Communism in USSR and China in comparison

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Communism in USSR and China in comparison

  1. 1. COMMUNISMIN THE SOVIET UNION ANDCHINA
  2. 2. What is Communism? Who controls the government? •State How is government •Revolution put into power? What roles do the •Work for the state’s benefit people have? Who controlsproduction of goods? •State Who controlsdistribution of goods? •State
  3. 3. Major Works The Communist Animal Utopia Manifesto FarmRepublic (1516) by (1848) by (1945) byby Plato Thomas Karl Marx and George More Friedrich Orwell Engels
  4. 4. Major Figures
  5. 5. COMMUNISM IN CHINA
  6. 6. May Fourth Movement, 1919 =>Birth of Chinese Communism
  7. 7. Fitzgerald, CharlesPatrick“The Birth ofCommunist China” “ it was clear that the Western way was not thesolution, and tacitlyit was abandoned , even by the revolutionary element ”
  8. 8. CHINESE COMMUNIST PARTYJuly, 1921 => The First ChineseCommunist Party was formed by Chinese Marxists aided by Russian Gregor Voitinsky
  9. 9. CHIANG KAI-SHEK• Leader of Kuomintang, Nationalist Party• Came to power in 1925• Lacked ideological attraction to communism• Led the Northern Expedition• Purge of Nanking
  10. 10. Northern Expedition , 1926 - 28aimed at uniting the country by force
  11. 11. The Purge of Nankingmajor effort by Chiang Kai-Shek to destroy theCommunists as his main rivals for power in China
  12. 12. MAO AND THE LONG MARCHThe Long March(to Shensi) in October,1934 was a massive retreatto remove the CCP and its Red Army from the blows of Chiang’sextermination campaign
  13. 13. UNITED FRONT IDEA AGNST JAPAN
  14. 14. 1949PEOPLE’S REPUBLIC OF CHINA
  15. 15. CHINA UNDER THE MAOMao Zedong usedMarxism-Leninism tobuild a communistChina that todayembracescapitalism. Mao’sportrait wasubiquitous.
  16. 16. FIRST FIVE-YEAR PLAN1953 - 57 Political centralizaIndustrialization tion Collectivization of agricultureMain focus: development of heavy industry on theSoviet model
  17. 17. HUNDRED FLOWERS CAMPAIGN“Let a hundredflowers bloomand a hundredschools ofthought tocontend”A period of debate in 1956 – 57, when citizens were invited to voicetheir opinions of the communist regime
  18. 18. GREAT LEAP FORWARD •Slow growth of agricultureProblem and quick industrial growth •Collectives CommunesSolution •Promotion of equality •Loss of Stalin’s economic aid Result •Decrease in economy
  19. 19. CULTURAL REVOLUTIONAim Outcome Attacks onRestoration of intellectualspower with thehelp of Red A large-scale purge at party postsGuards Appearance of a personality cult1966 - 68
  20. 20. Chinese accused of being “capitalist roaders” beingparaded through Beijing in 1967 during the CulturalRevolution
  21. 21. DENG XIAOPING AND HIS FOURMODERNIZATIONS• Industry• Agriculture• National defense• Science and technology
  22. 22. June 4, 1989 => Brutal attack on the democracydemonstrators in Tiananmen Squire
  23. 23. COMMUNISMIN SOVIET UNION
  24. 24. The October Revolution, 1917 =>Birth of The Soviet Communism
  25. 25. COMMUNISMUNDER LENIN• Totalitarian System• Single Party• Control over the Means of Production and Distribution
  26. 26. BOLSHEVIKSMembers ofthe majorityfaction ofthe RussianCommunistParty led byLenin
  27. 27. UNION OF SOVIET SOCIALISTICREPUBLICS RSFSR USSR BSFSR 15 REPUBLICS Subsequent USFSR years 1922
  28. 28. March 4, 1919 => Comintern (The Third International )was formed by Russian Marxists
  29. 29. COMINTERN (Third International)Attempt of Marxian movements to get organized at theinternational levelAim: Dominate and control overcommunist parties around the worldFounder: Vladimir LeninActive dates: 1919-1924First conference held in Moscow, 1919, with 52 delegates
  30. 30. LENIN’S DEVIATION FROM MARXIST THEORY Silencing the opposition and eliminating the threats Closing not pro-Bolshevik newspapers Getting rid of the Constituent Assembly Confiscation of goods and products from the peasants Redistribution of the materials to his troops He felt that this was the 1st step to socialism
  31. 31. NEW ECONOMIC POLICY (NEP)• Limited private property• Compensation for goods taken from the peasants• Profit and efficiency incentives
  32. 32. JOSEPH STALINStrong ideology ofcommunism-loyaltytowards StateFive-Year Plans(1929-1933), industry andagriculture becamecommunalHad created secondmilitary and industrysuperpower afterUSA
  33. 33. FIVE-YEAR PLANS1929-33 => Collectivization ofagriculture and development ofheavy industry. 1933-37 => Triple steel and oil production; electricity and coal production 1938-42 => Focus on military base, effective productivity per capita
  34. 34. The Soviet Gulags (Concentration Camps) =>resource for the construction of industries, esp railways and roads,mining operations, and timber industry
  35. 35. WWII, 1941-45
  36. 36. NIKITA KHRUSCHEVHousing program; Improvementof foreign relations;Destalinization;“ Capitalism and Communismcould coexist ”Attempts to end the Cold War
  37. 37. COLD WAR• 1949 => Creation of NATO against the communist expansion• Invention of Atomic Bomb• 1962 => Caribbean Crisis• From 1945 => Spread of Communism among Yugoslavia, Southern Asia, Eastern Europe, China, North Korea
  38. 38. MIKHAIL GORBACHEVRestructuringCollapse of USSRSupported Social-DemocracyAllowed privatebussiness
  39. 39. SIMILARITIESSoviet Union China Overthrow of Romanov Dynasty Overthrow of Qing Dynasty Five-Year Plan under Stalin (1929- Five-Year Plan under Mao Tse-tung 33) (1953-58) Personality cult of Lenin, Stalin Personality cult of Mao Tse-tungSlow growth of agriculture and quick growth of heavy industry
  40. 40. REFERENCES• Political Theories for Students, Jaime E. Noce and Matthew Miskelly, 2002• The Encyclopedia of Politics: The Left and the Right, volume II: the Right, Rodney P. Carlisle , 2005• An Introduction to Politics, third edition, Trevor Munroe, 2002• A Short history of China and Southeast Asia: Tribute, Trade and Influence , Martin Stuart-Fox, 2003• The Cambridge History of Russia, Volume III, The Twentieth Century, Ronald Grigor Suny, 2006• A History of the Soviet Union from the Beginning to the End, second edition, Peter Kenez, 2006• Gowealthy.com• ForeignAffairs.com
  41. 41. QUESTIONS FOR DISCUSSION• Why do you think communism failed?• What are the similarities between Stalin’s and Mao Tse-tung’s dictatorship under communism?• Which political system in your opinion is more beneficial for current society?

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