct often
investigate a number of variables they
believe are related to a more complex
Researchers used two variables;
predictor variable and criterion
For example :
The relationship found between
frequency of smoking and incidence of
lung cancer. There are other factors;
lifestyle, environment, and generic
High school grades are related to
college grades. High school grades can
be used to predict the student college
The Purpose of The CorrelationThe Purpose of The Correlation
Variables to be correlated should be selected on the basis of
some rationale. It should be a logical one.
“Treasure hunts”- the researcher correlates all sorts of
variables to see what turns up are strongly discourage (cause
inefficiency and findings difficult to interpret).
Design & Procedure
Scores for two (or more) variables of interest are obtained
for each member of the sample, and the paired scores are
The result is expressed as a correlation coefficient that
indicates the degree of relation between the two variables.
Data Analysis & Interpretation
When two variables are correlated, the result is a correlation
coefficient, which is a decimal number ranging from -.00 to +1.00
i.e. a person with a high score on one of the variables is likely to
have a high score on the other variable, and a person with a low
score on one variable is likely to have low score on the other.
oIn all correlational studies, research participants must be able to
provide the desired data and must be available to the researcher.
oValid measuring instruments should be selected to represent the
oIt is especially important that the measure used for the criterion
variable be valid.
o Because a combination of variables usually results in a more accurate
prediction than any one variable, a prediction study often results in a
multiple regression equation.
o A multiple regression equation, also called a multiple prediction
equation, is a prediction equation including two or more variables that
individually predict a criterion, resulting in a more accurate prediction.
o An intervening variable, a variable that cannot be directly observed or
controlled, can influence the link between predictor and criterion
Educational Research:Educational Research:
Causal-Comparative StudyCausal-Comparative Study
At least two different groups are compared on a
dependent variable or measure of performance (called
the “effect”) because the independent variable (called the
“cause”) has already occurred or cannot be manipulated.
Dependent variable-the change or difference occurring
as a result of the independent variable.
Independent variable- an activity of characteristic
believed to make a difference with respect to some
Purpose of causalPurpose of causal
comparative researchcomparative research
The researcher attempts to determine the cause, or
reason, for pre existing differences in groups of
Attempts to identify cause and effect relationships.
Involve two or more group variables.
Involve making comparison.
Individuals are not randomly selected and assigned to
two or more groups.
Cannot manipulate the independent variable
Less costly and time consuming.
Causal Comparative Research
3. Design and
4. Data Analysis
3. Design and
4. Data Analysis
Causal Comparative Design
• Alternative- Teachers with a high level of experience will be more
satisfied with their jobs than teachers with low levels of experience.
• Null- Teachers with a high level of experience will be equally satisfied
with their jobs when compared to teachers with low levels of
• Dependent- Job satisfaction
• Independent- Years of experience
• Two levels (high & low)
• Exists naturally in the population of teachers at the start of study.
Example: The Relationship between
Years of Experience and Job Satisfaction
Two groups sampled, one for each level of the independent variable:
• Low Experience
Select two groups that differ on some independent variable
• One group possesses some characteristic that the other does not
• Each group possesses the characteristic but in differing amount
• The independent variable must be clearly operationally defined
•* Randomly sample subjects from each of the two groups
• Collect background information on subjects to determine the equality of the
• Compare groups on the dependent variable
What other variable besides years of experience could
explain job satisfaction among teachers?
Matching: Each subject in the high experience group is
matched with a subject with a low experience group along the
variable of class size.
Each high experience teacher who teachers a large class is
matched with a low experience teacher who teaches a large
Each high experience teacher who teaches a small class is
matched with a low experience teacher who teaches a small
Control of Extraneous variableControl of Extraneous variable
• Mean - job satisfaction ratings for High Experience and Low
Experience subjects are compared using t-test, ANOVA or other
appropriate statistical test.
•Rejection of the null hypothesis supports the alternative
hypothesis that years of experience result in increased job
Example of ResearchExample of Research
To identify the purpose of of Causal ComparativeCausal Comparative
To Identify the meaning of Causal ComparativeCausal Comparative
ResearchResearch topics and describe the basic design?
To examine the type of Causal Comparative ResearchCausal Comparative Research?
Session Q & A
1. How many methods of survey research?
2. Why we conduct survey research?
3. What is the purpose of the survey?
4. When do we use correlational research?
5. List the basic steps in correlational research
6. What are the strengths of the CCR study?
7. What are the weaknesses of the CCR study?