What Is Research? * Dr. A. Asgari


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What Is Research? * Dr. A. Asgari

  1. 1. WHAT IS RESEARCH? Dr. Azadeh Asgari Research Methodology
  2. 2. Learning Outcomes Of Course <ul><li>Students are able to: </li></ul><ul><li>Explain all the steps on how to conduct a research (C5/CTPS5) </li></ul><ul><li>Exhibit the ability to prepare a research proposal (P4/EM3) </li></ul><ul><li>Evaluate a recently published research articles (A3/LL3) </li></ul>
  3. 3. <ul><li>C5/CTPS5: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>C5 = Cognitive Level 5 = Synthesis </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>CTPS5 = Critical Thinking & Problem Solving Level 5 = able to make decisions based on solid evidences </li></ul></ul><ul><li>P4/EM3: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>P4 = Psychomotor 4 = mechanism - exhibit, develop, manipulate, organise, merge </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>EM3 = able to practise ethical attitude as well as feeling responsible to the society </li></ul></ul><ul><li>A3/LL3 </li></ul><ul><ul><li>A3 = Affective Level 3 = Evaluate – explain, compare and contrast, report, demonstrate etc. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>LL3 = Lifelong Learning = able to develop the inquisitive mind and thirst for knowledge </li></ul></ul>
  4. 4. Course Synopsis <ul><li>This course covers guidelines of social science research process including the foundations of research in social science, formulation of good objectives and research questions, research design, population and sampling, instrumentation, method of data collection and data analysis, the ethical implications of social science research, and the critical evaluation of own research and that of other social scientists. </li></ul>
  5. 5. Quotation <ul><li>A researcher is….. </li></ul><ul><li>“… . a scholarly person of the highest integrity….” </li></ul><ul><li> (Best, 1981) </li></ul>
  6. 6. What Is Research? <ul><li>Research is the systematic process of collecting analyzing information (data) in order to increase our understanding of the phenomenon about which we are concerned or interested – to solve problems of daily living . </li></ul>
  7. 7. What Is Formal Research? <ul><li>Formal research is research which we intentionally set out to enhance our understanding of a phenomenon and expect to communicate it what we discover to a larger scientific community. </li></ul>
  8. 8. Purposes Of Research <ul><li>To obtain new information </li></ul><ul><li>To look at relationships between variables </li></ul><ul><li>To develop new knowledge </li></ul><ul><li>To verify existing knowledge </li></ul><ul><li>To develop new theories or expand on existing theories </li></ul>
  9. 9. Purposes Of Research <ul><li>To explain situations or problems </li></ul><ul><li>To utilize or apply a new technique or technology </li></ul><ul><li>To explain a situation </li></ul><ul><li>To understand, predict, or control a result </li></ul>
  10. 10. General Characteristics Of Research <ul><li>Research is systematic </li></ul><ul><li>Research is logical </li></ul><ul><li>Research is empirical </li></ul><ul><li>Research should be able to be replicated </li></ul>
  11. 11. Other Characteristics Of Research <ul><li>Originates with a problem </li></ul><ul><li>Requires a clear (unambiguous) articulation of a goal to be achieved </li></ul><ul><li>Follows a specific, systematic plan of procedure </li></ul><ul><li>Usually divides the principal problem into more manageable sub-problems </li></ul><ul><li>Guided by the specific research problem, question or hypothesis </li></ul><ul><li>Accepts certain critical assumptions </li></ul><ul><li>Requires the collection and interpretation of data in a attempt to resolve the researched problem </li></ul><ul><li>It is, by nature, cylical or, more exactly, helical </li></ul>
  12. 12. The Research Cycle Research is a cyclical process 6 1 2 3 4 5
  13. 13. Cyclical Process Of Research <ul><li>Research begins with a problem: An unanswered question in the mind of the researcher. </li></ul><ul><li>Research defines the goal in terms of a clear statement of the problem. </li></ul><ul><li>Research subdivides the problem into appropriate sub-problems stated as objectives and/or questions. </li></ul><ul><li>Research posits tentative solutions to the problem(s) through reasonable hypotheses . These hypotheses direct the researcher to appropriate data. </li></ul><ul><li>Research looks for data directed by the hypotheses and guided by the problem . The data are collected and organized. </li></ul><ul><li>Research interprets the meaning of the data, which leads to a resolution of the problem , thus confirming or rejecting the hypotheses and/or providing an answer to the question that began the research cycle. At this point, one or more new problems may emerge. </li></ul>
  14. 14. Hypothesis <ul><li>A logical supposition, a reasonable guess, an educated conjecture . it provides a tentative explanation for a phenomenon under investigation. may direct one’s thinking to possible sources of information that will aid in resolving one or more sub-problems </li></ul>
  15. 15. Sources Of Knowledge <ul><li>EXPERIENCES </li></ul><ul><li>AUTHORITY </li></ul><ul><li>INDUCTIVE REASONING </li></ul><ul><li>DEDUCTIVE REASONING </li></ul><ul><li>SCIENTIFIC METHOD </li></ul>
  16. 16. 1. Experience <ul><li>Knowledge source used in a lot of cases </li></ul><ul><li>Prime characteristic of intelligent behaviour </li></ul><ul><li>Much wisdom passed from generation </li></ul><ul><li>to generation </li></ul><ul><li>Limitations: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Rather relative, depends on who went through the experience </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Experience without efficiency </li></ul></ul>
  17. 17. 2. Authority <ul><li>Knowledge may be obtained from recognised authorities </li></ul><ul><ul><li>No. of schools by state </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Spelling and meaning - dictionary </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>PMR results – Ministry of Education </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Discipline problems – School Assistant Principal (Student Affairs) </li></ul></ul>
  18. 18. 3. Inductive Reasoning S S S S S GENERAL STATEMENT / THEORY CONCLUSION
  19. 19. 4. Deductive Reasoning S S S CONCLUSION GENERAL STATEMENT / THEORY
  20. 20. 5. Scientific Approach <ul><li>An approach to obtain knowledge objectively, systematically, testable and not influenced by beliefs, opinions and one’s emotions </li></ul><ul><li>A process in which investigators move inductively from their observations to hypotheses, then deductively from the hypotheses to the logical implications of the hypotheses. If deduced implications are compatible with the organized body of accepted knowledge, researchers then further test them by gathering empirical data. </li></ul><ul><li>Knowledge are obtained objectively thus different individuals will make the same conclusion if given the same information. </li></ul><ul><li>The process can be confirmed since open to public scruti ny . </li></ul>